Clinical Focus

  • Pediatric Kidney Transplantation
  • Pediatric Liver Transplantation
  • Adult Liver Transplantation
  • Hepatobiliary Surgery
  • General Surgery

Administrative Appointments

  • Chief of Clinical Transplantation, Stanford University Medical Center (2006 - Present)
  • Chief of Pediatric Kidney Transplantation, Lucille Packard Children's Hospital (2005 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Residency: Loma Linda University General Surgery Residency (1987) CA
  • Internship: Loma Linda University General Surgery Residency (1983) CA
  • Fellowship: University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine (1989) PA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Surgery, General Surgery (1989)
  • Medical Education: Autonomous Univ Of Guadalajara (1978) Mexico

2021-22 Courses

All Publications

  • When does vesicoureteral reflux in pediatric kidney transplant patients need treatment? Pediatric transplantation Wu, H., Concepcion, W., Grimm, P. C. 2018: e13299


    PURPOSE: The treatment of VUR in children with UTI has changed significantly, due to studies showing that antibiotic prophylaxis does not decrease renal scarring. As children with kidney transplants are at higher risk for UTI, we investigated if select patients with renal transplant VUR could be managed without surgery.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 patients with VUR into their renal grafts were identified, and 319 patients underwent transplantation from 2006 to 2016. The cause for the detection of the VUR, treatment, and graft function was reviewed.RESULTS: Six boys and 12 girls were identified, 13 of whom had grade 3 or 4 VUR into the renal graft. Nine patients presented with hydronephrosis or abnormal renal biopsy: eight were successfully managed with antibiotic prophylaxis and bladder training, one developed UTI and underwent Dx/HA subureteric injection. Nine patients presented with recurrent febrile UTI, only one was successfully managed without surgery. Only 2 of 9 (22%) patients who underwent Dx/HA injection had resolution of their reflux. Of the remaining seven, five required open ureteral reimplantation (two for obstruction), one lost the graft due to rejection, and one had significant hydronephrosis. eGFR was similar between the hydronephrosis, UTI, and abnormal renal biopsy groups at all times.CONCLUSION: Patients with transplant VUR and recurrent febrile UTI are more likely to require surgical therapy, but the complication and failure rate for Dx/HA injection is significant. Patients with transplant VUR without febrile UTI can be successfully managed with bladder training and temporary antibiotic prophylaxis.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.13299

    View details for PubMedID 30324753

  • Superior Hypertension Management in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Patients After Native Nephrectomy. Transplantation Brubaker, A. L., Stoltz, D. J., Chaudhuri, A., Maestretti, L., Grimm, P. C., Concepcion, W., Gallo, A. E. 2018; 102 (7): 1172–78


    BACKGROUND: Native nephrectomy in pediatric kidney transplant recipients is performed for multiple indications. Posttransplant hypertension requiring medical management is common, and the effect of native nephrectomy on posttransplant hypertension is poorly studied. Our aim is to evaluate the impact of native nephrectomy on posttransplant hypertension.METHODS: One hundred thirty-six consecutive pediatric kidney transplant recipients from 2007 to 2012 were studied at a single institution and divided into 2 groups: no nephrectomy and native nephrectomy (unilateral and bilateral nephrectomy). Antihypertensive medication use was evaluated before nephrectomy/transplant, at discharge from transplant and at 1, 3, and 5 years posttransplant.RESULTS: In a bivariate analysis, nephrectomy was associated with a significant reduction in the percentage of patients requiring antihypertensive medication at the time of discharge (27.3%) and 1 year posttransplant (10.7%) as compared with patients without nephrectomy (71.7%, and 50%, respectively, P < 0.05). This trend toward reduction in antihypertensive medication in the nephrectomy group as compared with the no nephrectomy group persisted at 3 (18.6% versus 43.2%) and 5 years (19.7% versus 37.5%) posttransplant. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that patients without native nephrectomy had higher odds of requiring antihypertensive medication at the time of discharge (3.3) and 1 year (5.2) as compared with patients who underwent native nephrectomy (P = 0.036 and P = 0.013, respectively).CONCLUSIONS: Native nephrectomy reduces the odds of needing antihypertensive medication after transplant. The impact of native nephrectomy is crucial to the comprehensive management of pediatric transplant recipients where medication compliance is challenging and lifelong hypertension is known to negatively impact cardiovascular health.

    View details for PubMedID 29953422

  • Structured Reporting of Multiphasic CT for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Effect on Staging and Suitability for Transplant. AJR. American journal of roentgenology Poullos, P. D., Tseng, J. J., Melcher, M. L., Concepcion, W. n., Loening, A. M., Rosenberg, J. n., Willmann, J. K. 2018: 1–9


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether use of a standardized radiology report template would improve the ability of liver transplant surgeons to diagnose stage T2 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and determine patient suitability to undergo orthotopic liver transplant (OLT).In this retrospective study, a standardized template was devised, and its use was mandated for reporting of liver CT findings for patients with cirrhosis and HCC. Two surgeons analyzed 200 reports (100 before and 100 after template implementation) for descriptions of cirrhosis, portal hypertension, lesion enhancement characteristics, tumor thrombus, portal and superior mesenteric vein patency, and Organ Procurement Transplantation Network (OPTN) class. Ability to determine Milan criteria and surgeon satisfaction were also assessed. Data obtained before and after template implementation were statistically analyzed using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test.Template implementation increased the percentage of reports documenting the presence or absence of portal hypertension (74% to 88% for surgeon 1 and 86% to 87% for surgeon 2; p = 0.042); lesion number (76% to 88% for surgeon 2 [no change for surgeon 1]; p = 0.038), size (95% to 96% for surgeon 1 and 82% to 93% for surgeon 2; p = 0.03), and enhancement (93% to 94% for surgeon 1 and 80% to 91% for surgeon 2; p = 0.049); presence of tumor thrombus (10% to 57% for surgeon 1 and 31% to 63% for surgeon 2; p < 0.001); and OPTN class (8% to 82% for surgeon 1 and 2% to 81% for surgeon 2; p < 0.001). The surgeons were significantly more able to determine the presence of T2 disease and qualification for exception points after implementation of the template (increasing from 80% to 94%; p = 0.025). Satisfaction with reports also improved (p < 0.0001).The reporting template improved determination of patient suitability to undergo transplant according to the Milan criteria.

    View details for PubMedID 29470153

  • Perioperative management of pediatric en-bloc combined heart-liver transplants: a case series review. Paediatric anaesthesia Navaratnam, M., Ng, A., Williams, G. D., Maeda, K., Mendoza, J. M., Concepcion, W., Hollander, S. A., Ramamoorthy, C. 2016; 26 (10): 976-986


    Combined heart and liver transplantation (CHLT) in the pediatric population involves a complex group of patients, many of whom have palliated congenital heart disease (CHD) involving single ventricle physiology.The purpose of this study was to describe the perioperative management of pediatric patients undergoing CHLT at a single institution and to identify management strategies that may be used to optimize perioperative care.We did a retrospective database review of all patients receiving CHLT at a children's hospital between 2006 and 2014. Information collected included preoperative characteristics, intraoperative management, blood transfusions, and postoperative morbidity and mortality.Five pediatric CHLTs were performed over an 8-year period. All patients had a history of complex CHD with multiple sternotomies, three of whom had failing Fontan physiology. Patient age ranged from 7 to 23 years and weight from 29.5 to 68.5 kg. All CHLTs were performed using an en-bloc technique where both the donor heart and liver were implanted together on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The median operating room time was 14.25 h, median CPB time was 3.58 h, and median donor ischemia time was 4.13 h. Patients separated from CPB on dopamine, epinephrine, and milrinone infusions and two required inhaled nitric oxide. All patients received a massive intraoperative blood transfusion post CPB with amounts ranging from one to three times the patient's estimated blood volume. The patient who required the most transfusions was in decompensated heart and liver failure preoperatively. Four of the five patients received an antifibrinolytic agent as well as a procoagulant (prothrombin complex concentrate or recombinant activated Factor VII) to assist with hemostasis. There were no 30-day thromboembolic events detected. Postoperatively the median length of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay and stay to hospital discharge was 4, 8, and 37 days, respectively. All patients are alive and free from allograft rejection at this time.Combined heart and liver transplantation in the pediatric population involves a complex group of patients with unique perioperative challenges. Successful management starts with thorough preoperative planning and communication and involves strategies to deal with massive intraoperative hemorrhage and coagulopathy in addition to protecting and supporting the transplanted heart and liver and meticulous surgical technique. An integrated multidisciplinary team approach is the cornerstone for successful outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pan.12950

    View details for PubMedID 27402424

  • Hepatoblastoma Arising in a Pigmented ß-catenin-activated Hepatocellular Adenoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature. American journal of surgical pathology Louie, C. Y., Concepcion, W., Park, J. K., Rangaswami, A., Finegold, M. J., Hazard, F. K. 2016; 40 (7): 998-1003


    Hepatoblastoma is the most common malignant liver tumor in childhood. It has been associated with a variety of constitutional syndromes and gene mutations. However, there are very few reports of associations with pediatric hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) and no reported associations with pigmented HCAs (P-HCAs). We present a unique case of hepatoblastoma arising in a background of 2 β-catenin-activated HCAs, one of which is pigmented, in a 4-year-old child. The gross, histologic, and immunohistochemical features are described for each tumor. In addition, the literature is reviewed with specific emphasis on the clinical and pathologic features of B-HCAs. Although the potential of β-catenin-activated HCAs to progress to hepatocellular carcinoma has been well documented, there are very few reports of their potential to progress to hepatoblastoma. We not only present such a case, but, to our knowledge, we also present the first case of a P-HCA in a child.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PAS.0000000000000652

    View details for PubMedID 27096257

  • Surgical Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Resection Versus Transplantation DIFFICULT DECISIONS IN HEPATOBILIARY AND PANCREATIC SURGERY: AN EVIDENCE-BASED APPROACH Pham, T., Todo, T., Gish, R., Concepcion, W., Millis, J. M., Matthews, J. B. 2016: 73–84
  • Limited Variation in BK Virus T-Cell Epitopes Revealed by Next-Generation Sequencing. Journal of clinical microbiology Sahoo, M. K., Tan, S. K., Chen, S. F., Kapusinszky, B., Concepcion, K. R., Kjelson, L., Mallempati, K., Farina, H. M., Fernández-Viña, M., Tyan, D., Grimm, P. C., Anderson, M. W., Concepcion, W., Pinsky, B. A. 2015; 53 (10): 3226-3233


    BK virus (BKV) infection and end-organ disease remains a formidable challenge to the hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) and kidney transplant fields. As BKV-specific treatments are limited, immunologic-based therapies may be a promising and novel therapeutic option for transplant recipients with persistent BKV infection. Here, we describe a whole-genome, deep sequencing methodology and bioinformatics pipeline that identifies BKV variants across the genome and at BKV-specific HLA-A2, HLA-B0702, and HLA-B08 restricted CD8 T-cell epitopes. BKV whole genomes were amplified using long-range PCR with four inverse primer sets and fragmentation libraries were sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM. An error model and variant calling algorithm were developed to accurately identify rare variants. 65 samples from 18 pediatric HCT and kidney recipients with quantifiable BKV DNAemia underwent whole-genome sequencing. Limited genetic variation was observed. The median number of amino acid variants identified per sample was 8 (range 2-37, interquartile range 10), with the majority of variants (77%) detected at a frequency of less than 5%. When normalized for length, there was no statistical difference in the median number of variants across all genes. Similarly, the predominant virus population within samples harbored T-cell epitopes similar to the reference BKV strain that was matched for BKV genotype. Despite the conservation of epitopes, low-level variants in T-cell epitopes were detected in 77.7% (14/18) of patients. Understanding epitope variation across the whole genome provides insight into the virus-immune interface and may help guide the development of protocols for novel immunologic-based therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JCM.01385-15

    View details for PubMedID 26202116

  • Treatment of methylmalonic acidemia by liver or combined liver-kidney transplantation. journal of pediatrics Niemi, A., Kim, I. K., Krueger, C. E., Cowan, T. M., Baugh, N., Farrell, R., Bonham, C. A., Concepcion, W., Esquivel, C. O., Enns, G. M. 2015; 166 (6): 1455-61 e1


    To assess biochemical, surgical, and long-term outcomes of liver (LT) or liver-kidney transplantation (LKT) for severe, early-onset methylmalonic acidemia/acid (MMA).A retrospective chart review (December 1997 to May 2012) of patients with MMA who underwent LT or LKT at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford.Fourteen patients underwent LT (n = 6) or LKT (n = 8) at mean age 8.2 years (range 0.8-20.7). Eleven (79%) were diagnosed during the neonatal period, including 6 by newborn screening. All underwent deceased donor transplantation; 12 (86%) received a whole liver graft. Postoperative survival was 100%. At a mean follow-up of 3.25 ± 4.2 years, patient survival was 100%, liver allograft survival 93%, and kidney allograft survival 100%. One patient underwent liver re-transplantation because of hepatic artery thrombosis. After transplantation, there were no episodes of hyperammonemia, acidosis, or metabolic decompensation. The mean serum MMA at the time of transplantation was 1648 ± 1492 μmol/L (normal <0.3, range 99-4420). By 3 days, post-transplantation levels fell on average by 87% (mean 210 ± 154 μmol/L), and at 4 months, they were 83% below pre-transplantation levels (mean 305 ± 108 μmol/L). Developmental delay was present in 12 patients (86%) before transplantation. All patients maintained neurodevelopmental abilities or exhibited improvements in motor skills, learning abilities, and social functioning.LT or LKT for MMA eradicates episodes of hyperammonemia, results in excellent long-term survival, and suggests stabilization of neurocognitive development. Long-term follow-up is underway to evaluate whether patients who undergo early LT need kidney transplantation later in life.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.01.051

    View details for PubMedID 25771389

  • Treatment of Methylmalonic Acidemia by Liver or Combined Liver-Kidney Transplantation JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Niemi, A., Kim, I. K., Krueger, C. E., Cowan, T. M., Baugh, N., Farrell, R., Bonham, C. A., Concepcion, W., Esquivel, C. O., Enns, G. M. 2015; 166 (6): 1455-?


