Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Dynamics in a Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid from the Cation Perspective: 2D IR Vibrational Echo Spectroscopy. Journal of the American Chemical Society Yamada, S. A., Bailey, H. E., Tamimi, A., Li, C., Fayer, M. D. 2017; 139 (6): 2408-2420


    The dynamics of the room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BmimNTf2) were investigated with two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy and polarization selective pump-probe (PSPP) experiments. The CN stretch frequency of a modified Bmim(+) cation (2-SeCN-Bmim(+)), in which a SeCN moiety was substituted onto the C-2 position of the imidazolium ring, was used as a vibrational probe. A major result of the 2D IR experiments is the observation of a long time scale structural spectral diffusion component of 600 ps in addition to short and intermediate time scales similar to those measured for selenocyanate anion (SeCN(-)) dissolved in BmimNTf2. In contrast to 2-SeCN-Bmim(+), SeCN(-) samples its inhomogeneous line width nearly an order of magnitude faster than the complete structural randomization time of neat BmimNTf2 liquid (870 ± 20 ps) measured with optical heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) experiments. The orientational correlation function obtained from PSPP experiments on 2-SeCN-Bmim(+) exhibits two periods of restricted angular diffusion (wobbling-in-a-cone) followed by complete orientational randomization on a time scale of 900 ± 20 ps, significantly slower than observed for SeCN(-) but identical within experimental error to the complete structural randomization time of BmimNTf2. The experiments indicate that 2-SeCN-Bmim(+) is sensitive to local motions of the ionic region that influence the spectral diffusion and reorientation of small, anionic, and neutral molecules as well as significantly slower, longer-range fluctuations that are responsible for complete randomization of the liquid structure.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jacs.6b12011

    View details for PubMedID 28099808

  • Dynamics of a Room Temperature Ionic Liquid in Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes vs the Bulk Liquid: 2D IR and Polarized IR Pump-Probe Experiments JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Shin, J. Y., Yamada, S. A., Fayer, M. D. 2017; 139 (1): 311-323


    Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) are membranes that have ionic liquids impregnated in their pores. SILMs have been proposed for advanced carbon capture materials. Two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) and polarization selective IR pump-probe (PSPP) techniques were used to investigate the dynamics of reorientation and spectral diffusion of the linear triatomic anion, SeCN(-), in poly(ether sulfone) (PES) membranes and room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EmimNTf2). The dynamics in the bulk EmimNTf2 were compared to its dynamics in the SILM samples. Two PES membranes, PES200 and PES30, have pores with average sizes, ∼300 nm and ∼100 nm, respectively. Despite the relatively large pore sizes, the measurements reveal that the reorientation of SeCN(-) and the RTIL structural fluctuations are substantially slower in the SILMs than in the bulk liquid. The complete orientational randomization, slows from 136 ps in the bulk to 513 ps in the PES30. 2D IR measurements yield three time scales for structural spectral diffusion (SSD), that is, the time evolution of the liquid structure. The slowest decay constant increases from 140 ps in the bulk to 504 ps in the PES200 and increases further to 1660 ps in the PES30. The results suggest that changes at the interface propagate out and influence the RTIL structural dynamics even more than a hundred nanometers from the polymer surface. The differences between the IL dynamics in the bulk and in the membranes suggest that studies of bulk RTIL properties may be poor guides to their use in SILMs in carbon capture applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jacs.6b10695

    View details for Web of Science ID 000392036900049

    View details for PubMedID 27973786

  • Structural and Rotational Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide in 1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Ionic Liquids: The Effect of Chain Length JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B Giammanco, C. H., Yamada, S. A., Kramer, P. L., Tamimi, A., Fayer, M. D. 2016; 120 (27): 6698-6711


    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been proposed as possible carbon dioxide (CO2) capture media; thus, it is useful to understand the dynamics of both the dissolved gas and its IL environment as well as how altering an IL affects these dynamics. With increasing alkyl chain length, it is well-established that ILs obtain a mesoscopic structural feature assigned to polar-apolar segregation, and the change in structure with chain length affects the dynamics. Here, the dynamics of CO2 in a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ILs, in which the alkyl group is ethyl, butyl, hexyl, or decyl, were investigated using ultrafast infrared spectroscopy by measuring the reorientation and spectral diffusion of carbon dioxide in the ILs. It was found that reorientation of the carbon dioxide occurs on three time scales, which correspond to two different time scales of restricted wobbling-in-a-cone motions and a long-time complete diffusive reorientation. Complete reorientation slows with increasing chain length but less than the increases in viscosity of the bulk liquids. Spectral diffusion, measured with two-dimensional IR spectroscopy, is caused by a combination of the liquids' structural fluctuations and reorientation of the CO2. The data were analyzed using a recent theory that takes into account both contributions to spectral diffusion and extracts the structural spectral diffusion. Different components of the structural fluctuations have distinct dependences on the alkyl chain length. All of the dynamics are fast compared to the complete orientational randomization of the bulk ILs, as measured with optical heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect measurements. The results indicate a hierarchy of constraint releases in the liquids that give rise to increasingly slower dynamics.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b03971

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379991000024

    View details for PubMedID 27264965

  • Carbon dioxide in an ionic liquid: Structural and rotational dynamics JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Giammanco, C. H., Kramer, P. L., Yamada, S. A., Nishida, J., Tamimi, A., Fayer, M. D. 2016; 144 (10)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4943390

    View details for Web of Science ID 000372974600024

  • Coupling of Carbon Dioxide Stretch and Bend Vibrations Reveals Thermal Population Dynamics in an Ionic Liquid. journal of physical chemistry. B Giammanco, C. H., Kramer, P. L., Yamada, S. A., Nishida, J., Tamimi, A., Fayer, M. D. 2016; 120 (3): 549-556


    The population relaxation of carbon dioxide dissolved in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EmimNTf2) was investigated using polarization-selective ultrafast infrared pump-probe spectroscopy and two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy. Due to the coupling of the bend with the asymmetric stretch, excitation of the asymmetric stretch of a molecule with a thermally populated bend leads to an additional peak, a hot band, which is red-shifted from the main asymmetric absorption band by the combination band shift. This hot band peak exchanges population with the main peak through the gain and loss of bend excitation quanta. The isotropic pump-probe signal originating from the unexcited bend state displays a fast, relatively small amplitude, initial growth followed by a longer time scale exponential decay. The signal is analyzed over its full time range using a kinetic model to determine both the vibrational lifetime (the final decay) and rate constant for the loss of the bend energy. This bend relaxation manifests as the fast initial growth of the stretch/no bend signal because the hot band (stretch with bend) is "over pumped" relative to the ground state equilibrium. The nonequilibrium pumping occurs because the hot band has a larger transition dipole moment than the stretch/no bend peak. The system is then prepared, utilizing an acousto-optic mid-infrared pulse shaper to cut a hole in the excitation pulse spectrum, such that the hot band is not pumped. The isotropic pump-probe signal from the stretch/no bend state is altered because the initial excited state population ratio has changed. Instead of a growth due to relaxation of bend quanta, a fast initial decay is observed because of thermal excitation of the bend. Fitting this curve gives the rate constant for thermal excitation of the bend and the lifetime, which agree with those determined in the pump-probe experiments without frequency-selective pumping.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b11454

    View details for PubMedID 26731088