Postdoc Fellow (Neuropathology)

Core Research Interest: Ischemic Stroke, Neurodegeneration, Cognitive Decline, Trauma & Traumatic Brain Injury, Subdural Hematoma (SDH), Metabolic Stroke, Alzheimer's disease, ALS

Honors & Awards

  • FENS Neuroscience Grant award and FENS Voucher Programme Award, Federation of European Neuroscience Societies (FENS) & British Neuroscience Association (BNA) (11-15 July, 2020)
  • Best Non-Clinical Poster Presentation Award, Malaysian Virtual Stroke Conference, 2020 (14-16 August, 2020)
  • Senior Research Fellowship (SRF) Direct-SRF (Medical Science), CSIR- Govt. of India, New Delhi (1st April 2019 to 31st October, 2021)
  • Best Research Scholar of the Year Award, Nirma University (1st October, 2020)
  • IBRO-YITP award (US$ 1000), IBRO World Congress of Neuroscience and YITP-IBRO Training at KBRI (21-25 September, 2019)
  • International Travel Grant award of 500 US $, IC-KDA (International Conference on Korean Dementia Association) (31st May-1st June, 2019)
  • International Travel Grant Award of US$ 500, Asian Oceanian Association of Neurology & South Korean Association of Neurology (8-11 November, 2018)
  • Educational Support Grant of worth (350 US $), 7th Asian-Oceanian Congress on Clinical Neurophysiology (9-12 April, 2020)

Professional Education

  • MS, National Forensic Sciences University, Neuropharmacology (2015)
  • PhD, Nirma University, Neuropharmacology, Neurology (2021)

Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Narcolepsy-A Neuropathological Obscure Sleep Disorder: A Narrative Review of Current Literature. Brain sciences Chavda, V., Chaurasia, B., Umana, G. E., Tomasi, S. O., Lu, B., Montemurro, N. 2022; 12 (11)


    Narcolepsy is a chronic, long-term neurological disorder characterized by a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles. Some clinical symptoms enter into differential diagnosis with other neurological diseases. Excessive daytime sleepiness and brief involuntary sleep episodes are the main clinical symptoms. The majority of people with narcolepsy experience cataplexy, which is a loss of muscle tone. Many people experience neurological complications such as sleep cycle disruption, hallucinations or sleep paralysis. Because of the associated neurological conditions, the exact pathophysiology of narcolepsy is unknown. The differential diagnosis is essential because relatively clinical symptoms of narcolepsy are easy to diagnose when all symptoms are present, but it becomes much more complicated when sleep attacks are isolated and cataplexy is episodic or absent. Treatment is tailored to the patient's symptoms and clinical diagnosis. To facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders and to better understand the neuropathological mechanisms of this sleep disorder, this review summarizes current knowledge on narcolepsy, in particular, genetic and non-genetic associations of narcolepsy, the pathophysiology up to the inflammatory response, the neuromorphological hallmarks of narcolepsy, and possible links with other diseases, such as diabetes, ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease. This review also reports all of the most recent updated research and therapeutic advances in narcolepsy. There have been significant advances in highlighting the pathogenesis of narcolepsy, with substantial evidence for an autoimmune response against hypocretin neurons; however, there are some gaps that need to be filled. To treat narcolepsy, more research should be focused on identifying molecular targets and novel autoantigens. In addition to therapeutic advances, standardized criteria for narcolepsy and diagnostic measures are widely accepted, but they may be reviewed and updated in the future with comprehension. Tailored treatment to the patient's symptoms and clinical diagnosis and future treatment modalities with hypocretin agonists, GABA agonists, histamine receptor antagonists and immunomodulatory drugs should be aimed at addressing the underlying cause of narcolepsy.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/brainsci12111473

    View details for PubMedID 36358399

  • Clinical and Radiological Characteristics for Recurrence of Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Neurology international Mishra, R., Deora, H., Florez-Perdomo, W. A., Moscote-Salazar, L. R., Garcia-Ballestas, E., Rahman, M. M., Shrivastava, A., Raj, S., Chavda, V., Montemurro, N., Agrawal, A. 2022; 14 (3): 683-695


    Chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is one of the most studied clinical entities in the neurosurgical literature. Management of cSDH is complicated by its propensity to recurrence. Various factors for the development of recurrence of cSDH have been described in various clinical, epidemiological, and observational studies, yet the evidence available is limited. A systematic review and meta-analysis as per PRISMA guidelines to identify clinical and radiological factors which can predict the development of recurrence in cSDH. A total of 14 studies were included for the systematic review and meta-analysis after a comprehensive search of the online databases. Eight studies were of high methodological quality. Age, use of anticoagulants, obesity, seizure, and liver disease were found to be statistically significant clinical risk factors for the development of recurrence in cSDH. Among the radiological parameters, the internal structure of the hematoma and the width of the hematoma was found to be significant risk factor predicting the development of recurrence. Age >75 years, use of anticoagulation therapy, liver disease, and obesity were significant risk factors for cSDH recurrence. Pneumocephalus, internal architecture of hematoma, bilateral cSDH, the width of hematoma, and the presence of bilateral cSDH are important radiological parameters of the development of recurrent cSDH.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/neurolint14030057

    View details for PubMedID 36135992

  • Cognitive deficits and memory impairments after COVID-19 (Covishield) vaccination. Brain, behavior, & immunity - health Chaurasia, B., Chavda, V., Lu, B., Garg, K., Montemurro, N. 2022; 22: 100463