    To assess biochemical, surgical, and long-term outcomes of liver (LT) or liver-kidney transplantation (LKT) for severe, early-onset methylmalonic acidemia/acid (MMA).A retrospective chart review (December 1997 to May 2012) of patients with MMA who underwent LT or LKT at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford.Fourteen patients underwent LT (n = 6) or LKT (n = 8) at mean age 8.2 years (range 0.8-20.7). Eleven (79%) were diagnosed during the neonatal period, including 6 by newborn screening. All underwent deceased donor transplantation; 12 (86%) received a whole liver graft. Postoperative survival was 100%. At a mean follow-up of 3.25 ± 4.2 years, patient survival was 100%, liver allograft survival 93%, and kidney allograft survival 100%. One patient underwent liver re-transplantation because of hepatic artery thrombosis. After transplantation, there were no episodes of hyperammonemia, acidosis, or metabolic decompensation. The mean serum MMA at the time of transplantation was 1648 ± 1492 μmol/L (normal <0.3, range 99-4420). By 3 days, post-transplantation levels fell on average by 87% (mean 210 ± 154 μmol/L), and at 4 months, they were 83% below pre-transplantation levels (mean 305 ± 108 μmol/L). Developmental delay was present in 12 patients (86%) before transplantation. All patients maintained neurodevelopmental abilities or exhibited improvements in motor skills, learning abilities, and social functioning.LT or LKT for MMA eradicates episodes of hyperammonemia, results in excellent long-term survival, and suggests stabilization of neurocognitive development. Long-term follow-up is underway to evaluate whether patients who undergo early LT need kidney transplantation later in life.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.01.051

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355018200025

    View details for PubMedID 25771389

  • Complications Following Liver Transplantation for Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Berumen, J., Feinberg, E., Todo, T., Bonham, C. A., Concepcion, W., Esquivel, C. 2014; 59 (11): 2649-2652
  • Immune cell function assay does not identify biopsy-proven pediatric renal allograft rejection or infection. Pediatric transplantation Ryan, C. M., Chaudhuri, A., Concepcion, W., Grimm, P. C. 2014; 18 (5): 446-452


    Management of pediatric renal transplant patients involves multifactorial monitoring modalities to ensure allograft survival and prevent opportunistic infection secondary to immunosuppression. An ICFA, which utilizes CD4 T-cell production of ATP to assess immune system status, has been used to monitor transplant recipients and predict susceptibility of patients to rejection or infection. However, the validity of this assay to reflect immune status remains unanswered. In a two-yr retrospective study that included 31 pediatric renal transplant recipients, 42 patient blood samples were analyzed for immune cell function levels, creatinine, WBC (white blood cell) count, immunosuppressive drug levels, and viremia, concurrent with renal biopsy. T-cell ATP production as assessed by ICFA levels did not correlate with allograft rejection or with the presence or absence of viremia. ICFA levels did not correlate with serum creatinine or immunosuppressive drug levels, but did correlate with WBC count. The ICFA is unreliable in its ability to reflect immune system status in pediatric renal transplantation. Further investigation is necessary to develop methods that will accurately predict susceptibility of pediatric renal transplant recipients to allograft rejection and infection.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.12295

    View details for PubMedID 24930482

  • Use of eculizumab and plasma exchange in successful combined liver-kidney transplantation in a case of atypical HUS associated with complement factor H mutation. Pediatric nephrology Tran, H., Chaudhuri, A., Concepcion, W., Grimm, P. C. 2014; 29 (3): 477-480


    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) evolves into end-stage renal failure in nearly half of affected patients and is associated with defective regulation of the alternative complement pathway. Patients with a complement factor H (CFH) mutation have a 30-100% risk of graft loss due to aHUS recurrence or graft thrombosis. Since CFH is produced predominantly by the liver, combined liver-kidney transplant is a curative treatment option. One major unexpected risk includes liver failure secondary to uncontrolled complement activation. We report a successful combined liver-kidney transplantation with perioperative plasma exchange and use of the humanized anti-C5 monoclonal antibody eculizumab.An 11-month-old female presented with oliguric renal failure after 3 weeks of flu-like symptoms in the absence of diarrhea. Following the identification of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in her stool, she was discharged home on peritoneal dialysis with a diagnosis of Shiga toxin-associated HUS. Three months later, she developed severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neurological involvement. aHUS was diagnosed and confirmed, and genetic testing revealed a mutation in CFH SCR20. Once donor organs became available, she received preoperative plasma exchange followed by eculizumab infusion with intra-operative fresh frozen plasma prior to combined liver-kidney transplant. At 19 months post-transplant, she continues to have excellent allograft and liver function without signs of disease recurrence.Perioperative use of eculizumab in conjunction with plasma exchange during simultaneous liver-kidney transplant can be used to inhibit terminal complement activity, thereby optimizing successful transplantation by reducing the risk of graft thrombosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-013-2630-5

    View details for PubMedID 24221349

  • BK Polyomavirus Subtype III in a Pediatric Renal Transplant Patient with Nephropathy. Journal of clinical microbiology Kapusinszky, B., Chen, S. F., Sahoo, M. K., Lefterova, M. I., Kjelson, L., Grimm, P. C., Kambham, N., Concepcion, W., Pinsky, B. A. 2013; 51 (12): 4255-4258


    BK polyomavirus (BKV) is an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. BKV subtype III is rarely identified and has not previously been associated with disease. Here we provide the whole-genome sequence of a subtype III BKV from a pediatric kidney transplant patient with polyomavirus-associated nephropathy.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JCM.01801-13

    View details for PubMedID 24048534

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3838085

  • Pediatric combined heart-liver transplantation performed en bloc: A single-center experience PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Hill, A. L., Maeda, K., Bonham, C. A., Concepcion, W. 2012; 16 (4): 392-397


    Pediatric CHLT is rarely performed in transplant centers and even fewer are performed en bloc. In the hands of an experienced surgeon with the appropriate patient selection, CHLT performed en bloc may have several operative and immunologic benefits, thereby resulting in improved outcomes for the transplant recipient. A single-institutional, retrospective review from 1/1/06 to 12/31/10 was conducted. Three pediatric patients with end-stage heart and liver disease who were considered low immunologic risk were included. All were managed by the same surgeon with a herein-described CHLT donor and recipient operation. Data were collected on patient and graft survival, rejection episodes, infectious complications, operative time, intraoperative transfusion requirements, and immunosuppression regimens. One-yr patient and graft survival rates were 100%. No patients experienced antibody-mediated or cell-mediated rejection. No patients had postoperative infections, and all patients were free of opportunistic infections at one-yr post-transplant. All patients were maintained safely on steroid-free immunosuppression. There were no intraoperative complications. In pediatric end-stage heart and liver disease patients with low immunologic risk, it is reasonable to proceed with en bloc CHLT so long as there is an experienced surgeon to perform the case. This offers operative and immunologic advantages to the recipient while maintaining equivalent, if not improved, recipient and graft outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2012.01695.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303998800024

    View details for PubMedID 22583978

  • Steroid-free immunosuppression in teenagers: Living without a safety net PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Grimm, P. C., Concepcion, W. 2012; 16 (4): 305-307
  • Steroid avoidance in renal transplantation CURRENT OPINION IN ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION Lightner, A., Concepcion, W., Grimm, P. 2011; 16 (5): 477-482


    The recent surge in the use of steroid-avoidance protocols for pediatric renal transplant recipients has been fueled by the numerous adverse side effects of steroids and development of alternatives for successful immunosuppression. Steroid-avoidance protocols were first attempted in the adult population, and with positive outcomes, pediatrics soon followed. As more pediatric patients are placed on steroid-avoidance protocols, we must begin answering several important questions such as patient and graft outcome, safety profiles of various steroid-avoidance induction protocols, viral complications and incidence of transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), metabolic benefits, and the affect of steroid minimization on growth.Initial results from steroid-avoidance protocols show these protocols are safe and effective with improved graft survival, metabolic profiles, and linear growth without an increase in viremia or PTLD.Although initial results are promising, there is still a lack of long-term data from large, prospective randomized trials, and there is not enough data to determine the optimal steroid-avoidance protocol for pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MOT.0b013e32834a8c74

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294676600006

    View details for PubMedID 21844809

  • Pediatric Kidney Recipients With Small Capacity, Defunctionalized Urinary Bladders Receiving Adult-Sized Kidney Without Prior Bladder Augmentation TRANSPLANTATION Alexopoulos, S., Lightner, A., Concepcion, W., Rose, M., Salcedo-Concepcion, K., Salvatierra, O. 2011; 91 (4): 452-456


    Children with small capacity, defunctionalized urinary bladders present unique operative challenges. Thus, traditional practice has included pretransplant bladder augmentation, but this has several adverse consequences.A single-institutional, retrospective review from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2008 was conducted. Twelve pediatric patients, whom had not undergone pretransplant bladder augmentation, did not have neurogenic bladders or require preoperative catheterization, and a small capacity defunctionalized bladders were included. All were managed by the same surgeon with a previously described ureteral implantation, and a 7F ureteral stent attached to a large diameter suprapubic catheter was removed in a joint manner without cystoscopy at 2 weeks. Data were collected on patient and graft survival, rejection episodes, urinary tract infection (UTI) requiring antibiotics, grade of vesicoureteral reflux, and posttransplant bladder capacity.One-year patient and graft survival rates were 100%. One patient experienced a clinical rejection episode, which was successfully treated. Five patients (41.7%) had a UTI requiring abx treatment within the first postoperative year, but at 1 year, all patients had sterile urinary tracts. After removal of suprapubic catheters and ureteral stents, all patients were able to void spontaneously. Seven patients had no posttransplant ureteral reflux, three had grade 1 reflux, and two had grade 3 reflux (both successfully treated). The average age estimated pretransplant bladder and 1 year posttransplant bladder capacity was 14.5% and 84% of expected, respectively.In pediatric end-stage renal disease patients with a small capacity defunctionalized bladder, it is reasonable to proceed with kidney transplantation without pretransplant bladder augmentation, thus avoiding an unnecessary surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TP.0b013e318204381a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287127600015

    View details for PubMedID 21283065

  • EVIDENCE FOR HYPERACUTE REJECTION OF HUMAN-LIVER GRAFTS - THE CASE OF THE CANARY KIDNEYS CLINICAL TRANSPLANTATION Starzl, T. E., Demetris, A. J., Todo, S., Kang, Y. G., Tzakis, A., Duquesnoy, R., Makowka, L., Banner, B., Concepcion, W., Porter, K. A. 1989; 3 (1): 37-45
  • Emerging role of stem cell-derived extravesicular microRNAs in age-associated human diseases and in different therapies of longevity. Ageing Research Reviews Ullah, M., Ng, N. N., Concepcion, W., Thakor, A. S. 2020; 57: 100979


    Organismal aging involves the progressive decline in organ function and increased susceptibility to age-associated diseases. This has been associated with the aging of stem cell populations within the body that decreases the capacity of stem cells to self-renew, differentiate, and regenerate damaged tissues and organs. This review aims to explore how aging is associated with the dysregulation of stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (SCEVs) and their corresponding miRNA cargo (SCEV-miRNAs), which are short non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional regulation of target genes. Recent evidence has suggested that in aging stem cells, SCEV-miRNAs may play a vital role regulating various processes that contribute to aging: cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, telomere length, and circadian rhythm. Hence, further clarifying the age-dependent molecular mechanisms through which SCEV-miRNAs exert their downstream effects may inform a greater understanding of the biology of aging, elucidate their role in stem cell function, and identify important targets for future regenerative therapies. Additionally, current studies evaluating therapeutic role of SCEVs and SCEV-miRNAs in treating several age-associated diseases are also discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.arr.2019.100979

