Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy, Zhejiang University (2016)
  • Bachelor of Science, Zhejiang University (2011)

Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Interferometric mapping of material properties using thermal perturbation PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Goetz, G., Ling, T., Gupta, T., Kang, S., Wang, J., Gregory, P. D., Park, B., Palanker, D. 2018; 115 (11): E2499–E2508


    Optical phase changes induced by transient perturbations provide a sensitive measure of material properties. We demonstrate the high sensitivity and speed of such methods, using two interferometric techniques: quantitative phase imaging (QPI) in transmission and phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT) in reflection. Shot-noise-limited QPI can resolve energy deposition of about 3.4 mJ/cm2 in a single pulse, which corresponds to 0.8 °C temperature rise in a single cell. OCT can detect deposition of 24 mJ/cm2 energy between two scattering interfaces producing signals with about 30-dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and 4.7 mJ/cm2 when SNR is 45 dB. Both techniques can image thermal changes within the thermal confinement time, which enables accurate single-shot mapping of absorption coefficients even in highly scattering samples, as well as electrical conductivity and many other material properties in biological samples at cellular scale. Integration of the phase changes along the beam path helps increase sensitivity, and the signal relaxation time reveals the size of hidden objects. These methods may enable multiple applications, ranging from temperature-controlled retinal laser therapy or gene expression to mapping electric current density and characterization of semiconductor devices with rapid pump-probe measurements.

    View details for PubMedID 29483276

  • Full-field interferometric imaging of propagating action potentials. Light, science & applications Ling, T., Boyle, K. C., Goetz, G., Zhou, P., Quan, Y., Alfonso, F. S., Huang, T. W., Palanker, D. 2018; 7: 107


    Currently, cellular action potentials are detected using either electrical recordings or exogenous fluorescent probes that sense the calcium concentration or transmembrane voltage. Ca imaging has a low temporal resolution, while voltage indicators are vulnerable to phototoxicity, photobleaching, and heating. Here, we report full-field interferometric imaging of individual action potentials by detecting movement across the entire cell membrane. Using spike-triggered averaging of movies synchronized with electrical recordings, we demonstrate deformations up to 3nm (0.9mrad) during the action potential in spiking HEK-293 cells, with a rise time of 4ms. The time course of the optically recorded spikes matches the electrical waveforms. Since the shot noise limit of the camera (~2mrad/pix) precludes detection of the action potential in a single frame, for all-optical spike detection, images are acquired at 50kHz, and 50 frames are binned into 1ms steps to achieve a sensitivity of 0.3mrad in a single pixel. Using a self-reinforcing sensitivity enhancement algorithm based on iteratively expanding the region of interest for spatial averaging, individual spikes can be detected by matching the previously extracted template of the action potential with the optical recording. This allows all-optical full-field imaging of the propagating action potentials without exogeneous labels or electrodes.

    View details for PubMedID 30564313

  • Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometric microscopy with wideband sensitivity enhancement for quantitative phase imaging in real time. Scientific reports Ling, T., Jiang, J., Zhang, R., Yang, Y. 2017; 7 (1): 9


    Real-time quantitative phase imaging has tremendous potential in investigating live biological specimens in vitro. Here we report on a wideband sensitivity-enhanced interferometric microscopy for quantitative phase imaging in real time by employing two quadriwave lateral shearing interferometers based on randomly encoded hybrid gratings with different lateral shears. Theoretical framework to analyze the measurement sensitivity is firstly proposed, from which the optimal lateral shear pair for sensitivity enhancement is also derived. To accelerate the phase retrieval algorithm for real-time visualization, we develop a fully vectorized path-independent differential leveling phase unwrapping algorithm ready for parallel computing, and the framerate for retrieving the phase from each pair of two 4 mega pixel interferograms is able to reach 47.85 frames per second. Experiment results demonstrate that the wideband sensitivity-enhanced interferometric microscopy is capable of eliminating all the periodical error caused by spectral leaking problem and reducing the temporal standard deviation to the half level compared with phase directly retrieved by the interferogram. Due to its high adaptability, the wideband sensitivity-enhanced interferometric microscopy is promising in retrofitting existing microscopes to quantitative phase microscopes with high measurement precision and real-time visualization.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-017-00053-7

    View details for PubMedID 28148959

  • General measurement of optical system aberrations with a continuously variable lateral shear ratio by a randomly encoded hybrid grating APPLIED OPTICS Ling, T., Yang, Y., Liu, D., Yue, X., Jiang, J., Bai, J., Shen, Y. 2015; 54 (30): 8913-8920


