Should India Move toward Vehicle Electrification? Assessing Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Air Pollutant Emissions of Alternative and Conventional Fuel Vehicles in India.
Environmental science & technology
We perform a state-specific life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gases (GHG) (CO2eq) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in India for representative passenger vehicles (two-wheelers, three-wheelers, four-wheelers, and buses) and technologies (internal combustion engine, battery electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles). We find that in most states, four-wheeler battery-electric vehicles (BEVs) have higher GHG and SO2 emissions than other conventional or alternative vehicles. Electrification of those vehicle classes under present conditions would not lead to emission reductions. Electrified buses and three-wheelers are the best strategies to reduce GHG emissions in many states, but they are also the worst strategy in terms of SO2 emissions. Electrified two-wheelers have lower SO2 emissions than gasoline in one state. The Indian grid would need to decrease its carbon dioxide emissions by 38-52% and SO2 emissions by 58-97% (depending on the state) for widespread vehicle electrification for sustainability purposes to make sense. If the 2030 goals for India under the Glasgow COP are met, we find that four-wheeler BEVs still have higher GHG emissions in 18 states compared to a conventional gasoline compact four wheeler, and all states will have higher SO2 emissions for BEVs across all vehicle types compared to their conventional counterparts.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.est.1c07718
View details for PubMedID 35696339
- Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of alternative and conventional fuel vehicles in India IEEE. 2020