  • Emerging role of stem cell-derived extravesicular microRNAs in age-associated human diseases and in different therapies of longevity. Ageing Research Reviews Ullah, M., Ng, N. N., Concepcion, W., Thakor, A. S. 2020
  • A Novel Approach to Deliver Therapeutic Extracellular Vesicles Directly into the Mouse Kidney Cells Ullah, M., Liu, D. D., Rai, S., Razavi, M., Choi, J., Wang, J., Concepcion, W., Thakor, A. S. 2020; 9 (4): 937

    View details for DOI 10.3390/cells9040937

  • Mesenchymal stem cells confer chemoresistance in breast cancer via a CD9 dependent mechanism Oncotarget Ullah, M., Akbar, A., Ng, N. N., Concepcion, W., Thakor, A. S. 2019; 10 (37): 3435-3450
  • Liver Stiffness Measurement, but Not Controlled Attenuation Parameter, is Increased in Deceased Liver Donors at the Time of Transplant Procurement. Duarte-Rojo, A., Barone, G., Borja-Cacho, D., Concepcion, W., Shaheen, M., Heimbach, J., Kim, W. WILEY. 2018: 406
  • Pragmatic Surgical Risk Assessment Criteria in Critically Ill Patients Prior to Liver Transplantation. Bonham, C., Tulu, Z., Melcher, M., Kwo, P., Concepcion, W., Ahmed, A., Esquivel, C. WILEY. 2018: 849–50
  • Transarterial chemoembolization in children to treat unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Pediatric transplantation Weiss, K. E., Sze, D. Y., Rangaswami, A. A., Esquivel, C. O., Concepcion, W., Lebowitz, E. A., Kothary, N., Lungren, M. P. 2018: e13187


    Children with unresectable HCC have a dismal prognosis and few approved treatment options. TACE is an effective treatment option for adults with HCC, but experience in children is very limited. Retrospective analysis was performed of 8 patients aged 4-17years (4 male, mean 12.5years) who underwent TACE for unresectable HCC. Response to TACE was evaluated by change in AFP, RECIST and tumor volume, PRETEXT, and transplantation eligibility by UCSF and Milan criteria. Post-procedure mean follow-up was 8.2years. Mean overall change in tumor volume for the 8 patients was 51%. Percent change in AFP ranged from a decrease of 100% to an increase of 89.3%, with a mean change of -49.6%. Two patients did not undergo resection or transplantation and died of progressive disease. Six patients underwent orthotopic liver transplantation with mean first TACE-to-transplant interval of 141days (range 11-514). Following transplantation, 5 patients were alive at the end of the follow-up period and one died of recurrent disease. Based on our initial experience, TACE for children with unresectable HCC appears to be a safe and effective method for managing hepatic tumor burden and for downstaging and bridging to liver transplantation.

    View details for PubMedID 29707868

  • Prenatal treatment of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. Molecular genetics and metabolism Wilnai, Y. n., Blumenfeld, Y. J., Cusmano, K. n., Hintz, S. R., Alcorn, D. n., Benitz, W. E., Berquist, W. E., Bernstein, J. A., Castillo, R. O., Concepcion, W. n., Cowan, T. M., Cox, K. L., Lyell, D. J., Esquivel, C. O., Homeyer, M. n., Hudgins, L. n., Hurwitz, M. n., Palma, J. P., Schelley, S. n., Akula, V. P., Summar, M. L., Enns, G. M. 2018


    Patients with neonatal urea cycle defects (UCDs) typically experience severe hyperammonemia during the first days of life, which results in serious neurological injury or death. Long-term prognosis despite optimal pharmacological and dietary therapy is still poor. The combination of intravenous sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate (Ammonul®) can eliminate nitrogen waste independent of the urea cycle. We report attempts to improve outcomes for males with severe ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), a severe X-linked condition, via prenatal intravenous administration of Ammonul and arginine to heterozygous carrier females of OTCD during labor.Two heterozygote OTCD mothers carrying male fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of OTCD received intravenous Ammonul, arginine and dextrose-containing fluids shortly before birth. Maintenance Ammonul and arginine infusions and high-caloric enteral nutrition were started immediately after birth. Ammonul metabolites were measured in umbilical cord blood and the blood of the newborn immediately after delivery. Serial ammonia and biochemical analyses were performed following delivery.Therapeutic concentrations of Ammonul metabolites were detected in umbilical cord and neonatal blood samples. Plasma ammonia and glutamine levels in the postnatal period were within the normal range. Peak ammonia levels in the first 24-48h were 53mcmol/l and 62mcmol/l respectively. The boys did not experience neurological sequelae secondary to hyperammonemia and received liver transplantation at ages 3months and 5months. The patients show normal development at ages 7 and 3years.Prenatal treatment of mothers who harbor severe OTCD mutations and carry affected male fetuses with intravenous Ammonul and arginine, followed by immediate institution of maintenance infusions after delivery, results in therapeutic levels of benzoate and phenylacetate in the newborn at delivery and, in conjunction with high-caloric enteral nutrition, prevents acute hyperammonemia and neurological decompensation. Following initial medical management, early liver transplantation may improve developmental outcome.

    View details for PubMedID 29396029

  • Stereotactic body radiotherapy for pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma with central biliary obstruction PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER Hiniker, S. M., Rangaswami, A., Lungren, M. P., Thakor, A. S., Concepcion, W., Balazy, K. E., Kovalchuk, N., Donaldson, S. S. 2017; 64 (6)


    Here, we present the case of a pediatric patient with newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma causing central biliary obstruction and persistently elevated bilirubin of 3.0-4.3 mg/dl despite placement of bilateral internal-external biliary drains. The tumor was not resectable, and the patient was not a candidate for liver transplant due to nodal disease, for chemotherapy due to hyperbilirubinemia, or for local therapies aside from stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). In this report, we discuss the successful use of SBRT in the management of this patient, and its role in allowing the patient to become a candidate for additional therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pbc.26330

    View details for PubMedID 28436210

  • PEDIATRIC LIVER TRANSPLANTATION FOR MITOCHONDRIAL RESPIRATORY CHAIN DISORDERS. Cha, D., Lee, J., Castillo, R., Hurwitz, M., Enns, G., Conlon, S., Concepcion, W., Gallo, A., Esquivel, C., Bonham, C. A. WILEY. 2017: 53
  • Ferumoxytol Is Not Retained in Kidney Allografts in Patients Undergoing Acute Rejection. Molecular imaging and biology Aghighi, M., Pisani, L., Theruvath, A. J., Muehe, A. M., Donig, J., Khan, R., Holdsworth, S. J., Kambham, N., Concepcion, W., Grimm, P. C., Daldrup-Link, H. E. 2017


    To evaluate whether ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (USPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect allograft rejection in pediatric kidney transplant patients.The USPIO ferumoxytol has a long blood half-life and is phagocytosed by macrophages. In an IRB-approved single-center prospective clinical trial, 26 pediatric patients and adolescents (age 10-26 years) with acute allograft rejection (n = 5), non-rejecting allografts (n = 13), and normal native kidneys (n = 8) underwent multi-echo T2* fast spoiled gradient-echo (FSPGR) MRI after intravenous injection (p.i.) of 5 mg Fe/kg ferumoxytol. T2* relaxation times at 4 h p.i. (perfusion phase) and more than 20 h p.i. (macrophage phase) were compared with biopsy results. The presence of rejection was assessed using the Banff criteria, and the prevalence of macrophages on CD163 immunostains was determined based on a semi-quantitative scoring system. MRI and histology data were compared among patient groups using t tests, analysis of variance, and regression analyses with a significance threshold of p < 0.05.At 4 h p.i., mean T2* values were 6.6 ± 1.5 ms for native kidneys and 3.9 ms for one allograft undergoing acute immune rejection. Surprisingly, at 20-24 h p.i., one rejecting allograft showed significantly prolonged T2* relaxation times (37.0 ms) compared to native kidneys (6.3 ± 1.7 ms) and non-rejecting allografts (7.6 ± 0.1 ms). Likewise, three additional rejecting allografts showed significantly prolonged T2* relaxation times compared to non-rejecting allografts at later post-contrast time points, 25-97 h p.i. (p = 0.008). Histological analysis revealed edema and compressed microvessels in biopsies of rejecting allografts. Allografts with and without rejection showed insignificant differences in macrophage content on histopathology (p = 0.44).After ferumoxytol administration, renal allografts undergoing acute rejection show prolonged T2* values compared to non-rejecting allografts. Since histology revealed no significant differences in macrophage content, the increasing T2* value is likely due to the combined effect of reduced perfusion and increased edema in rejecting allografts.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11307-017-1084-8

    View details for PubMedID 28411307

  • Superior Long-Term Hypertension Management in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients with Bilateral Native Nephrectomies Stoltz, D., Brubaker, A., Chaudhuri, A., Grimm, P., Concepcion, W., Gallo, A. WILEY. 2017: 762–63
  • Fatal Emmonsia sp Infection and Fungemia after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Kappagoda, S., Adams, J. Y., Luo, R., Banaei, N., Concepcion, W., Ho, D. Y. 2017; 23 (2): 346–49


    We report a fatal case of disseminated Emmonsia sp. infection in a 55-year-old man who received an orthotopic liver transplant. The patient had pneumonia and fungemia, and multisystem organ failure developed. As human habitats and the number of immunocompromised patients increase, physicians must be aware of this emerging fungal infection.

    View details for DOI 10.3201/eid2302.160799

    View details for Web of Science ID 000393088600032

    View details for PubMedID 28098544

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5324819

  • Underutilization of Living Donor Liver Transplantation in the United States: Bias against MELD 20 and Higher. Journal of clinical and translational hepatology Perumpail, R. B., Yoo, E. R., Cholankeril, G., Hogan, L., Deis, M., Concepcion, W. C., Bonham, C. A., Younossi, Z. M., Wong, R. J., Ahmed, A. 2016; 4 (3): 169-174


    Background and Aims: Utilization of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and its relationship with recipient Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) needs further evaluation in the United States (U.S.). We evaluated the association between recipient MELD score at the time of surgery and survival following LDLT. Methods: All U.S. adult LDLT recipients with MELD < 25 were evaluated using the 1995-2012 United Network for Organ Sharing registry. Survival following LDLT was stratified into three MELD categories (MELD < 15 vs. MELD 15-19 vs. MELD 20-24) and evaluated using Kaplan-Meier methods and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Overall, 2,258 patients underwent LDLT. Compared to patients with MELD < 15, overall 5-year survival following LDLT was similar among patients with MELD 15-19 (80.9% vs. 80.3%, p = 0.77) and MELD 20-24 (81.2% vs. 80.3%, p = 0.73). When compared to patients with MELD < 15, there was no significant difference in long-term post-LDLT survival among those with MELD 15-19 (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.85-1.45, p = 0.45) and a non-significant trend towards lower survival in patients with MELD 20-24 (HR: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.91-1.81, p = 0.16). Only 14% of LDLTs were performed in patients with MELD 20-24 and the remaining 86% in patients with MELD < 20. Conclusion: LDLT is underutilized in patients with MELD 20 and higher.