    Vaccination is an essential public health strategy to control the 2019 Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. While the benefits of the COVID-19 vaccines far outweigh the risks, side effects continue to be reported in the literature. We report a 65-year-old man who developed cognitive deficits and memory impairments following his first dose of Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine (Covishield). The onset of acute cognitive deficits and memory impairments could be another complication to COVID-19 vaccination that physicians and neurologists need to be warned to. Monitoring the safety of COVID-19 vaccines and describing side effects associated with them is essential to improve safety profiles and enhance public trust.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbih.2022.100463

    View details for PubMedID 35496775

  • Ischemic Stroke and SARS-CoV-2 Infection: The Bidirectional Pathology and Risk Morbidities. Neurology international Chavda, V., Chaurasia, B., Fiorindi, A., Umana, G. E., Lu, B., Montemurro, N. 2022; 14 (2): 391-405


    Stroke is a fatal morbidity that needs emergency medical admission and immediate medical attention. COVID-19 ischemic brain damage is closely associated with common neurological symptoms, which are extremely difficult to treat medically, and risk factors. We performed literature research about COVID-19 and ischemia in PubMed, MEDLINE, and Scopus for this current narrative review. We discovered parallel manifestations of SARS-CoV-19 infection and brain ischemia risk factors. In published papers, we discovered a similar but complex pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and stroke pathology. A patient with other systemic co-morbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, or any respiratory disease, has a fatal combination in intensive care management when infected with SARS-CoV-19. Furthermore, due to their shared risk factors, COVID-19 and stroke are a lethal combination for medical management to treat. In this review, we discuss shared pathophysiology, adjuvant risk factors, challenges, and advancements in stroke-associated COVID-19 therapeutics.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/neurolint14020032

    View details for PubMedID 35645351

  • Modulating the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: A Therapeutic Strategy for Autoimmune Diseases. Cells Yadav, D., Lee, J. Y., Puranik, N., Chauhan, P. S., Chavda, V., Jin, J., Lee, P. C. 2022; 11 (7)


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, neurodegenerative disease associated with the central nervous system (CNS). Autoimmunity is caused by an abnormal immune response to self-antigens, which results in chronic inflammation and tissue death. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification in which ubiquitin molecules are attached to proteins by ubiquitinating enzymes, and then the modified proteins are degraded by the proteasome system. In addition to regulating proteasomal degradation of proteins, ubiquitination also regulates other cellular functions that are independent of proteasomal degradation. It plays a vital role in intracellular protein turnover and immune signaling and responses. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is primarily responsible for the nonlysosomal proteolysis of intracellular proteins. The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic adenosine-triphosphate-dependent protease that recognizes ubiquitin covalently attached to particular proteins and targets them for degradation. Damaged, oxidized, or misfolded proteins, as well as regulatory proteins that govern many essential cellular functions, are removed by this degradation pathway. When this system is affected, cellular homeostasis is altered, resulting in the induction of a range of diseases. This review discusses the biochemistry and molecular biology of the UPS, including its role in the development of MS and proteinopathies. Potential therapies and targets involving the UPS are also addressed.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/cells11071093

    View details for PubMedID 35406655

  • Extra-Neural Metastases From Primary Intracranial Ependymomas: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in oncology Palmisciano, P., Ferini, G., Barone, F., Chavda, V., Romano, F., Amico, P., Emmanuele, D., Nicoletti, G. F., Pompili, G., Giammalva, G. R., Maugeri, R., Iacopino, D. G., Strigari, L., Yeo, T. T., Cicero, S., Scalia, G., Umana, G. E. 2022; 12: 831016


    Background: Primary intracranial ependymomas (IE) are rare brain tumors rarely metastasizing outside the central nervous system. We systematically reviewed the literature on extra-neural metastases from primary IEs.Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Web-of-Science, and Cochrane were searched following the PRISMA guidelines to include studies of extra-neural metastases from primary IEs. Clinical features, management strategies, and survival were analyzed.Results: We collected 48 patients from 43 studies. Median age was 13 years (range, 2-65). Primary IEs were frequently located in the parietal (22.9%) and frontal (16.7%) lobes, and mostly treated with resection (95.8%) and/or radiotherapy (62.5%). Most IEs were of grade-III (79.1%), and few of grade-I (6.3%) or grade-II (14.6%). 45 patients experienced intracranial recurrences, mostly treated with resection (86.7%), radiotherapy (60%), and/or chemotherapy (24.4%). Median time-interval from primary IEs was 28 months (range, 0-140). Most extra-neural metastases were diagnosed at imaging (37.5%) or autopsy (35.4%). Extra-neural metastases were multifocal in 38 patients (79.1%), mostly involving cervical or hilar lymph-nodes (66.7%), lung/pleura (47.9%), and/or scalp (29.1%). Surgical resection (31.3%), chemotherapy (31.3%) and locoregional radiotherapy (18.8%) were the most common treatments for extra-neural metastases, but 28 (58.3%) patients were not treated. At last follow-up, 37 patients died with median overall-survivals from primary IEs of 36 months (range, 1-239), and from extra-neural metastases of 3 months (range, 0.1-36). Overall-survival was significantly longer in patients with grade-I and II IEs (P=0.040).Conclusion: Extra-neural metastases from primary IEs are rare, but mostly occur at later disease stages. Multidisciplinary management strategies should be intended mostly for palliation.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fonc.2022.831016

    View details for PubMedID 35574408

  • Delayed Bilateral, Post-Traumatic Extra-Subdural Hematomas in a Patient with Meningioma ONCOLOGIE Umana, G., Ferini, G., Crea, A., Chaurasia, B., Chavda, V., Corbino, L., Franceschini, D., Tranchina, M., Fricia, M., Graziano, F., Nicoletti, G., Cicero, S., Scalia, G. 2022; 24 (2): 341-348