Doctor of Philosophy, Stanford University, CHEM-PHD (2016)
PhD, Stanford University, Chemistry (2016)
Bachelor of Science, University of California Irvine, Chemistry (2010)
Robert Waymouth, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Organocatalytic Ring-Opening Polymerization of Morpholinones: New Strategies to Functionalized Polyesters
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY
2014; 136 (26): 9252-9255
The oxidative lactonization of N-substituted diethanolamines with the Pd catalyst [LPd(OAc)]2(2+)[OTf(-)]2 generates N-substituted morpholin-2-ones. The organocatalytic ring-opening polymerization of N-acyl morpholin-2-ones occurs readily to generate functionalized poly(aminoesters) with N-acylated amines in the polyester backbone. The thermodynamics of the ring-opening polymerization depends sensitively on the hybridization of the nitrogen of the heterocyclic lactone. N-Acyl morpholin-2-ones polymerize readily to generate polymorpholinones, but the N-aryl or N-alkyl substituted morpholin-2-ones do not polymerize. Experimental and theoretical studies reveal that the thermodynamics of ring opening correlates to the degree of pyramidalization of the endocyclic N-atom. Deprotection of the poly(N-Boc-morpholin-2-one) yields a water-soluble, cationic polymorpholinone.
View details for DOI 10.1021/ja503830c
View details for Web of Science ID 000338692700005
View details for PubMedID 24946200
Chemoselective pd-catalyzed oxidation of polyols: synthetic scope and mechanistic studies.
Journal of the American Chemical Society
2013; 135 (20): 7593-7602
The regio- and chemoselective oxidation of unprotected vicinal polyols with [(neocuproine)Pd(OAc)]2(OTf)2 (1) (neocuproine = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) occurs readily under mild reaction conditions to generate α-hydroxy ketones. The oxidation of vicinal diols is both faster and more selective than the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols; vicinal 1,2-diols are oxidized selectively to hydroxy ketones, whereas primary alcohols are oxidized in preference to secondary alcohols. Oxidative lactonization of 1,5-diols yields cyclic lactones. Catalyst loadings as low as 0.12 mol % in oxidation reactions on a 10 g scale can be used. The exquisite selectivity of this catalyst system is evident in the chemoselective and stereospecific oxidation of the polyol (S,S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutane [(S,S)-threitol] to (S)-erythrulose. Mechanistic, kinetic, and theoretical studies revealed that the rate laws for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols differ from those of diols. Density functional theory calculations support the conclusion that β-hydride elimination to give hydroxy ketones is product-determining for the oxidation of vicinal diols, whereas for primary and secondary alcohols, pre-equilibria favoring primary alkoxides are product-determining. In situ desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) revealed several key intermediates in the proposed catalytic cycle.
View details for DOI 10.1021/ja4008694
View details for PubMedID 23659308