Tom is a fourth-year medical student at Stanford with a variety of research interests including thumb CMC osteoarthritis, hand and wrist biomechanics, medical education, quality improvement, and international health. He is currently applying for residency training in orthopaedic surgery.
Integrating Musculoskeletal Education and Patient Care at Medical Student-Run Free Clinics.
PM & R : the journal of injury, function, and rehabilitation
Student-run free clinics (SRFCs) have emerged as an important educational component of United States (US) medical schools. Despite the prevalence of musculoskeletal (MSK) problems presenting to SRFCs, students and clinics are often unprepared to diagnose and to treat common MSK complaints.We sought to determine the scope of diagnosis and treatment at a medical student-run free clinic specializing in musculoskeletal care using physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) residents. Secondary goals included reviewing student satisfaction and determining the appropriateness of the clinic in medical education.Retrospective chart review, anonymous online survey.Primary care, free student clinic affiliated with tertiary academic medical center.A total of 20 medical student volunteers, 6 PM&R residents, and 91 community patients.We established a musculoskeletal clinic as a specialty referral clinic for the 2 primary care SRFCs with institutional support from a partner medical school. We then reviewed clinical operations retrospectively using electronic medical records and student satisfaction based on an online survey.We analyzed patient demographics and chief complaints, referrals provided, and medical services rendered. We also used a 5-point Likert scale to assess student satisfaction.A monthly musculoskeletal referral clinic was established with the oversight of PM&R attendings and residents. The clinic received 91 referrals and managed 61 unique patients over a 2.5-year study period. The most common presentations to the clinic involved knee pain (n = 17, 27.9%) and back pain (n = 16, 26.2%). Pro bono relationships with community and institutional partners enabled all patients to receive medical examinations, physical therapy visits, plain film radiographs, and insurance consultations free of charge. Student satisfaction with teaching and patient care was high, with 19 of 20 students reporting their experience as "good" or "excellent."SRFCs represent an underused opportunity to enhance MSK education among medical students by treating a variety of common MSK complaints in an underserved population.To be determined.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pmrj.2017.03.008
View details for PubMedID 28389399
Changes in Local Bone Density in Early Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Osteoarthritis.
The Journal of hand surgery
Thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA) represents a major source of functional morbidity. The effects of early CMC OA on loading and use patterns potentially lead to changes in local bone density and microarchitecture. Hounsfield units (HU), a quantitative attenuation coefficient obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans, have been shown to be a reliable marker of bone density. We hypothesized that early CMC OA is associated with lower local bone density about the CMC joint as assessed by HU.We examined HU units from CT scans in 23 asymptomatic subjects and 91 patients with early CMC OA. The HU measurements were obtained within cancellous portions of the trapezium, capitate, first and third metacarpal bases, and distal radius. Linear regression models, with age and sex included as covariates, were used to assess the relationship between CMC OA and HU values at each anatomical site.Early OA patients had significantly lower HU than asymptomatic subjects within the trapezium (mean, 377 HU vs 436 HU) and first metacarpal bases (265 HU vs 324 HU). No significant group differences were noted at the capitate, third metacarpal, or distal radius. Male sex and younger age were associated with significantly higher HU at all the anatomical sites, except the first metacarpal base, where age had no significant effect.Subjects presenting with early CMC OA had significantly lower bone density as assessed with HU at the thumb CMC joint (trapezium and first metacarpal base). Early thumb CMC OA and discomfort may lead to diminished loading across the basal joint, producing focal disuse osteopenia. These findings in symptomatic early arthritis suggest a relationship between symptoms, functional use of the CMC joint, and local bone density.Diagnostic II.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2017.09.004
View details for PubMedID 29029863
The AUSCAN and PRWHE Demonstrate Comparable Internal Consistency and Validity in Patients With Early Thumb Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis.
Hand (New York, N.Y.)
The Australian/Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index (AUSCAN) and Patient-Rated Wrist-Hand Evaluation (PRWHE) are 2 patient-related outcome measures to assess pain and disability in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the AUSCAN and PRWHE in a large-scale, longitudinal cohort of patients with early thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) OA.We obtained baseline data on 135 individuals (92 with early CMC OA participants and 43 asymptomatic controls) and at follow-up (year 1.5) on 83 individuals. We assessed the internal consistency using Cronbach alpha, and construct and criterion validity using other pain scales and objective measures of strength, respectively. We also examined the correlation between the AUSCAN and PRWHE and correlation coefficients at baseline and follow-up, as well as the correlation between changes in these instruments over the follow-up period.Internal consistency was high for both AUSCAN and PRWHE totals and subscales (Cronbach α > 0.70). Both instruments demonstrated construct validity compared with the Verbal Rating Scale ( r = 0.52-0.60, P < .01), an assessment of pain, and moderate criterion validity compared with key pinch and grip strength ( r = -.24 to -.33, P < .05). These instruments were highly correlated with each other at baseline and follow-up time points ( r = 0.76-.94, P < .01), and changes in a patient's total scores over time were also correlated ( r = 0.83, P < .01).The AUSCAN and PRWHE are both valid assessments for pain and/or disability in patients with early thumb CMC OA.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1558944717729217
View details for PubMedID 28934868
Incidence of Acute Complications Following Surgery for Syndactyly and Polydactyly: An Analysis of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Database from 2012 to 2014.
The Journal of hand surgery
2017; 42 (9): 749.e1–749.e7
Congenital hand differences are infrequent phenomena, and their treatment represents a relatively small fraction of cases performed by hand surgeons. Little is known about the incidence of wound complications and acute postoperative problems given the relative rarity of these procedures. This study sought to characterize the incidence of complications within 30 days of surgery for congenital hand differences.The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) contains prospective data regarding 30-day morbidity from 64 pediatric centers across the United States. Data from all available years (2012-2014) were queried for Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes pertinent to the treatment of congenital hand differences. Bivariate statistics, Fisher exact tests and Poisson 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to assess the incidence of complications and examine risk factors for these outcomes.We identified a total of 1,656 congenital hand cases that represented 4 different CPT codes, including surgery for simple syndactyly, complex syndactyly, and polydactyly. The overall incidence of complications was 2.2% (95% CI, 1.6%-3.1%; n = 37) with the most common complication being superficial surgical site infection (1.7%; 95% CI, 1.1%-2.4%) followed by related readmission (0.3%; 95% CI, 0.1%-0.7%). There was a higher incidence of complications observed in patients undergoing complex syndactyly repair (5.2% for complex syndactyly repair vs 2.3% for all others).The rate of acute complications following procedures to correct syndactyly and polydactyly is low, the most common of which is superficial surgical site infection. The incidence of acute complications may be helpful in counseling patients and families. We suggest that further research must prioritize collecting data on long-term functional outcomes.Therapeutic II.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2017.05.011
View details for PubMedID 28648327
- Weaker Functional Pinch Strength Is Associated With Early Thumb Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH 2016; 474 (2): 557-561
Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis Among Children at an HIV Care Program in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL
2014; 33 (12): 1234-1236
Diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis is challenging in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We describe the clinical features, diagnostic testing results, tuberculosis and HIV treatment and clinical outcomes of 57 HIV-infected children diagnosed with tuberculosis at the DarDar Pediatric Program in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In this cohort, tuberculosis was common, microbiologic studies were frequently negative and mortality was high.
View details for DOI 10.1097/INF.0000000000000452
View details for Web of Science ID 000345454300009
View details for PubMedID 24945878
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4229430