    View details for PubMedID 27777886

  • Cysteamine in renal transplantation: A report of two patients with nephropathic cystinosis and the successful re-initiation of cysteamine therapy during the immediate post-transplant period. Pediatric transplantation Berryhill, A., Bhamre, S., Chaudhuri, A., Concepcion, W., Grimm, P. C. 2016; 20 (1): 141-145


    Nephropathic cystinosis is a rare disorder causing the accumulation of intracellular cystine crystals in tissues. The damage to the proximal tubules of the kidneys results in Fanconi syndrome, and patients with cystinosis experience the progression of chronic kidney disease, resulting in the need for kidney transplantation. Treatment of cystinosis with cysteamine has proven to be effective; however, it has many gastrointestinal side effects that are concerning for transplant specialists during the immediate post-transplant period. Transplant specialists routinely discontinue cysteamine therapy for up to six weeks to ensure proper immunosuppressant absorption. This practice is worrisome because it communicates the acceptability of lapses of cysteamine treatment to patients. It may be better to re-initiate cysteamine therapy shortly after transplantation while the patient is followed more closely by the transplant team. This report presents two pediatric patients with nephropathic cystinosis who successfully restarted cysteamine therapy in the immediate post-transplant period without issue in regard to immunosuppression absorption or gastrointestinal side effects. These cases challenge current practice of discontinuing cysteamine therapy during kidney transplantation, and immediate re-initiation of cysteamine therapy in cystinosis patients post-transplant should be considered.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.12617

    View details for PubMedID 26477696

  • Effect of Liver Transplant on Long-term Disease-Free Survival in Children With Hepatoblastoma and Hepatocellular Cancer JAMA SURGERY Pham, T. A., Gallo, A. M., Concepcion, W., Esquivel, C. O., Bonham, C. A. 2015; 150 (12): 1150-1158


    Hepatoblastoma (HBL) and hepatocellular cancer (HCC) are the most common primary hepatic malignant neoplasms in childhood. Given the rarity of these childhood tumors and their propensity to present at advanced stages, updated long-term data are needed.To determine the efficacy of liver transplant in children with HBL or HCC.This single-institution retrospective medical record review and analysis spanned from January 1, 1997, through September 17, 2014, at Stanford University School of Medicine. A total of 40 patients younger than 18 years underwent liver transplant for treatment of HBL (n = 30) or HCC (n = 10) during the study period, with follow-up until September 17, 2014. Patients who underwent transplant for HCC included those with tumors that were greater in size than what is proposed by the Milan (a single tumor measuring ≤5 cm or ≤3 nodules measuring ≤3 cm) and University of California, San Francisco (single tumor measuring ≤6.5 cm or ≤3 nodules measuring ≤4.5 cm and a total diameter of ≤8 cm), criteria.Disease-free and overall patient survival and graft survival.Using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, 1-, 5-, and 10-year disease-free survival after liver transplant was 93%, 82%, and 82%, respectively, for 30 patients with HBL and 90%, 78%, and 78%, respectively, for 10 patients with HCC. Risk factors associated with HBL recurrence after transplant included having pretreatment extent of disease stage IV lesions and a longer waiting list time and being older at the time of the transplant. Recurrence was found in 2 of 7 patients with HBL and pretransplant metastases, which were not found to be an independent risk factor for recurrence. Patients with HCC larger than the proposed Milan and University of California, San Francisco, criteria experienced good 5-year disease-free (82%) and overall (78%) survival after transplant. Being older at the time of transplant (18 vs 11 years; P = .04) and the presence of metastatic disease (1 patient vs none; P = .05) were associated with HCC tumor recurrence.Liver transplant combined with chemotherapy is an excellent treatment that provides long-term disease-free survival in children diagnosed with advanced HBL and HCC. Early addition to a waiting list and aggressive multimodal therapy provide excellent results. Transplant should still be considered in children with HCC larger than the Milan and University of California, San Francisco, criteria.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2015.1847

    View details for Web of Science ID 000367990700010

  • Reduced Survival in Elderly Liver Transplant Recipients: How Old is Too Old? Heo, N., Mannalithara, A., Udompap, P., Kim, D., Concepcion, W., Esquivel, C. O., Kim, W. WILEY. 2015: 807A
  • Arterial Flow Regulator Enables Transplantation and Growth of Human Fetal Kidneys in Rats AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION Chang, N. K., Gu, J., Gu, S., Osorio, R. W., Concepcion, W., Gu, E. 2015; 15 (6): 1692-1700


    Here we introduce a novel method of transplanting human fetal kidneys into adult rats. To overcome the technical challenges of fetal-to-adult organ transplantation, we devised an arterial flow regulator (AFR), consisting of a volume adjustable saline-filled cuff, which enables low-pressure human fetal kidneys to be transplanted into high-pressure adult rat hosts. By incrementally withdrawing saline from the AFR over time, blood flow entering the human fetal kidney was gradually increased until full blood flow was restored 30 days after transplantation. Human fetal kidneys were shown to dramatically increase in size and function. Moreover, rats which had all native renal mass removed 30 days after successful transplantation of the human fetal kidney were shown to have a mean survival time of 122 days compared to 3 days for control rats that underwent bilateral nephrectomy without a prior human fetal kidney transplant. These in vivo human fetal kidney models may serve as powerful platforms for drug testing and discovery.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ajt.13149

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354621200029

    View details for PubMedID 25645705

  • Donor Specific Antibodies Are Associated with Rejection After Small Bowel and Multi-Visceral Transplant in Children Pham, T., Castillo, R. O., Concepcion, W., Esquivel, C., Bonham, A. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2015: S18
  • HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION IS ASSOCIATED WITH LOWER SURVIVAL FOLLOWING LIVING DONOR LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN THE US Perumpail, R. B., Liu, A., Liang, R., Chao, D. T., Saab, S., Younossi, Z. M., Wong, R. J., Ahmed, A., Concepcion, W., Esquivel, C. O., Bonham, C. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2015: S317–S318
  • Improved Long Term Survival Following Liver Transplantation for Childhood Primary Hepatic Malignancy Pham, T., Gallo, A., Concepcion, W., Esquivel, C., Bonham, C. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2015: 99–100
  • Successful Cavoatrial Anastamosis in Technically Challenging Liver Transplant Recipients Hwang, C., Alfrey, E., Concepcion, W., Esquivel, C. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2014: 796
  • Resolution of Acute Kidney Injury After Liver Transplantation: A Single Center Experience. Todo, T., Gallo, A., Berumen, J., Feinberg, E., Melcher, M., Bonham, C., Busque, S., Concepcion, W., Esquivel, C. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2014: 759
  • Successful Cavoatrial Anastamosis in Technically Challenging Liver Transplant Recipients. Hwang, C., Alfrey, E., Concepcion, W., Esquivel, C. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2014: 796
  • Resolution of Acute Kidney Injury After Liver Transplantation: A Single Center Experience. Todo, T., Gallo, A., Berumen, J., Feinberg, E., Melcher, M., Bonham, C., Busque, S., Concepcion, W., Esquivel, C. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2014: 759
  • Etiology of Liver Disease Affects Post-Liver Transplantation Survival Among Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients. Wong, R. J., Ahmed, A., Concepcion, W., Esquivel, C. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2014: S276
  • PRENATAL TREATMENT OF ORNITHINE TRANSCARBAMYLASE DEFICIENCY Wilnai, Y., Alcorn, D., Benitz, W., Berquist, W., Bernstein, J., Blumenfeld, Y. J., Castillo, R., Concepcion, W., Cowan, T., Cox, K. L., Cusmano, K., Deirdre, L., Esquival, C., Hintz, S. R., Homeyer, M., Hudgins, L., Palma, J., Summar, M. L., Schelley, S., Vishnu, P., Enns, G. M. ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. 2014: 248
  • Resolution of Acute Kidney Injury after Liver Transplantation: Single Center Experience Todo, T., Gallo, A., Beruman, J., Feinberg, E., Melcher, M., Bonham, C., Busque, S., Concepcion, W., Esquivel, C. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2014: 101
  • Liver transplantation for urea cycle disorders in pediatric patients: A single-center experience PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Kim, I. K., Niemi, A., Krueger, C., Bonham, C. A., Concepcion, W., Cowan, T. M., Enns, G. M., Esquivel, C. O. 2013; 17 (2): 158-167


    LT has emerged as a surgical treatment for UCDs. We hypothesize that LT can be safely and broadly utilized in the pediatric population to effectively prevent hyperammonemic crises and potentially improve neurocognitive outcomes. To determine the long-term outcomes of LT for UCDs, charts of children with UCD who underwent LT were retrospectively reviewed at an academic institution between July 2001 and May 2012. A total of 23 patients with UCD underwent LT at a mean age of 3.4 yr. Fifteen (65%) patients received a whole-liver graft, seven patients (30%) received a reduced-size graft, and one patient received a living donor graft. Mean five-yr patient survival was 100%, and allograft survival was 96%. Mean peak blood ammonia (NH(3) ) at presentation was 772 μmol/L (median 500, range 178-2969, normal <30-50). After transplantation, there were no episodes of hyperammonemia. Eleven patients were diagnosed with some degree of developmental delay before transplantation, which remained stable or improved after transplantation. Patients without developmental delay before transplantation maintained their cognitive abilities at long-term follow-up. LT was associated with the eradication of hyperammonemia, removal of dietary restrictions, and potentially improved neurocognitive development. Long-term follow-up is underway to evaluate whether LT at an early age (<1 yr) will attain improved neurodevelopmental outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.12041

    View details for PubMedID 23347504

  • Conversion From Tacrolimus/Mycophenolic Acid to Tacrolimus/Leflunomide to Treat Cutaneous Warts in a Series of Four Pediatric Renal Allograft Recipients TRANSPLANTATION Lieuko Nguyen, L., McClellan, R. B., Chaudhuri, A., Alexander, S. R., Chen, S. F., Concepcion, W., Grimm, P. 2012; 94 (5): 450-455


    The challenge of immunosuppression in pediatric renal transplantation is to balance preventing rejection while avoiding infectious complications. A dermatological complication of immunosuppression is viral warts, which cause significant disfigurement and increase the risk of skin malignancy.We present three pediatric and adolescent renal allograft recipients with multiple, recalcitrant verrucae vulgares lesions and one patient with molluscum contagiosum who were switched from mycophenolate mofetil to leflunomide. Teriflunomide metabolite levels were carefully maintained between 50,000 and 100,000 ng/mL to balance its immunosuppressive and antiviral properties. No adverse events requiring discontinuation of leflunomide were encountered.Switching from mycophenolate mofetil to leflunomide successfully cleared verrucae vulgares and molluscum lesions in all four renal transplant patients.The ability to minimize and even resolve warts can improve quality of life by reducing risk of skin malignancies and emotional distress in solid organ transplant patients. Leflunomide is a potential therapeutic option for posttransplantation patients with skin warts because it serves both as an adjunct to the immunosuppressive regimen and an antiviral agent.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TP.0b013e318264351e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308668000012

    View details for PubMedID 22960763

  • Does the porcine model give us insight as to how can we improve renal transplantation from large donors to small recipients? PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Hill, A., Concepcion, W. 2012; 16 (6): 520-522
  • Rituximab treatment for recurrence of nephrotic syndrome in a pediatric patient after renal transplantation for congenital nephrotic syndrome of Finnish type PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Chaudhuri, A., Kambham, N., Sutherland, S., Grimm, P., Alexander, S., Concepcion, W., Sarwal, M., Wong, C. 2012; 16 (5): E183-E187


    Congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) of the Finnish type due to mutation in the NPHS-1 gene results in massive proteinuria due to structural abnormality in the glomerular slit diaphragm, and is usually refractory to immunosuppressive therapy. Patients eventually require bilateral nephrectomy and renal replacement therapy, with transplantation being the ultimate goal. Post-transplant recurrence of nephrotic syndrome occurs in about 25% of children and is thought to be immune-mediated secondary to antibodies formed against the nephrin protein in renal allograft. Conventional therapy with calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids with or without plasmapheresis often fails to achieve remission resulting in graft loss in 12-16%. There is limited experience with use of rituximab (RTX) in pediatric organ transplant recipients. We report the first case of post-transplant recurrence of nephrotic syndrome in a 4-yr-old child with CNS due to NPHS-1 mutation in whom CNI, corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide therapy was unsuccessful, but who achieved remission after depletion of B cells with RTX, associated with a decrease in the level of anti-nephrin antibodies. The child remains in remission 5 yr following treatment. Our experience suggests that activated B cells may play a pivotal role in the recurrence of nephrosis after renal transplantation in children with CNS.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2011.01519.x

    View details for PubMedID 21672106

  • The impact of hepatic portoenterostomy on liver transplantation for the treatment of biliary atresia: Early failure adversely affects outcome PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Alexopoulos, S. P., Merrill, M., Kin, C., Matsuoka, L., Dorey, F., Concepcion, W., Esquivel, C., Bonham, A. 2012; 16 (4): 373-378


    The most common indication for pediatric LTx is biliary atresia with failed HPE, yet the effect of previous HPE on the outcome after LTx has not been well characterized. We retrospectively reviewed a single-center experience with 134 consecutive pediatric liver transplants for the treatment of biliary atresia from 1 May 1995 to 28 April 2008. Of 134 patients, 22 underwent LTx without prior HPE (NPE), while 112 patients underwent HPE first. HPE patients were grouped into EF, defined as need for LTx within the first year of life, and LF, defined as need for LTx beyond the first year of life. NPE and EF groups differed significantly from the LF group in age, weight, PELD, and ICU status (p < 0.05) with NPE having the highest PELD and ICU status. Patients who underwent salvage LTx after EF following HPE had a significantly higher incidence of post-operative bacteremia and septicemia (p < 0.05), and subsequently lower survival rates. One-year patient survival and graft survival were as follows: NPE 100%, EF 81%, and LF 96% (p < 0.05); and NPE 96%, EF 79%, and LF 96% (p < 0.05). Further investigation into the optimal treatment of biliary atresia should focus on identifying patients at high risk of EF who may benefit from proceeding directly to LTx given the increased risk of post-LTx bacteremia, sepsis, and death after failed HPE.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2012.01677.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303998800021

    View details for PubMedID 22463739

  • West Nile virus encephalitis acquired via liver transplantation and clinical response to intravenous immunoglobulin: case report and review of the literature TRANSPLANT INFECTIOUS DISEASE Rhee, C., Eaton, E. F., Concepcion, W., Blackburn, B. G. 2011; 13 (3): 312-317


