Staatsexamen, Ludwig Maximilian Universitat Munchen (2013)
Doctor of Medicine, Ludwig Maximilian Universitat Munchen (2014)
Improved early outcome prediction by MRI-based 3D tumor volume assessment in patients with CNS lymphomas.
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system lymphomas (CNSL) display remarkable clinical heterogeneity, yet accurate prediction of outcomes remains challenging. The IPCG criteria are widely used in routine practice for the assessment of treatment response. However, the value of the IPCG criteria for ultimate outcome prediction is largely unclear, mainly due to the uncertainty in delineating complete from partial responses during and after treatment.METHODS: We explored various MRI features including semi-automated 3D tumor volume measurements at different disease milestones and their association with survival in 93 CNSL patients undergoing curative-intent treatment.RESULTS: At diagnosis, patients with more than three lymphoma lesions, periventricular involvement, and high 3D tumor volumes showed significantly unfavorable PFS and OS. At first interim MRI during treatment, the IPCG criteria failed to discriminate outcomes in responding patients. Therefore, we randomized these patients into training and validation cohorts to investigate whether 3D tumor volumetry could improve outcome prediction. We identified a 3D tumor volume reduction of ≥97% as the optimal threshold for risk stratification (=3D early response, 3D_ER). Applied to the validation cohort, patients achieving 3D_ER had significantly superior outcomes. In multivariate analyses, 3D_ER was independently prognostic of PFS and OS. Finally, we leveraged prognostic information from 3D MRI features and circulating biomarkers to build a composite metric that further improved outcome prediction in CNSL.CONCLUSIONS: We developed semi-automated 3D tumor volume measurements as strong and independent early predictors of clinical outcomes in CNSL patients. These radiologic features could help improve risk stratification and help guide future treatment approaches.
View details for DOI 10.1093/neuonc/noad177
View details for PubMedID 37713267
Outcome prediction by interim positron emission tomography and IgM monoclonal gammopathy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Annals of hematology
In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), a positive interim positron emission tomography (PET) scan predicts treatment failure, but the proportion of high-risk patients thus identified is small. To improve prediction, we combined the interim PET result with the presence or absence of an associated IgM gammopathy. Of 108 DLBCL patients participating in a prospective trial, nine (8%) were interim PET positive and 19 (18%) had an IgM gammopathy. The monoclonal protein was not associated with distinguishing genetic features, and its light chain restriction was not always concordant with the light chain restriction of the lymphoma. The information provided by interim PET and IgM gammopathy was combined to dichotomize the population into sizeable high-risk (1-2 adverse factors) and low-risk groups (no adverse factor) with widely different outcomes (population size, 25% vs. 75%; 3-year risk of progression, 51% vs. 10%; 3-year overall survival, 64% vs. 95%). Multivariable analyses including established risk factors revealed the interim PET result and the IgM gammopathy status to be the only factors significantly associated with outcome. Information about interim PET response and IgM gammopathy may be useful in studies testing risk-adapted treatment strategies.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00277-023-05393-1
View details for PubMedID 37566280
Concurrent pembrolizumab with AVD for untreated classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Concurrent administration pembrolizumab with chemotherapy in untreated classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) has not previously been studied. To investigate this combination, we conducted a single arm study of concurrent pembrolizumab with AVD (APVD) for untreated CHL. We enrolled 30 patients (6 early favorable, 6 early unfavorable, and 18 advanced stage, median age 33 years (range 18-69 years)) and met the primary safety endpoint with no observed significant treatment delays in the first two cycles. Twelve patients experienced grade 3-4 non-hematologic adverse events (AEs) most commonly febrile neutropenia (5, 17%) and infection/sepsis (3, 10%). Grade 3-4 immune-related AEs were seen in 3 patients, including ALT elevation (3, 10%) and AST elevation (1, 3%). One patient experienced an episode of grade 2 colitis and arthritis. Six (20%) patients missed at least one dose of pembrolizumab due to adverse events, primarily grade 2 or higher transaminitis (5, 17%). Among 29 response-evaluable patients, the best overall response rate was 100% and CR rate of 90%. With median follow up of 2.1 years, 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 97% and 100%, respectively. To date, no patient who withheld or discontinued pembrolizumab due to toxicity has progressed. Clearance of ctDNA was associated with superior PFS when measured after cycle 2 (p=0.025) and at end of treatment (EOT, p=0.0016). None of the 4 patients with persistent disease by FDG-PET at EOT yet negative ctDNA have relapsed to date. Concurrent APVD shows promising safety and efficacy, but may yield spurious PET findings in some patients. Trial Registration Number: NCT03331341.
