Education & Certifications

  • Master of Science, Stanford University, BIOE-MS (2015)
  • BSE, University of Pennsylvania, Bioengineering (2013)

Stanford Advisors

  • Kim Pauly, Doctoral Dissertation Advisor (AC)

All Publications

  • A rapid beam simulation framework for transcranial focused ultrasound. Scientific reports Leung, S. A., Webb, T. D., Bitton, R. R., Ghanouni, P., Butts Pauly, K. 2019; 9 (1): 7965


    Transcranial focused ultrasound is a non-invasive therapeutic modality that can be used to treat essential tremor. Beams of energy are focused into a small spot in the thalamus, resulting in tissue heating and ablation. Here, we report on a rapid 3D numeric simulation framework that can be used to predict focal spot characteristics prior to the application of ultrasound. By comparing with magnetic resonance proton resonance frequency shift thermometry (MR thermometry) data acquired during treatments of essential tremor, we verified that our simulation framework can be used to predict focal spot position, and with patient-specific calibration, predict focal spot temperature rise. Preliminary data suggests that lateral smearing of the focal spot can be simulated. The framework may also be relevant for other therapeutic ultrasound applications such as blood brain barrier opening and neuromodulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-019-43775-6

    View details for PubMedID 31138821

  • Measurements of the Relationship Between CT Hounsfield Units and Acoustic Velocity and How It Changes With Photon Energy and Reconstruction Method IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS FERROELECTRICS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL Webb, T. D., Leung, S. A., Rosenberg, J., Ghanouni, P., Dahl, J. J., Pelc, N. J., Pauly, K. 2018; 65 (7): 1111–24


    Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound continues to gain traction as a noninvasive treatment option for a variety of pathologies. Focusing ultrasound through the skull can be accomplished by adding a phase correction to each element of a hemispherical transducer array. The phase corrections are determined with acoustic simulations that rely on speed of sound estimates derived from CT scans. While several studies have investigated the relationship between acoustic velocity and CT Hounsfield units (HUs), these studies have largely ignored the impact of X-ray energy, reconstruction method, and reconstruction kernel on the measured HU, and therefore the estimated velocity, and none have measured the relationship directly. In this paper, 91 ex vivo human skull fragments from two skulls are imaged by 80 CT scans with a variety of energies and reconstruction methods. The average HU from each fragment is found for each scan and correlated with the speed of sound measured using a through transmission technique in that fragment. As measured by the -squared value, the results show that CT is able to account for 23%-53% of the variation in velocity in the human skull. Both the X-ray energy and the reconstruction technique significantly alter the -squared value and the linear relationship between HU and speed of sound in bone. Accounting for these variations will lead to more accurate phase corrections and more efficient transmission of acoustic energy through the skull.

    View details for DOI 10.1109/TUFFC.2018.2827899

    View details for Web of Science ID 000436933000004

    View details for PubMedID 29993366