    A patient developed West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis 2 weeks after receiving a liver transplant and recovered fully, following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). Laboratory testing documented transmission from the organ donor. Clinicians should be suspicious for organ-transmitted WNV in any post-transplant patient who develops fever and neurological symptoms. We review previous cases of organ-transmitted WNV, the use of IVIg for WNV encephalitis, and the issue of organ donor screening.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3062.2010.00595.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291231500016

    View details for PubMedID 21235711

  • Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Liu, Y. I., Brown, S. S., Elihu, A., Bonham, C. A., Concepcion, W., Longacre, T. A., Kamaya, A. 2011; 56 (2): 303-306

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-010-1470-4

    View details for PubMedID 21053076

  • Efficacy and Safety of Thymoglobulin Induction as an Alternative Approach for Steroid-Free Maintenance Immunosuppression in Pediatric Renal Transplantation TRANSPLANTATION Li, L., Chaudhuri, A., Chen, A., Zhao, X., Bezchinsky, M., Concepcion, W., Salvatierra, O., Sarwal, M. M. 2010; 90 (12): 1516-1520


    Given the recent withdrawal of daclizumab (DAC), the safety and efficacy of thymoglobulin (TMG) was tested as an alternative induction agent for steroid-free (SF) immunosuppression in pediatric kidney transplant recipients.Thirteen pediatric renal transplant recipients meeting defined high-risk criteria at transplantation were offered TMG induction and SF immunosuppression with maintenance mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus between October 2008 and January 2010. Patients were closely monitored at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months posttransplant for protocol biopsy and clinical outcomes. Outcomes were compared with 13 consecutively transplanted low-risk patients receiving an established DAC-based SF protocol (Sarwal et al., WA, American Transplant Congress 2003).There was a significant trend for overall decrease in the absolute lymphocyte counts in TMG group (F=5.86, mixed model group effect P=0.02), predominately at 3 months compared with DAC group (0.7±0.6 vs. 2.1±1.0, P=0.0004); however, lymphocyte count was recovered and was back to reference range by 6 months in TMG. There was trend toward more subclinical cytomegalovirus (15% vs. 0%) and BK viremia (17% vs. 0%) in the TMG group, with no differences in the incidence of subclinical Epstein Barr virus viremia (23% vs. 31%) or clinical viral disease. Mean graft function was excellent, and with a minimum follow-up of 6 months, there were no episodes of acute rejection.TMG seems to be a safe alternative induction strategy in patients for SF immunosuppression in pediatric renal transplantation. Extended follow-up and greater enrollment are necessary to fully explore the impact of TMG dosing on viral replication posttransplantation.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TP.0b013e3181fc8937

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285377100042

    View details for PubMedID 20935596

  • Analysis of clinical variables associated with tolerance in pediatric liver transplant recipients PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Talisetti, A., Hurwitz, M., Sarwal, M., Berquist, W., Castillo, R., Bass, D., Concepcion, W., Esquivel, C. O., Cox, K. 2010; 14 (8): 976-979


    Tolerance has been defined as stable graft function off IMS. We reviewed the data of 369 pediatric liver transplant patients to examine demographic differences that may have a PV of pediatric LT tolerance. Of the 369 patients, 280 patients were stable with detectable blood levels of IMS agents and with good graft function without biopsy proven REJ > 1 yr posttransplantation, 18 patients were noted to be TOL off IMS, 27 patients were taking MIS with drug levels below detectable range by standard laboratory parameters, and 44 patients developed one or more episodes of biopsy proven acute or chronic REJ > 1 yr post-transplantation. Variables, including percentage of biliary atresia, type of transplanted organ, history of EBV infection, patient and donor gender, and ABO blood type mismatch between recipient and donor did not have PV of tolerance. Average age in years was 1.37 ± 1.53 (0.3-4.9) for TOL, 1.14 ± 0.89 (0.4-3.1) for MIS and 3.35 ± 4.45 (0.3-16) for REJ. Age difference of TOL/MIS vs. REJ was significant (p =0.002) and TOL vs. REJ was significant (0.01). Age at the time of transplantation is an important predictor in the development of pediatric LT tolerance.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2010.01360.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285229500007

    View details for PubMedID 21108705

  • Fulminant Clostridium difficile Colitis in a Post-Liver Transplant Patient DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Lee, M., Shelton, A. A., Concepcion, W. L., Bonham, C. A., Daugherty, T. J. 2010; 55 (9): 2459-2462

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-010-1318-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280595500006

    View details for PubMedID 20635145

  • Spontaneous Liver Rupture Associated With Hydatidiform Mole Pregnancy OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Vanatta, J. M., Monge, H., Bonham, C. A., Concepcion, W. 2010; 115 (2): 437-439


    Spontaneous liver rupture is a rare occurrence during pregnancy.A young woman presented early in her pregnancy with severe abdominal pain, tachycardia, and hypotension. She was taken emergently to the operating room with a presumed diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Exploration revealed that her hemoperitoneum resulted from large fractures within her liver. During her resuscitation and treatment, a transvaginal ultrasound scan revealed a hydatidiform molar pregnancy. On resolution of postoperative complications and complete recovery, the patient was discharged home.This case illustrates that, although very unusual, hydatidiform molar pregnancies should be considered as a precipitating factor for spontaneous liver rupture.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273872800016

    View details for PubMedID 20093872

  • Acute Liver Failure at 26 Weeks' Gestation in a Patient with Sickle Cell Disease LIVER TRANSPLANTATION Greenberg, M., Daugherty, T. J., Elihu, A., Sharaf, R., Concepcion, W., Druzin, M., Esquivel, C. O. 2009; 15 (10): 1236-1241


    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for acute liver failure (ALF) during pregnancy is an uncommon occurrence with variable outcomes. In pregnancy-related liver failure, prompt diagnosis and immediate delivery are essential for a reversal of the underlying process and for maternal and fetal survival. In rare cases, the reason for ALF during pregnancy is either unknown or irreversible, and thus OLT may be necessary. This case demonstrates the development of cryptogenic ALF during the 26th week of pregnancy in a woman with sickle cell disease. She underwent successful cesarean delivery of a healthy male fetus at 27 weeks with concurrent OLT. This report provides a literature review of OLT in pregnancy and examines the common causes of ALF in the pregnant patient. On the basis of the management and outcome of our case and the literature review, we present an algorithm for the suggested management of ALF in pregnancy.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/It.21820

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270931500014

    View details for PubMedID 19790148

  • Steroid-Free Immunosuppression in Pediatric Renal Transplantation: Rationale Outcomes Following Conversion to Steroid Based Therapy TRANSPLANTATION Sutherland, S., Li, L., Concepcion, W., Salvatierra, O., Sarwal, M. M. 2009; 87 (11): 1744-1748


    Short-term outcomes using steroid-free immunosuppression after renal transplantation have been promising. No studies have examined the incidence of and reasons for steroid-avoidance protocol failures.We present a single-center analysis of steroid-free immunosuppression failures among 129 pediatric renal transplant recipients with mean follow-up of 5 years. We analyzed causes for failure and examined reasons for conversion to steroid-based therapy. We compared actual patient and allograft survival and allograft function in the cohort of patients who required conversion to steroid-based immunosuppression with that of the cohort maintaining steroid-free immunosuppression.A total of 13.2% (17/129) of patients failed steroid-free immunosuppression. Actual patient survival was equivalent in the two cohorts, 96.4% for the cohort maintaining steroid-free immunosuppression and 94.1% for those requiring conversion. Actual allograft survival was lower in patients requiring conversion to a steroid-based protocol, 76.5% vs. 95.5% (P=0.004). Estimated glomerular filtration rates 12-months and 24-months posttransplant were greater in patients maintaining steroid-free immunosuppression (P=0.003). Most patients (52.9%, 9/17) who broke the steroid-free protocol did so because of refractory acute rejection. The second most common reason was recurrence of glomerulonephritis (GN; 35.3%, 6/17).The failure rate of steroid-free immunosuppression among selective pediatric patients undergoing renal transplantation is low. Patients maintaining steroid-free immunosuppression have better allograft survival and function than those requiring conversion to steroid-based therapy. The most common reasons for failure of steroid-free immunosuppression are recalcitrant or recurrent allograft rejection and recurrent GN; the role of conversion to steroid-based immunosuppression after episodes of acute rejection and recurrent GN requires additional analysis.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TP.0b013e3181a5df60

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266889900022

    View details for PubMedID 19502970

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2758080

  • Steroid-Free Immunosuppression Since 1999: 129 Pediatric Renal Transplants with Sustained Graft and Patient Benefits AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION Li, L., Chang, A., Naesens, M., Kambham, N., Waskerwitz, J., Martin, J., Wong, C., Alexander, S., Grimm, P., Concepcion, W., Salvatierra, O., Sarwal, M. M. 2009; 9 (6): 1362-1372


    Despite early promising patient and graft outcomes with steroid-free (SF) immunosuppression in pediatric kidney transplant recipients, data on long-term safety and efficacy results are lacking. We present our single-center experience with 129 consecutive pediatric kidney transplant recipients on SF immunosuppression, with a mean follow-up of 5 years. Outcomes are compared against a matched cohort of 57 concurrent recipients treated with steroid-based (SB) immunosuppression. In the SF group, 87% of kidney recipients with functioning grafts remain corticosteroid-free. Actual intent-to-treat SF (ITT-SF) and still-on-protocol SF patient survivals are 96% and 96%, respectively, actual graft survivals for both groups are 93% and 96%, respectively and actual death-censored graft survivals for both groups are 97% and 99%, respectively. Unprecedented catch-up growth is observed in SF recipients below 12 years of age. Continued low rates of acute rejection, posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM), hypertension and hyperlipidemia are seen in SF patients, with sustained benefits for graft function. In conclusion, extended enrollment and longer experience with SF immunosuppression for renal transplantation in low-risk children confirms protocol safety, continued benefits for growth and graft function, low acute rejection rates and reduced cardiovascular morbidity.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02640.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266448900017

    View details for PubMedID 19459814

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2724986

  • A critical look at the immunologically favorable adult-sized kidney transplant in small children PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Salvatierra, O., Concepcion, W., Sarwal, M. 2009; 13 (3): 265-267
  • Combined liver-kidney transplantation in children: Indications and outcome PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Sutherland, S. M., Alexander, S. R., Sarwal, M. M., Berquist, W. E., Concepcion, W. 2008; 12 (8): 835-846


    Although it remains a relatively infrequent procedure in children, CLKT has become a viable option for a select group of pediatric patients with severe liver and kidney disease. Most are performed for rare primary diseases such as PH1, but a selected few are performed in the setting of concomitant hepatic and renal failure of uncertain etiology and prognosis. This article reviews the indications for and outcomes following CLKT in children. While it focuses on the specific primary diseases which impact liver and kidney function simultaneously, it addresses the indications based on concomitant hepatic and renal failure, such as seen in the hepatorenal syndrome, as well.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2008.01041.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260341600004

    View details for PubMedID 19000066

  • Renal transplantation in children with thrombosis of the inferior vena cava requires careful assessment and planning PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY Salvatierra, O., Concepcion, W., Sarwal, M. M. 2008; 23 (12): 2107-2109


    Children with end-stage renal disease and inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis are rare, and their condition is complex and high risk for renal transplantation. Detailed imaging studies of the recipient's abdominal vasculature should be carried out prior to transplantation, followed by careful pre-operative joint planning by the pediatric transplant surgeon and nephrologist. Critical decisions need to be made as to whether a deceased child's kidney or an adult-sized kidney is to be used, and if the latter, whether it should be from a deceased or living donor. In addition, the contemplated site of the donor's renal vein anastomosis needs to be determined with a consideration of the possible consequences of the various choices. Sixteen cases of renal transplantation in children with pre-existing IVC thrombosis are reviewed, including the three reported by Shenoy et al. in this journal. With a full understanding of the difficulties noted, renal transplantation in a small child with IVC thrombosis can be successful. However, it requires thorough recipient assessment, coupled with a careful and thoughtful examination of options, to determine the best possible approach to the transplantation.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-008-0951-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260542400001

    View details for PubMedID 18688652

  • Potential influence of tacrolimus and steroid avoidance on early graft function in pediatric renal transplantation PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Li, L., WEINTRAUB, L., Concepcion, W., Martin, J. P., Miller, K., Salvatierra, O., Sarwal, M. M. 2008; 12 (6): 701-707