    A general lateral shearing interferometry method to measure the wavefront aberrations with a continuously variable shear ratio by the randomly encoded hybrid grating (REHG) is proposed. The REHG consists of a randomly encoded binary amplitude grating and a phase chessboard. Its Fraunhofer diffractions contain only four orders which are the ±1 orders in two orthogonal directions due to the combined modulation of the amplitude and phase. As a result, no orders selection mask is needed for the REHG and the shear ratio is continuously variable, which is beneficial to the variation of sensitivity and testing range for different requirements. To determine the fabrication tolerance of this hybrid grating, the analysis of the effects of different errors on the diffraction intensity distributions is carried out. Experiments have shown that the testing method can achieve a continuously variable shear ratio with the same REHG, and the comparison with a ZYGO GPI interferometer exhibits that the aberration testing method by the REHG is highly precise and also has a good repeatability. This testing method by the REHG is available for general use in testing the aberrations of different optical systems in situ.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/AO.54.008913

    View details for Web of Science ID 000363311400015

    View details for PubMedID 26560379

  • Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometer based on a randomly encoded hybrid grating OPTICS LETTERS Ling, T., Liu, D., Yue, X., Yang, Y., Shen, Y., Bai, J. 2015; 40 (10): 2245-2248


    A compact quadriwave lateral shearing interferometer (QWLSI) with strong adaptability and high precision is proposed based on a novel randomly encoded hybrid grating (REHG). By performing the inverse Fourier transform of the desired ±1 Fraunhofer diffraction orders, the amplitude and phase distributions of the ideally calculated quadriwave grating can be obtained. Then a phase chessboard is introduced to generate the same phase distribution, while the amplitude distribution can be achieved using the randomly encoding method by quantizing the radiant flux on the ideal quadriwave grating. As the Faunhofer diffraction of the REHG only contains the ±1 orders, no order selection mask is ever needed for the REHG-LSI. The simulations and the experiments show that the REHG-LSI exhibits strong adaptability, nice repeatability, and high precision.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OL.40.002245

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354708300023

    View details for PubMedID 26393710

  • Common-path and compact wavefront diagnosis system based on cross grating lateral shearing interferometer APPLIED OPTICS Ling, T., Yang, Y., Yue, X., Liu, D., Ma, Y., Bai, J., Wang, K. 2014; 53 (30): 7144-7152


    A common-path and compact wavefront diagnosis system for both continuous and transient wavefronts measurement is proposed based on cross grating lateral shearing interferometer (CGLSI). Derived from the basic CGLSI configuration, this system employs an aplanatic lens to convert the wavefront under test into a convergent beam, which makes it possible for CGLSI to test the wavefront of collimated beams. A geometrical optics model for grating pitch determination and a Fresnel diffraction model for order selection mask design are presented. Then a detailed analysis about the influence of the grating pitch, the distance from the cross grating to the order selection mask and the numerical aperture of the aplanatic lens on the system error is made, and a calibration method is proposed to eliminate the system error. In addition, the differential Zernike polynomials fitting method is introduced for wavefront retrieval. Before our experiment, we have designed several grating pitches and their corresponding order selection mask parameters. In the final comparative experiment with ZYGO interferometer, the wavefront diagnosis system exhibits both high precision and repeatability.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/AO.53.007144

    View details for Web of Science ID 000343918300027

    View details for PubMedID 25402805

  • Off-axis cyclic radial shearing interferometer for measurement of centrally blocked transient wavefront OPTICS LETTERS Ling, T., Liu, D., Yang, Y., Sun, L., Tian, C., Shen, Y. 2013; 38 (14): 2493-2495


    An off-axis cyclic radial shearing interferometer (OCRSI) to test a centrally blocked transient wavefront is proposed. Based on the standard cyclic radial shearing interferometer (CRSI), the OCRSI consists of a beam splitter, two folding mirrors, and a Galilean telescope. With the same but reversal tilt introduced to the two mirrors in OCRSI, the shearing interferogram can be obtained even when the central part of the test aperture is blocked. An improved wavefront retrieval method for OCRSI is employed, and a method to obtain the laterally sheared amount between the contracted and expanded beams is proposed. Numerical simulation and comparison experiments with a ZYGO GPI interferometer demonstrate that the OCRSI exhibits high precision and nice repeatability.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OL.38.002493

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321770900040

    View details for PubMedID 23939091