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  • Two-Electron Reduction versus One-Electron Oxidation of the Type 3 Pair in the Multicopper Oxidases JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Kjaergaard, C. H., Jones, S. M., Gounel, S., Mano, N., Solomon, E. I. 2015; 137 (27): 8783-8794


    Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) utilize an electron shuttling Type 1 Cu (T1) site in conjunction with a mononuclear Type 2 (T2) and a binuclear Type 3 (T3) site, arranged in a trinuclear copper cluster (TNC), to reduce O2 to H2O. Reduction of O2 occurs with limited overpotential indicating that all the coppers in the active site can be reduced via high-potential electron donors. Two forms of the resting enzyme have been observed in MCOs: the alternative resting form (AR), where only one of the three TNC Cu's is oxidized, and the resting oxidized form (RO), where all three TNC Cu's are oxidized. In contrast to the AR form, we show that in the RO form of a high-potential MCO, the binuclear T3 Cu(II) site can be reduced via the 700 mV T1 Cu. Systematic spectroscopic evaluation reveals that this proceeds by a two-electron process, where delivery of the first electron, forming a high energy, metastable half reduced T3 state, is followed by the rapid delivery of a second energetically favorable electron to fully reduce the T3 site. Alternatively, when this fully reduced binuclear T3 site is oxidized via the T1 Cu, a different thermodynamically favored half oxidized T3 form, i.e., the AR site, is generated. This behavior is evaluated by DFT calculations, which reveal that the protein backbone plays a significant role in controlling the environment of the active site coppers. This allows for the formation of the metastable, half reduced state and thus the complete reductive activation of the enzyme for catalysis.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jacs.5b04136

    View details for Web of Science ID 000358186700024

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4504817

  • Electron transfer and reaction mechanism of laccases. Cellular and molecular life sciences Jones, S. M., Solomon, E. I. 2015; 72 (5): 869-883


    Laccases are part of the family of multicopper oxidases (MCOs), which couple the oxidation of substrates to the four electron reduction of O2 to H2O. MCOs contain a minimum of four Cu's divided into Type 1 (T1), Type 2 (T2), and binuclear Type 3 (T3) Cu sites that are distinguished based on unique spectroscopic features. Substrate oxidation occurs near the T1, and electrons are transferred approximately 13 Å through the protein via the Cys-His pathway to the T2/T3 trinuclear copper cluster (TNC), where dioxygen reduction occurs. This review outlines the electron transfer (ET) process in laccases, and the mechanism of O2 reduction as elucidated through spectroscopic, kinetic, and computational data. Marcus theory is used to describe the relevant factors which impact ET rates including the driving force, reorganization energy, and electronic coupling matrix element. Then, the mechanism of O2 reaction is detailed with particular focus on the intermediates formed during the two 2e(-) reduction steps. The first 2e(-) step forms the peroxide intermediate, followed by the second 2e(-) step to form the native intermediate, which has been shown to be the catalytically relevant fully oxidized form of the enzyme.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00018-014-1826-6

    View details for PubMedID 25572295

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4323859