    With the increasing adoption of steroid-sparing immunosuppression protocols in renal transplantation, it is important to evaluate any adverse effects of steroid avoidance on graft function. Early graft function, measured by CrCl was retrospectively studied in 158 consecutive pediatric renal transplant recipients from 1996 to 2005, receiving either steroid-free or steroid-based immunosuppression. Patients receiving steroid-free immunosuppression vs. steroid-based immunosuppression had no difference change in CrCl (DeltaCrCl) in the first week post-transplantation (p = 0.12). When stratified by corticosteroid usage, patients with higher tacrolimus trough levels (> or =14 ng/mL) had slower graft function recovery in the first week post-transplantation than those with lower tacrolimus trough levels (p = 0.008) in the steroid-free group only. Despite initial slower graft function recovery in this subgroup, there was no negative impact on graft function in the steroid-free group; in fact steroid-free patients trended towards better CrCl at six months (p = 0.047) and 12 months (p < 0.001) post-transplant than the steroid-based group. With the improved immunological outcomes with steroid avoidance, close surveillance should be performed of tacrolimus levels to avoid levels >14 ng/mL. In patients with slow recovery of early graft function, short-term perioperative steroids may be considered.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2007.00884.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258287900017

    View details for PubMedID 18179640

  • Patient selection critical for calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal in pediatric kidney transplantation PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Weintraub, L., Li, L., Kambham, N., Alexander, S., Concepcion, W., Miller, K., Wong, C., Salvatierra, O., Sarwal, M. 2008; 12 (5): 541-549


    CNI withdrawal may be employed as a "rescue" strategy for patients with established renal allograft injury and/or declining allograft function, with the aim at eliminating CNI-associated nephrotoxic effects. This analysis reviews outcomes in a pediatric population and identifies risk factors for adverse events post-CNI withdrawal. We performed a retrospective analysis of 17 pediatric renal transplants who underwent CNI withdrawal, with conversion to sirolimus and MMF. Mean CrCl decreased from 64.3 +/- 22 to 59.38 +/- 28.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (p = 0.04) at six months and 57.46 +/- 31.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (p = 0.02) at 12 months post-withdrawal. Forty-one percent of patients experienced AR. Increased risk for AR was associated with prior AR history, lower sirolimus trough levels, and lower CNIT biopsy scores. Graft loss (24%) was associated with worse CrCl, proteinuria, and histologic chronicity. Proteinuria (spot protein/creatinine ratio) increased from 0.75 +/- 1.0 to 1.71 +/- 2.0 (p = 0.03), unrelated to de novo sirolimus use. Four patients returned to CNI-based immunosuppression due to AR (n = 3) and gastrointestinal side effects (n = 1). Careful selection of pediatric candidates for CNI withdrawal is recommended. Worsening graft function and graft loss may be minimized by selecting patients with high CNIT scores and low biopsy chronicity and excluding patients with prior AR history.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2007.00847.x

    View details for PubMedID 18564305

  • Extended enrollment and analysis of a prospective steroid-free immunosuppression trial supports study safety and efficacy Li, L., Salvatierra, O., Concepcion, W., Wong, C., Alexander, S., Grimm, P., Martin, J., Sarwal, M. BLACKWELL PUBLISHING. 2008: 253–54
  • Maturation of dose-corrected tacrolimus predose trough levels in pediatric kidney allograft recipients TRANSPLANTATION Naesens, M., Salvatierra, O., Li, L., Kambham, N., Concepcion, W., Sarwal, M. 2008; 85 (8): 1139-1145


    In contrast to adult kidney recipients, in whom the long-term evolution and clinical determinants of tacrolimus pharmacokinetics are well studied, less is known about the long-term evolution of tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in pediatric kidney transplant recipients.One-hundred and five pediatric recipients of a kidney allograft, all treated with a corticosteroid-free immunosuppressive protocol, were included. The evolution of tacrolimus doses and predose trough (C0) levels was recorded at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after transplantation, as well as all C0 levels obtained in the first 2 years after transplantation. The evolution and clinical determinants of tacrolimus exposure parameters were analyzed.Dose-corrected tacrolimus C0 levels (C0/dose/kg) increased in the first 2 years after kidney transplantation in pediatric recipients (P=0.001). This decrease in dose requirement by time was only significant in children older than 5 years at the time of transplantation (P=0.38, 0.03, and 0.001 for age groups <5, 5-12, and >12 years, respectively). In addition, the younger patients had significantly higher dose requirements (dose/kg) compared with older recipients (P=0.0002).Pediatric kidney transplant recipients exhibit maturation of dose-corrected tacrolimus predose trough levels with time after transplantation. This cannot be explained by differences in corticosteroid use, because all patients were treated with a corticosteroid-free protocol. The higher dose requirements for younger recipients and the absence of tacrolimus maturation in the youngest recipients suggest that age-dependent changes in tacrolimus intestinal first-pass effect, metabolism, or distribution play a role. Whether age-specific tacrolimus dosing algorithms will improve outcome needs further study.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TP.001361816431a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255318200014

    View details for PubMedID 18431234

  • Comparison of outcomes with low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin, basiliximab or no induction therapy in pediatric kidney transplant recipients: A retrospective study PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Baron, P. W., Ojogho, O. N., Yorgin, P., Sahney, S., Cutler, D., Ben-Youssef, R., Baqai, W., Weissman, J., Franco, E., Zuppan, C., Concepcion, W. 2008; 12 (1): 32-39


    It is unclear which induction therapy yields the best outcomes in pediatric kidney transplantation. Retrospective data of 88 children receiving a renal allograft between November 1996 and October 2003 were analyzed. Patients received ATGI (n = 12), BI (n = 29), or NAI (n = 47). The mean ATG dose was 5.1 +/- 2.1 mg/kg. At 12 months, graft survival rates were 91.7%, 100%, and 97.9% for ATGI, BI, and NAI groups, respectively. Acute rejection rates at 12 months were 0 (ATGI), 20.6% (BI), and 10.7% (NAI). The mean GFR for ATGI (42.4 +/- 25.9 mL/min) was lower than for BI (78.3 +/- 27.2 mL/min), and NAI (66 +/- 28.3 mL/min) at 12 months (p < 0.05). One ATGI patient developed CMV pneumonia but none developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Although there was no renal allograft survival benefit with either ATGI or BI, relative to NAI, the absence of acute rejection and equivalent rates of viral infections in the higher-risk ATGI recipient group suggests that the treatment strategy is promising. A large prospective study is needed to better define the role of ATGI in pediatric kidney transplantation.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2007.00764.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252122200007

    View details for PubMedID 18186886

  • The evolution of nonimmune histological injury and its clinical relevance in adult-sized kidney grafts in pediatric recipients AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION Naesens, M., Kambham, N., Concepcion, W., Salvatierra, O., Sarwal, M. 2007; 7 (11): 2504-2514


    To describe the evolution, risk factors and impact of nonimmune histological injury after pediatric kidney transplantation, we analyzed 245 renal allograft protocol biopsies taken regularly from the time of transplantation to 2 years thereafter in 81 consecutive rejection-free pediatric recipients of an adult-sized kidney. Isometric tubular vacuolization was present early after transplantation was not progressive, and was associated with higher tacrolimus pre-dose trough levels. Chronic tubulo-interstitial damage and tubular microcalcifications were already noted at 3 months, were progressive and had a greater association with small recipient size, male donor gender, higher donor age and female recipient gender, but not with tacrolimus exposure. Renal function assessment showed that older recipients had a significant increase in absolute glomerular filtration rate with time after transplantation, which differed from small recipients who showed no increase. It is concluded that progressive, functionally relevant, nonimmune injury is detected early after adult-sized kidney transplantation in pediatric recipients. Renal graft ischemia associated with the donor-recipient size discrepancy appears to be a greater risk factor for this chronic histological injury, suggesting that the exploration of additional therapeutic approaches to increase allograft perfusion could further extend the graft survival benefit of adult-sized kidneys transplanted into small children.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2007.01949.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250077600010

    View details for PubMedID 17725681

  • Optimizing outcomes for neonatal ARPKD PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Beaunoyer, M., Snehal, M., Li, L., Concepcion, W., Salvatierra, O., Sarwal, M. 2007; 11 (3): 267-271


    A retrospective analysis was conducted on 10 consecutive cases of neonatal ARPKD, 9 of whom received kidney transplants (KT). All were diagnosed antenatally (n = 6) or at birth. In the first month of life 70% required ventilatory support. Pre-emptive bilateral nephrectomy and peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter placement were performed in 9 at a mean age of 7.8 +/- 11.9 months. The indications for nephrectomy were massive kidneys, resulting in suboptimal nutrition and respiratory compromise. All patients received assisted enteral nutrition, with significant increase in mean tolerated feeds following nephrectomy (p < 0.05), with increase in mean normalized weight and height (0.92 and 1.2 delta SDS respectively), by one year post-transplantation. KT was performed at a mean age and weight of 2.5 +/- 1.4 years and 13.3 +/- 6.1 kg. The mean creatinine clearance at one year post-KT was 91.3 +/- 38.1 mls/min/1.73 m(2), with a projected graft life expectancy of 18.4 years. Patient survival was 89% and death censored graft survival was 100%, at a mean follow-up of 6.1 +/- 4.5 years post-transplant. Six patients demonstrated evidence of hepatic fibrosis, one of which required liver transplantation. In patients with massive kidneys from ARPKD, pre-emptive bilateral nephrectomy, supportive PD and early aggressive nutrition, can minimize early infant mortality, so that subsequent KT can be performed with excellent patient and graft survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2006.00644.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245415600007

    View details for PubMedID 17430481

  • Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver successfully treated with chemotherapy and liver resection 47th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Surgery-of the Alimentary-Tract Baron, P. W., Majlessipour, F., Bedros, A. A., Zuppan, C. W., Ben-Youssef, R., Yanni, G., Ojogho, O. N., Concepcion, W. SPRINGER. 2007: 73–75


    Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma is the third most common malignant tumor of the liver in children, accounting for 13% of hepatic malignancies in this age group. It has been considered an aggressive neoplasm with very poor prognosis until the late 1980s, when long-term survivors were reported after multiagent chemotherapy followed by resection. We, herein, report two pediatric cases of undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma treated successfully with surgical resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on therapy used in childhood soft tissue sarcomas and in childhood hepatic malignancies. The first patient also had a concurrent cerebellar tumor (pilocytic astrocytoma), for which he first underwent craniotomy and resection, delaying the liver tumor resection by 10 weeks. They are alive and tumor free at 48 months (case no. 1) and 18 months (case no. 2) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy and liver resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-006-0044-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244521500013

    View details for PubMedID 17390190

  • Successful renal transplantation in high-risk small children with a completely thrombosed inferior vena cava TRANSPLANTATION Eneriz-Wiemer, M., Sarwal, M., Donovan, D., Costaglio, C., Concepcion, W., Salvatierra, O. 2006; 82 (9): 1148-1152


    Inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis is generally a contraindication to renal transplantation in small children because of the technical difficulty and limitations in allograft venous outflow drainage that risk graft thrombosis.The records of six consecutive children (9.9-27.4 kg) with end-stage renal disease and thrombosed IVCs were reviewed. Small deceased donor renal allografts were utilized in all cases where immediate posttransplant venous renal outflow would theoretically not exceed the drainage capacity of the iliac or adjacent pelvic collateral veins.There is 100% patient survival with two patients returning to dialysis at seven and three years posttransplantation. There were no surgical complications or delayed graft function. Postoperatively, progressive renal vein and simultaneous iliac venous enlargement was observed in five of six recipients concomitant with renal allograft enlargement. In these patients, maximum renal volume achieved was between 152 and 275 ml and last recorded Schwartz glomerular filtration rates ranged from 67 to 118 ml/min. The sixth allograft had an early, severe rejection episode that limited renal growth and attainment of good renal function. All patients demonstrated resumption of growth rates commensurate with age but without significant catch-up growth.A small deceased donor kidney can provide freedom from dialysis and better quality of life for small children with IVC thrombosis during an age when dialysis treatment is difficult and the complications of the thrombosed IVC may compromise life. Good renal function was attained in patients without rejection episodes. In those with rejection, our approach allowed for patient growth during allograft function, providing a bridge for a repeat transplant.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242059600007

    View details for PubMedID 17102765

  • Pediatric renal transplantation with considerations for successful outcomes. Seminars in pediatric surgery Salvatierra, O., Millan, M., Concepcion, W. 2006; 15 (3): 208-217


    Renal transplantation in the pediatric population, although conceptually similar to that in adults, differs in many aspects. This review will focus on the issues unique to the pediatric recipient. In particular, we will focus on the incidence and etiology of end stage renal disease in children, and the results as measured by patient and graft survival. Pretransplant surgical considerations of timing of the transplant, management of congenital urologic abnormalities and the abnormal bladder will be addressed. Etiologies of renal failure unique to the pediatric population will be discussed, including autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, congenital nephrotic syndrome, inferior vena cava thrombosis, and primary hyperoxaluria Type 1. Lastly, special transplant surgical considerations including transplantation of an adult-size kidney (ASK) into an infant or small child and ureteral implantation, management of the urinary bladder, and fluid management in infants and small children will be discussed.