View details for DOI 10.1182/blood.2022019254
View details for PubMedID 36913694
Determinants of resistance to engineered T cell therapies targeting CD19 in large B cell lymphomas.
Most relapsed/refractory large B cell lymphoma (r/rLBCL) patients receiving anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR19) T cells relapse. To characterize determinants of resistance, we profiled over 700 longitudinal specimens from two independent cohorts (n = 65 and n = 73) of r/rLBCL patients treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel. A method for simultaneous profiling of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), cell-free CAR19 (cfCAR19) retroviral fragments, and cell-free T cell receptor rearrangements (cfTCR) enabled integration of tumor and both engineered and non-engineered T cell effector-mediated factors for assessing treatment failure and predicting outcomes. Alterations in multiple classes of genes are associated with resistance, including B cell identity (PAX5 and IRF8), immune checkpoints (CD274), and those affecting the microenvironment (TMEM30A). Somatic tumor alterations affect CAR19 therapy at multiple levels, including CAR19 T cell expansion, persistence, and tumor microenvironment. Further, CAR19 T cells play a reciprocal role in shaping tumor genotype and phenotype. We envision these findings will facilitate improved chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells and personalized therapeutic approaches.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccell.2022.12.005
View details for PubMedID 36584673
Circulating Tumor DNA Profiling for Detection, Risk Stratification, and Classification of Brain Lymphomas.
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Clinical outcomes of patients with CNS lymphomas (CNSLs) are remarkably heterogeneous, yet identification of patients at high risk for treatment failure is challenging. Furthermore, CNSL diagnosis often remains unconfirmed because of contraindications for invasive stereotactic biopsies. Therefore, improved biomarkers are needed to better stratify patients into risk groups, predict treatment response, and noninvasively identify CNSL.We explored the value of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) for early outcome prediction, measurable residual disease monitoring, and surgery-free CNSL identification by applying ultrasensitive targeted next-generation sequencing to a total of 306 tumor, plasma, and CSF specimens from 136 patients with brain cancers, including 92 patients with CNSL.Before therapy, ctDNA was detectable in 78% of plasma and 100% of CSF samples. Patients with positive ctDNA in pretreatment plasma had significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS, P < .0001, log-rank test) and overall survival (OS, P = .0001, log-rank test). In multivariate analyses including established clinical and radiographic risk factors, pretreatment plasma ctDNA concentrations were independently prognostic of clinical outcomes (PFS HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.9; P = .03; OS HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.2; P = .006). Moreover, measurable residual disease detection by plasma ctDNA monitoring during treatment identified patients with particularly poor prognosis following curative-intent immunochemotherapy (PFS, P = .0002; OS, P = .004, log-rank test). Finally, we developed a proof-of-principle machine learning approach for biopsy-free CNSL identification from ctDNA, showing sensitivities of 59% (CSF) and 25% (plasma) with high positive predictive value.We demonstrate robust and ultrasensitive detection of ctDNA at various disease milestones in CNSL. Our findings highlight the role of ctDNA as a noninvasive biomarker and its potential value for personalized risk stratification and treatment guidance in patients with CNSL.
