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  • Influence of CX3CR1 Deletion on Cochlear Hair Cell Survival and Macrophage Expression in Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media. Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology Schiel, V., Xia, A., Santa Maria, P. L. 2023; 44 (6): 605-610


    Our objective was to determine whether the receptor CX3CR1 is necessary for the recruitment of macrophages to the cochlea in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and if its deletion can prevent hair cell loss in CSOM.CSOM is a neglected disease that afflicts 330 million people worldwide and is the most common cause of permanent hearing loss among children in the developing world. It is characterized by a chronically discharging infected middle ear. We have previously demonstrated that CSOM causes macrophage associated sensory hearing loss. The receptor CX3CR1 is expressed on macrophages, which have been shown to be increased at the time point of outer hair cell (OHC) loss in CSOM.In this report, we examine the influence of CX3CR1 deletion (CX3CR1-/-) in a validated model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) CSOM.The data show no difference in OHC loss between the CX3CR1-/- CSOM group and CX3CR1+/+ CSOM group (p = 0.28). We observed partial OHC loss in the cochlear basal turn, no OHC loss in the middle and apical turns in both CX3CR1-/- and CX3CR1+/+ CSOM mice at 14 days after bacterial inoculation. No inner hair cell (IHC) loss was found in all cochlear turns in all groups. We also counted F4/80 labeled macrophages in the spiral ganglion, spiral ligament, stria vascularis and spiral limbus of the basal, middle, and apical turn in cryosections. We did not find a significant difference in the total number of cochlear macrophages between CX3CR1-/- mice and CX3CR1+/+ mice (p = 0.97).The data did not support a role for CX3CR1 macrophage associated HC loss in CSOM.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MAO.0000000000003884

    View details for PubMedID 37315234

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10275455

  • Chronic suppurative otitis media causes macrophage-associated sensorineural hearing loss. Journal of neuroinflammation Xia, A., Thai, A., Cao, Z., Chen, X., Chen, J., Bacacao, B., Bekale, L. A., Schiel, V., Bollyky, P. L., Maria, P. L. 2022; 19 (1): 224


    BACKGROUND: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is the most common cause of permanent hearing loss in children in the developing world. A large component of the permanent hearing loss is sensory in nature and our understanding of the mechanism of this has so far been limited to post-mortem human specimens or acute infection models that are not representative of human CSOM. In this report, we assess cochlear injury in a validated Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) CSOM mouse model.METHODS: We generated persisters (PCs) and inoculated them into the mouse middle ear cavity. We tracked infection with IVIS and detected PA using RT-PCR. We assessed cochlear damage and innate immunity by Immunohistochemistry. Finally, we evaluated cytokines with multiplex assay and quantitative real-time PCR.RESULTS: We observed outer hair cell (OHC) loss predominantly in the basal turn of the cochlear at 14days after bacterial inoculation. Macrophages, not neutrophils are the major immune cells in the cochlea in CSOM displaying increased numbers and a distribution correlated with the observed cochlear injury. The progression of the morphological changes suggests a transition from monocytes into tissue macrophages following infection. We also show that PA do not enter the cochlea and live bacteria are required for cochlear injury. We characterized cytokine activity in the CSOM cochlea.CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, this data shows a critical role for macrophages in CSOM-mediated sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL).

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12974-022-02585-w

    View details for PubMedID 36096817