    View details for PubMedID 16818142

  • Control of the renal artery and vein with the nonabsorbable polymer ligating clip in hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy TRANSPLANTATION Baldwin, D. D., Desai, P. J., Baron, P. W., Berger, K. A., Maynes, L. J., Robson, C. H., Ojogho, O. N., Concepcion, W. 2005; 80 (3): 310-313


    The large and variable size of the renal vein has prompted most surgeons to select linear stapling devices to secure the vein during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Although effective, these stapling devices have a potential for misfire. Use of the nonabsorbable polymer ligating (NPL) clip during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy provides increased graft vessel length compared with the stapling device, and the NPL clip has a locking mechanism which may increase security compared with standard titanium clips. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the NPL clip for control of the renal artery and vein during hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN).A retrospective chart review of 50 consecutive HALDN patients was conducted where two parallel NPL clips were used to control both the renal artery and vein. Information collected included demographic data, operative and postoperative data, and complications.Mean donor age was 33.4 years and body mass index was 25.8 kg/m2. Mean operative time was 266.0 min, mean hospital stay was 3.2 days, and mean warm ischemia time was 123.3 seconds. There were no transfusions, open conversions, or complications related to use of the NPL clip. A US 16,300 dollars disposable cost savings was seen during this 1-year period alone.The NPL clip was 100% safe and effective in controlling the renal artery and vein during HALDN, allowed for additional vessel length, and resulted in a disposable cost savings of US 362 dollars per patient.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231029800004

    View details for PubMedID 16082324

  • Hemobilia secondary to a posttransplant lymphoma after liver transplantation TRANSPLANTATION Baron, P., Ben-Youssef, R., Ojogho, O., Franco, E., Concepcion, W., Smith, D. 2005; 79 (12): 1766-1767
  • Mycophenolate mofetil in pediatric renal transplantation: Non-induction vs. induction with basiliximab PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Ojogho, O., Sahney, S., Cutler, D., Baron, P. W., Abdelhalim, F. M., James, S., Zuppan, C., Franco, E., Concepcion, W. 2005; 9 (1): 80-83


    North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS) reports have shown anti-T cell antibody, OKT3, to be deleterious in pediatric renal transplant recipients treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Unlike OKT3, basiliximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody to the alpha subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor on activated T-lymphocytes. We sought to examine the outcome of MMF with or without basiliximab induction therapy in pediatric renal transplantation. Between January 1998, and June 2001, 49 pediatric renal transplants were performed at our center and 41 met the criteria for this study. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 25 patients who received MMF, Prednisone, CSA or TAC, alone (group I) and 16 patients who received MMF, CSA or TAC, and Prednisone in combination with basiliximab (group II). The two groups were similar with respect to recipient or donor age, gender, ethnicity, donor source (LD vs. CAD), cold ischemia time, and primary diagnosis. The basiliximab group had a shorter follow up period because of its more recent addition to our pediatric immunosuppression protocol, 12.9 +/- 5.9 months vs. 35.5 +/- 7.2 months for group I (p < 0.0001). At 6 months, the acute rejection rate was 16% (group I) compared with 25% (group II) (p = 0.689). The patient and graft survival at 6 and 12 months were 100% respectively for both groups. Basiliximab was well tolerated without significant adverse events. At 6 months, there was no significant difference between the groups in the incidence of urinary tract infection or cytomegalovirus infection. These data suggest that in the short-term, MMF with or without basiliximab induction therapy appears to yield excellent and statistically similar outcomes. However, further controlled studies are necessary to verify these findings as well as to define the role of basiliximab in MMF-treated pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2005.00267.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226511800016

    View details for PubMedID 15667617

  • Hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is safe and results in increased kidney donation Annual Meeting of the Southern California Chapter of the American-College-of-Surgeons Baron, P. W., Baldwin, D. D., Hadley, H. R., Ojogho, O. N., Ruckle, H. C., Concepcion, W. SOUTHEASTERN SURGICAL CONGRESS. 2004: 901–5


    The impact of hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy on kidney allograft function, perioperative complications, and organ supply was evaluated by retrospective analysis of 41 hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy patients and their recipients between January and October 2003. Serum creatinine at discharge, length of stay, estimated blood loss, operative time, and perioperative complications were analyzed. The mean values for laparoscopic donors and their recipients were 1.2 +/- 0.3 and 1.3 +/- 0.8 mg/dL for creatinine, 3.3 +/- 0.8 and 6.7 +/- 3 days for length of stay, and 110.4 +/- 76.9 and 111.6 +/- 56 mL for estimated blood loss, respectively. No major complications occurred in the laparoscopic donors. The number of living kidney donors increased by 94% compared to the mean of the previous 4 years following implementation of the laparoscopic program. Hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is safe, results in excellent allograft function, and significantly increases donation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224468300016

    View details for PubMedID 15529847

  • Successful liver transplantation using a HELLP syndrome donor TRANSPLANTATION Baron, P. W., Ojogho, O. N., Chick, W., Concepcion, W. 2004; 78 (5): 782-783
  • Prospective, randomized trial of the effect of antibody induction in simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation: Three-year results 4th Annual Meeting of the American-Transplant-Congress Burke, G. W., Kaufman, D. B., Millis, J. M., Gaber, A. O., Johnson, C. P., Sutherland, D. E., Punch, J. D., Kahan, B. D., Schweitzer, E., Langnas, A., Perkins, J., Scandling, J., Concepcion, W., Stegall, M. D., Schulak, J. A., Gores, P. F., Benedetti, E., Danovitch, G., Henning, A. K., Bartucci, M. R., Smith, S., Fitzsimmons, W. E. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2004: 1269–75


    Historically, antibody induction has been used because of the higher immunologic risk of graft loss or rejection observed in simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplantation compared with kidney transplantation alone. This trial was designed to assess the effect of antibody induction in SPK transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids. Induction agents included T-cell-depleting and interleukin-2 receptor antibodies.A total of 174 SPK transplant recipients were enrolled in a prospective, open-label, multi-center study. They were randomized to induction (n=87) or non-induction (n=87) groups and followed for 3 years.At 3 years, actual patient (94.3% and 89.7%) and pancreas (75.9% and 75.9%) survivals were similar between the induction and non-induction groups, respectively. Actual kidney survival was similar at 1 and 2 years, but at 3 years, it was significantly better in the induction group compared with the non-induction group (92% vs. 81.6%; P =0.04). At 3 years, median serum creatinine and hemoglobin A1C were similar between the induction and non-induction groups (1.35 mg/dL and 1.20 mg/dL, 5.4% and 5.5%, respectively). Three-year cumulative incidence of biopsy-confirmed, treated acute kidney rejection in the induction and non-induction groups was 19.5% and 27.5% (P =0.14), respectively, with odds 4.6 times greater in African Americans regardless of treatment (P =0.004). Significantly higher rates of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia and CMV syndrome occurred in those receiving T-cell-depleting antibody induction (36.1%) when compared with those receiving anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibodies (2%) and non-induction (8.1%) (P <0.0001).Tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids resulted in excellent safety and efficacy in SPK transplant recipients. Actual 3-year kidney survival was significantly better in the induction group; however, CMV viremia and CMV syndrome rates were significantly higher in the T-cell-depleting antibody group. African Americans demonstrated a significantly greater risk of acute rejection despite antibody induction. Decisions regarding the use of induction therapy must weigh the risk of kidney graft loss or rejection against the risk of infection.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.TP.0000123903.12311.36

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221130900025

    View details for PubMedID 15114097

  • Use of basiliximab with mycophenolate mofetil in kidney transplantation TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS Baron, P. W., Weissman, J., Ojogho, O. N., Sahney, S., Cutler, D., James, S., Oculam, C., Abdelhalim, F., Nehlsen-Cannarella, S. L., Teichman, S., Concepcion, W. 2003; 35 (8): 2881-2884


    Randomized, placebo-controlled studies have determined that administration of basiliximab (chimeric IL-2 receptor antagonist) decreases the acute rejection rate in kidney transplantation when used in combination with cyclosporine, azathioprine, and steroids. We report our experience using basiliximab with mycophenolate mofetil, a calcineurin inhibitor, and steroids in kidney transplantation.We retrospectively analyzed 127 patients who received their first kidney transplant between September 1, 1998, and December 30, 2000, including 59 who received basiliximab (22 living and 37 cadaveric donor recipients) and the 68 that did not receive this antibody (31 living and 37 cadaveric donor recipients). The groups were demographically comparable for risk factors such as race, peak of panel-reactive antibody, delayed graft function, donor age, and cold ischemia time. The analysis assessed serum creatinine levels, acute rejection, cytomegalovirus infection, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease incidence as well as patient and graft survival at 6 months.Serum creatinine levels were 3 +/- 3.1 and 2.6 +/- 2.5 mg/dL (P =.346) at discharge, 1.5 +/- 0.6 and 1.7 +/- 1.1 mg/dL (P =.098) at 1 month, and 1.5 +/- 0.7 and 1.6 +/- 0.7 mg/dL (P =.454) at 6 months posttransplantation for patients treated with versus without basiliximab, respectively. Only one episode of acute rejection was seen among patients treated with basiliximab within 1 month posttransplantation versus three episodes among patients treated without basiliximab (P =.382). Three patients (5.1%) treated with basiliximab and two patients (2.9%) treated without basiliximab developed acute rejection within 6 months posttransplantation (P =.536). Patient and graft survivals at 6 months posttransplantation were not significantly different between patients treated with versus without basiliximab (100% and 100% versus 100% and 98.3%, respectively). There was no increased incidence of cytomegalovirus infection with the use of basiliximab (5.1% vs 5.9%, P =.844). There was only one case of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease within 6 months posttransplantation in a patient treated without basiliximab.These data suggest that the routine addition of basiliximab to a mycophenolate mofetil-based regimens does not appear to be warranted. A larger prospective randomized study with longer follow-up is needed to confirm these results.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.transproceed.2003.10.080

    View details for Web of Science ID 000187576900010

    View details for PubMedID 14697927

  • Prospective, randomized, multi-center trial of antibody induction therapy in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation Joint Congress of the ASTP/ASTS Kaufman, D. B., Burke, G. W., Bruce, D. S., Johnson, C. P., Gaber, A. O., Sutherland, D. E., Merion, R. M., Gruber, S. A., Schweitzer, E., Leone, J. P., Marsh, C. L., Alfrey, E., Concepcion, W., Stegall, M. D., Schulak, J. A., Gores, P. F., Benedetti, E., Smith, C., Henning, A. K., Kuehnel, F., King, S., Fitzsimmons, W. E. WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC. 2003: 855–64


    A randomized, multicenter, prospective study was conducted at 18 pancreas transplant centers in the United States to determine the role of induction therapy in simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation. One hundred and 74 recipients were enrolled: 87 recipients each in the induction and noninduction treatment arms. Maintenance immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups for patient, kidney, and pancreas graft survival at 1-year. The 1-year cumulative incidence of any treated biopsy-confirmed or presumptive rejection episodes (kidney or pancreas) in the induction and noninduction treatment arms was 24.6% and 31.2% (p = 0.28), respectively. The 1-year cumulative incidence of biopsy-confirmed, treated, acute kidney allograft rejection in the induction and noninduction treatment arms was 13.1% and 23.0% (p = 0.08), respectively. Biopsy-confirmed kidney allograft rejection occurred later post-transplant and appeared to be less severe among recipients that received induction therapy. The highest rate of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia/syndrome was observed in the subgroup of recipients who received T-cell depleting antibody induction and received organs from CMV serologically positive donors. Decisions regarding the routine use of induction therapy in SPK transplantation must take into consideration its differential effects on risk of rejection and infection.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184032600011

    View details for PubMedID 12814477

  • Nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy after liver transplantation successfully treated with plasmapheresis AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DERMATOPATHOLOGY Baron, P. W., Cantos, K., Hillebrand, D. J., Hu, K. Q., Ojogho, O. N., Nehlsen-Cannarella, S., Concepcion, W. 2003; 25 (3): 204-209


    Nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy (NFD) is a recently described cutaneous fibrosing disorder associated with renal dysfunction. It appears similar to scleromyxedema but with some notable exceptions, including the lack of involvement of the face and absence of plasma cells on histology, systemic involvement, and paraproteinemia. Patients can present with thickened or edematous skin with indurated papules and plaques involving the extremities and the trunk. We report the first three cases of NFD after liver transplantation successfully treated with plasmapheresis. Two patients underwent liver transplantation for hepatitis C virus-induced cirrhosis and one for hepatitis B virus-induced cirrhosis. All the patients had encephalopathy, refractory ascites, and malnutrition prior to transplantation. Like those patients with NFD, all three of our patients had renal dysfunction and required hemodialysis before and after transplantation. Two were not dependent on dialysis at the time of diagnosis, however. These patients had excellent liver allograft function, but the other patient had allograft failure secondary to recurrent hepatitis C. Immunosuppression therapy consisted of basiliximab, mycophenolate mofetil, calcineurin inhibitor, and prednisone. The patients developed "woody" skin induration of the distal extremities, erythematous papules, and contractures at 1, 2, and 120 months after transplantation. Skin biopsies resembled NFD. No paraproteinemia was evident. One to three 5-day courses of plasmapheresis resulted in moderate to marked clinical improvement. The improvement of the kidney function in two of our patients did not appear to correlate with that of the skin disorder, because the kidney function was improving at the time the diagnosis of NFD was made. In conclusion, we report the first three cases of NFD after liver transplantation. Plasmapheresis was moderately successful in resolving the skin-indurated papules, severe skin induration, and associated joint contractures. Preliminary studies (unpublished data) show that decreasing plasma levels of transforming growth factor-beta1 after plasmapheresis appear to correlate with the amelioration of this clinical condition.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183494200004