View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.22.00826
View details for PubMedID 36542815
- Specificity & Precision of Minimal Residual Disease Monitoring in DLBCL Using Ig-HTS AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2022: 6403-6404
- Higher Rates of Severe Infection and Persistent Cytopenias in Long-Term CAR19 Responders Than after Autologous HCT: A Single Institution Study of 139 Subjects AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2022: 7545-7547
- Clonal Hematopoiesis Driven By Recurrent Somatic Mutations but Not with Recurrent Copy Number Alterations Is Associated with Inferior Outcomes in DLBCL after Induction Chemotherapy, but Not CAR19 Therapy AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2022: 8609-8610
- Tumor Microenvironment Determinants of Immunotherapy Response Identified By Integrated Host & Viral Analysis of Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2022
- Circulating Tumor DNA in Untreated Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Treated with Pembrolizumab and Chemotherapy: Dynamic Response Assessment and Correlation with Baseline Metabolic Tumor Volume AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2022: 6547-6549
- Distinct Molecular Subtypes of Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma Identified By Comprehensive Noninvasive Profiling AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2022: 1295-1296
- Viral cfDNA Profiling Reveals Distinct EBV Subtypes and Stratifies Risk in Hodgkin Lymphomas AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2022: 1318-1319
- Determinants of Resistance to Engineered T-Cell Therapies Targeting CD19 in Large B-Cell Lymphomas AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2022: 1301-1303
A phase 1/2 study of lenalidomide and obinutuzumab with CHOP for newly diagnosed DLBCL.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can be cured with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone immunochemotherapy (R-CHOP), but a third of patients experience refractory or relapsed disease after frontline R-CHOP. Randomized studies comparing R-CHOP with modified regimens replacing R with obinutuzumab (O) or adding lenalidomide (L) to R-CHOP have not resulted in improved outcomes, but the combination of L and O may enhance NK-cell mediated antibody dependent cellular toxicity when paired with CHOP. Here, we report on long term outcomes of a phase Ib/II study (NCT02529852) where 53 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL received 6 cycles of LO-CHOP. End of treatment overall and complete response rates in the 50 evaluable patients were 98% and 90%, respectively. After a median follow up of 4.5 years, 4-year progression free and overall survival rates were 87.4% and 91.3%. Grade 3-4 adverse events were experienced by 70% of patients and included neutropenia (38%), thrombocytopenia (17%), fatigue (13%), neutropenic fever (13%), and infection (9%). Of 33 patients profiled with circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) sequencing, 31 (94%) had detectable pre-treatment ctDNA with CAPP-Seq, 24/31 (77%) were classifiable by LymphGen classifier, and 15/20 (75%) and 12/17 (71%) patients achieved early and major molecular responses after 1 and 2 cycles, respectively. Using PhasED-Seq, 16/18 evaluable patients (89%) had no detectable ctDNA after at least 5 cycles of LO-CHOP. LO-CHOP demonstrates high efficacy and tolerability in newly diagnosed DLBCL, leading to a high rate of undetectable minimal residual disease by ctDNA by end of therapy. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02529852.
View details for DOI 10.1182/bloodadvances.2022008174
View details for PubMedID 36375046
Molecular Monitoring of Lymphomas.
Annual review of pathology
Molecular monitoring of tumor-derived alterations has an established role in the surveillance of leukemias, and emerging nucleic acid sequencing technologies are likely to similarly transform the clinical management of lymphomas. Lymphomas are well suited for molecular surveillance due to relatively high cell-free DNA and circulating tumor DNA concentrations, high somatic mutational burden, and the existence of stereotyped variants enabling focused interrogation of recurrently altered regions. Here, we review the clinical scenarios and key technologies applicable for the molecular monitoring of lymphomas, summarizing current evidence in the literature regarding molecular subtyping and classification, evaluation of treatment response, the surveillance of active cellular therapies, and emerging clinical trial strategies. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease, Volume 18 is January 2023. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
View details for DOI 10.1146/annurev-pathol-050520-044652
View details for PubMedID 36130071
Long-term outcomes and circulating tumor DNA analysis from a phase I/II study of lenalidomide and obinutuzumab with CHOP for newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022
View details for Web of Science ID 000863680302015
Inferring gene expression from cell-free DNA fragmentation profiles.
Profiling of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the bloodstream shows promise for noninvasive cancer detection. Chromatin fragmentation features have previously been explored to infer gene expression profiles from cell-free DNA (cfDNA), but current fragmentomic methods require high concentrations of tumor-derived DNA and provide limited resolution. Here we describe promoter fragmentation entropy as an epigenomic cfDNA feature that predicts RNA expression levels at individual genes. We developed 'epigenetic expression inference from cell-free DNA-sequencing' (EPIC-seq), a method that uses targeted sequencing of promoters of genes of interest. Profiling 329 blood samples from 201 patients with cancer and 87 healthy adults, we demonstrate classification of subtypes of lung carcinoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Applying EPIC-seq to serial blood samples from patients treated with PD-(L)1 immune-checkpoint inhibitors, we show that gene expression profiles inferred by EPIC-seq are correlated with clinical response. Our results indicate that EPIC-seq could enable noninvasive, high-throughput tissue-of-origin characterization with diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41587-022-01222-4
View details for PubMedID 35361996
The molecular ontogeny of follicular lymphoma: gene mutations succeeding the BCL2 translocation define common precursor cells
BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY
Relapsed follicular lymphoma (FL) can arise from common progenitor cells (CPCs). Conceptually, CPC-defining mutations are somatic alterations shared by the initial and relapsed tumours, mostly B-cell leukaemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2)/immunoglobulin heavy locus (IGH) translocations and other recurrent gene mutations. Through complementary approaches for highly sensitive mutation detection, we do not find CPC-defining mutations in highly purified BCL2/IGH-negative haematopoietic progenitor cells in clinical remission samples from three patients with relapsed FL. Instead, we find cells harbouring the same BCL2/IGH translocation but lacking CREB binding protein (CREBBP), lysine methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D) and other recurrent gene mutations. Thus, (i) the BCL2/IGH translocation can precede CPC-defining mutations in human FL, and (ii) BCL2/IGH-translocated cells can persist in clinical remission.
View details for DOI 10.1111/bjh.17990
View details for Web of Science ID 000735756900001
View details for PubMedID 34967008
- Concurrent Pembrolizumab with AVD for Untreated Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2021
- Noninvasive Cell-of-Origin Classification of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Using Inferred Gene Expression from Cell-Free DNA Sequencing AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2021
Enhanced detection of minimal residual disease by targeted sequencing of phased variants in circulating tumor DNA.
Circulating tumor-derived DNA (ctDNA) is an emerging biomarker for many cancers, but the limited sensitivity of current detection methods reduces its utility for diagnosing minimal residual disease. Here we describe phased variant enrichment and detection sequencing (PhasED-seq), a method that uses multiple somatic mutations in individual DNA fragments to improve the sensitivity of ctDNA detection. Leveraging whole-genome sequences from 2,538 tumors, we identify phased variants and their associations with mutational signatures. We show that even without molecular barcodes, the limits of detection of PhasED-seq outperform prior methods, including duplex barcoding, allowing ctDNA detection in the ppm range in participant samples. We profiled 678 specimens from 213 participants with B cell lymphomas, including serial cell-free DNA samples before and during therapy for diffuse large B cell lymphoma. In participants with undetectable ctDNA after two cycles of therapy using a next-generation sequencing-based approach termed cancer personalized profiling by deep sequencing, an additional 25% have ctDNA detectable by PhasED-seq and have worse outcomes. Finally, we demonstrate the application of PhasED-seq to solid tumors.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41587-021-00981-w
View details for PubMedID 34294911
- Phased variants improve DLBCL minimal residual disease detection at the end of therapy. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2021
Short Diagnosis-to-Treatment Interval Is Associated With Higher Circulating Tumor DNA Levels in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Patients with Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) in need of immediate therapy are largely under-represented in clinical trials. The diagnosis-to-treatment interval (DTI) has recently been described as a metric to quantify such patient selection bias, with short DTI being associated with adverse risk factors and inferior outcomes. Here, we characterized the relationships between DTI, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), conventional risk factors, and clinical outcomes, with the goal of defining objective disease metrics contributing to selection bias.We evaluated pretreatment ctDNA levels in 267 patients with DLBCL treated across multiple centers in Europe and the United States using Cancer Personalized Profiling by Deep Sequencing. Pretreatment ctDNA levels were correlated with DTI, total metabolic tumor volumes (TMTVs), the International Prognostic Index (IPI), and outcome.Short DTI was associated with advanced-stage disease (P < .001) and higher IPI (P < .001). We also found an inverse correlation between DTI and TMTV (RS= -0.37; P < .001). Similarly, pretreatment ctDNA levels were significantly associated with stage, IPI, and TMTV (all P < .001), demonstrating that both DTI and ctDNA reflect disease burden. Notably, patients with shorter DTI had higher pretreatment ctDNA levels (P < .001). Pretreatment ctDNA levels predicted short DTI independent of the IPI (P < .001). Although each risk factor was significantly associated with event-free survival in univariable analysis, ctDNA level was prognostic of event-free survival independent of DTI and IPI in multivariable Cox regression (ctDNA: hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% CI [1.2 to 2.0]; IPI: 1.1 [0.9 to 1.3]; -DTI: 1.1 [1.0 to 1.2]).Short DTI largely reflects baseline tumor burden, which can be objectively measured using pretreatment ctDNA levels. Pretreatment ctDNA levels therefore have utility for quantifying and guarding against selection biases in prospective DLBCL clinical trials.
View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.20.02573
View details for PubMedID 33909455
Evaluating upfront high-dose consolidation after R-CHOP for follicular lymphoma by clinical and genetic risk models.
2020; 4 (18): 4451–62
High-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT) is an effective salvage treatment for eligible patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) and early progression of disease (POD). Since the introduction of rituximab, HDT/ASCT is no longer recommended in first remission. We here explored whether consolidative HDT/ASCT improved survival in defined subgroups of previously untreated patients. We report survival analyses of 431 patients who received frontline rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) for advanced FL, and were randomized to receive consolidative HDT/ASCT. We performed targeted genotyping of 157 diagnostic biopsies, and calculated genotype-based risk scores. HDT/ASCT improved failure-free survival (FFS; hazard ratio [HR], 0.8, P = .07; as-treated: HR, 0.7, P = .04), but not overall survival (OS; HR, 1.3, P = .27; as-treated: HR, 1.4, P = .13). High-risk cohorts identified by FL International Prognostic Index (FLIPI), and the clinicogenetic risk models m7-FLIPI and POD within 24 months-prognostic index (POD24-PI) comprised 27%, 18%, and 22% of patients. HDT/ASCT did not significantly prolong FFS in high-risk patients as defined by FLIPI (HR, 0.9; P = .56), m7-FLIPI (HR, 0.9; P = .91), and POD24-PI (HR, 0.8; P = .60). Similarly, OS was not significantly improved. Finally, we used a machine-learning approach to predict benefit from HDT/ASCT by genotypes. Patients predicted to benefit from HDT/ASCT had longer FFS with HDT/ASCT (HR, 0.4; P = .03), but OS did not reach statistical significance. Thus, consolidative HDT/ASCT after frontline R-CHOP did not improve OS in unselected FL patients and subgroups selected by genotype-based risk models.
View details for DOI 10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002546
View details for PubMedID 32941649