    View details for PubMedID 12775982

  • Mycophenolate mofetil without antibody induction in cadaver vs. living donor pediatric renal transplantation PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Ojogho, O., Sahney, S., Cutler, D., Baron, P. W., Abdelhalim, F. M., Hasan, S. M., Concepcion, W. 2003; 7 (2): 137-141


    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a new immunosuppressive agent that blocks de novo purine synthesis in T and B lymphocytes via a potent selective inhibition of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. MMF has been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of acute rejection in both adult and pediatric renal transplantation. The impact of MMF on routine antibody induction therapy in pediatric renal transplantation has not been defined. Remarkably, a recent North American Pediatric Transplant Cooperative Study concluded that T-cell antibody induction therapy was deleterious for patients who received MMF. Our study examines the use of MMF in an evolving immunosuppressive strategy to avoid antibody induction in both living (LD) and cadaver (CAD) donor pediatric renal transplantation. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 43 pediatric renal transplants that received MMF-based triple therapy without antibody induction therapy between November 1996 and April 2000. We compared CAD (n = 17) with LD (n = 26). The two groups were similar demographically except that CAD had significantly younger donors than LD, 26.1 +/- 13.7 vs. 36.2 +/- 9.2 yr (p = 0.006). All the patients received MMF at 600 mg/m2/b.i.d. (maximum dose of 2 g/d) and prednisone with cyclosporine (86%) or tacrolimus (14%). Mean follow-up was >36 months for each group. Acute rejection rate at 6 months was 11.8% (CAD) vs. 15.4% (LD) (p = 0.999) and at 1 yr was 23.5% (CAD) vs. 26.9% (LD) (p = 0.999). Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2) at 6 months was 73.3 +/- 15.3 (CAD) vs. 87.6 +/- 24.2 (LD) (p = 0.068). Patient survival at 1, 2, and 3 yr was 100, 100, and 100% for CAD vs. 100, 96, and 96% for LD, respectively. Graft survival at 1, 2, and 3 yr was 100, 100, and 94% for CAD vs. 96, 88, and 71% for LD, respectively. Graft loss in CAD was because of chronic rejection (n = 2) while in LD it was because of non-compliance (n = 6), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (n = 1), and sepsis (n = 1). In conclusion, MMF without antibody induction in both CAD and LD pediatric renal transplantation provides statistically similar and effective prophylaxis against acute rejection at 6 months and 1 yr post-transplant. The short-term patient and graft survival rates are excellent, however, non-compliance remains a serious challenge to long-term graft survival. Additional controlled studies are needed to define the role of MMF without antibody induction therapy in pediatric renal transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181742100010

    View details for PubMedID 12654055

  • Superior long-term results of renal transplantation in children under 5 years of age Annual Meeting of the Southern-California-Chapter of the American-College-of-Surgeons Ojogho, O., Sahney, S. S., Cutler, D., Abdelhalim, F., Hasan, M., Baron, P., Concepcion, W. SOUTHEASTERN SURGICAL CONGRESS. 2002: 1115–19


    Despite improving overall results of pediatric renal transplantation children under 5 years of age remain a high-risk group with poorer outcomes often because of a higher rate of surgical complications. This retrospective report details a 12-year experience at a single center and examines the outcome in this high-risk group of patients. We reviewed the medical records of 21 children under 5 years of age who received renal transplantation at Loma Linda University Medical Center between July 1988 and August 2000. The patients were evaluated regularly by the same pediatric nephrologist throughout the study period at our outpatient clinic. Mean recipient age was 3 +/- 1.2 (range 2-5) years; weight at transplantation was 13.3 +/- 5.4 kg. Ten (48%) patients received living related donor (LRD) kidneys and 11 (52%) received cadaver (CAD) kidneys. Mean donor ages for CAD and LRD were 14.4 +/- 10 years and 26.6 +/- 4.9 years, respectively. The mean cold ischemia time (CAD only) was 23.3 +/- 10.6 hours. Renal dysplasia (n = 8) and obstructive uropathy (n = 5) were the most common primary diagnoses. Maintenance immunosuppression consisted of Azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclosporine or tacrolimus and prednisone. Mean follow-up was 80.1 +/- 51.4 months. Twelve (57%) grafts have a follow-up >5 years. Patient survival was 100 per cent. Overall graft survival at one, 3, 5, and 10 years were 95, 95, 88, and 88 per cent respectively. Graft survival for LRD recipients was 100 per cent. No graft was lost as a result of a technical problem or vascular thrombosis. One graft each was lost because of delayed graft function complicated by severe cytomegalovirus infection and chronic rejection. At one year the mean serum creatinine was 0.6 +/- 0.2 mg/dL with a mean calculated glomerular filtration rate of 93 +/- 32 mL/min. All 17 children who are now of school age are attending school. We conclude that excellent rehabilitation and superior long-term patient and graft survival can be achieved with renal transplantation in children of this age group with the use of good surgical techniques and close follow-up.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180074100019

    View details for PubMedID 12516821

  • Mycophenolate mofetil without antibody induction in pediatric renal transplantation 2nd International Congress on Immunosuppression Ojogho, O., Sahney, S., Cutler, D., Baron, P. W., Abdelhalim, F. M., Hasan, S. M., Concepcion, W. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2002: 1953–54

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177369700242

    View details for PubMedID 12176641

  • In vivo remodeling of surgically constructed vascular anastomoses - Nonpenetrating, arcuate-legged clips versus standard suture Symposium on Reparative Medicine - Growing Tissues and Organs Kirsch, W. M., Zhu, Y. H., Steckel, R., Concepcion, W., Oberg, K., Anton, L., Peckham, N. NEW YORK ACAD SCIENCES. 2002: 284–287

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177134500064

    View details for PubMedID 12081919

  • Small-diameter portacaval H-graft shunt: A paradigm shift back to surgical shunting in the management of variceal bleeding in patients with preserved liver function LIVER TRANSPLANTATION Hillebrand, D. J., Kojouri, K., Cao, S., Runyon, B. A., Ojogho, O., Concepcion, W. 2000; 6 (4): 459-465


    Small-diameter portacaval H-graft (SDPHG) shunts are partial portosystemic shunts that control variceal bleeding while preserving nutrient blood flow to the liver, minimizing postoperative encephalopathy and liver failure. Since July 1, 1997, we placed SDPHG shunts in 18 patients (age, 52.1 +/- 2.6 years; range, 35 to 72 years) with cirrhosis (Child's class A, B, and C in 6, 10, and 2 patients, respectively) and refractory variceal bleeding who were not candidates for transplantation. Ten procedures (55.6%) were urgent or emergent. SDPHG shunts effectively reduced the portacaval pressure gradient (18 +/- 3 v 5 +/- 2 mm Hg; P <.05). Surgical times (210 +/- 11 minutes), estimated blood losses (358.3 +/- 107.8 mL), transfusion requirements (0 transfusions in 10 patients; 55.6%; mean, 0.9 +/- 0.3 units), and postoperative hospitalization (7.7 +/- 1.0 days) were excellent. Surgical mortality (30 days) was 0%. During 14. 0 +/- 1.9 months (range, 1.1 to 29.1 months) of follow-up, 4 patients (22.2%) died, including both patients with Child's class C cirrhosis. The cumulative 1-year survival rate was 82.1% (Child's class A, B, and C, 83.3%, 90%, and 0%, respectively). Long-term survivors had significantly lower preoperative Child-Pugh scores compared with nonsurvivors (7.8 +/- 0.3 v 9.5 +/- 1.0; P <.05). Postoperative encephalopathy developed in 3 survivors (20%). Fifteen patients (83.3%) have not experienced rebleeding; shunt failure led to rebleeding in only 1 patient (5.6%). SDPHG shunt placement can be performed with low morbidity and surgical mortality. Nontransplantation candidates with Child's class A and B cirrhosis have excellent long-term survival with this safe, effective, and definitive treatment for refractory variceal bleeding.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088523100012

    View details for PubMedID 10915169

  • Volume of procedures at transplantation centers and mortality after liver transplantation NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Hillebrand, D. J., Concepcion, W. 2000; 342 (20): 1527-1527

    View details for Web of Science ID 000087068200018

    View details for PubMedID 10819652

  • Long-term outcomes in pediatric liver recipients: comparison between cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Pediatric transplantation Cao, S., Cox, K. L., Berquist, W., Hayashi, M., Concepcion, W., Hammes, G. B., Ojogho, O. K., So, S. K., Frerker, M., Castillo, R. O., Monge, H., Esquivel, C. O. 1999; 3 (1): 22-26


    In recent years, tacrolimus (FK506, TAC) has been increasingly utilized in liver transplantation. However, long-term risks and benefits as compared with conventional cyclosporin A (CsA) have not been fully elucidated. This retrospective study examined the potential outcome differences between TAC- and CsA-based immunosuppressive therapy in pediatric liver transplant recipients. From March 1988 to December 1996, 218 children (aged 0.1-17 yr) underwent 238 orthotopic liver transplantations; 58.7% (128/218) were under 2 yr of age at time of transplant. Initially, the maintenance immunosuppressive regimen consisted of CsA and prednisone, with antilymphocytic preparations (MALG, ATGAM, and OKT3) as induction therapy. Subsequently, TAC was used first as rescue therapy for steroid refractory rejection in CsA patients and then as maintenance immunosuppression. Fifty-seven out of the 147 CsA patients were converted to TAC for various reasons while 71 patients were placed on TAC as primary maintenance immunosuppression. 62.6 per cent (92/147) of liver recipients on CsA experienced at least one biopsy-proven acute rejection episode as compared to 50.7% (36/71) for TAC patients (p = 0.09); likewise, 34% (50/147) of CsA patients had more than one episode of rejection vs. 18.3% (13/71) for patients on TAC (p < 0.02). Rejection was the reason for conversion from CsA to TAC in 29 of 57 patients. Conversely, 19.0% (28/147) of CsA patients had to be switched to TAC for reasons not related to rejection (i.e. side-effects). The overall incidence of histologically proven chronic rejection was 7.8% (17/218). 10.9 per cent (16/147) of the children who were on CsA initially developed chronic rejection, which was significantly higher compared with one of 71 TAC recipients (p < 0.02). Of these 16 CsA patients with chronic rejection, 50.0% (8/16) underwent retransplantation for graft failure (mean interval from time of diagnosis of chronic rejection to re-transplant, 4.0 months; range 1-8 months), whereas the TAC patient has remained clinically stable with normal liver function tests after 23 months of follow-up. One year after liver transplantation, 72.8% (107/147) of CsA patients were still on steroids (mean dosage 0.20 mg/kg/d), as compared to 42.3% (30/71) of the TAC patients (mean dosage 0.14 mg/kg/d). The incidence of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected patients was 2.2% (2/90), 7.0% (5/71) and 12.3% (7/57) for CsA, primary and TAC-converted groups, respectively. The overall incidence of PTLD was 6.9% (15/218). In summary, pediatric liver transplant recipients treated with TAC as primary maintenance immunosuppressive medication experienced significantly fewer episodes of rejection; especially chronic rejection, which lead to graft loss. However, the trade-off is a potential increased incidence of EBV-related PTLD in these patients.

    View details for PubMedID 10359027

  • Effect of intraoperative blood transfusion on patient outcome in hepatic transplantation ARCHIVES OF SURGERY Cacciarelli, T. V., Keeffe, E. B., Moore, D. H., BURNS, W., Busque, S., Concepcion, W., So, S. K., Esquivel, C. O. 1999; 134 (1): 25-29


    To evaluate the effect of intraoperative transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) on patient and graft survival.A retrospective study.A tertiary care referral center.Between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 1994, medical records from 225 adult patients who underwent primary liver transplantations were analyzed.Overall patient survival was 90% at 1 year and 86% at 3 years, while graft survival was 89% at 1 year and 85% at 3 years. The following factors were associated with patient and graft survival: age, sex, medical condition at the time of transplantation, and intraoperative transfusion of RBCs. When these factors were subjected to a multivariate analysis, all were independently associated with survival. Fifty-four recipients (24%) underwent transplantation without intraoperative transfusion of RBCs, while 171 recipients (76%) received at least 1 U of RBCs intraoperatively. Recipients who did not receive transfusion of RBCs had higher patient and graft survival rates than patients who did receive RBCs. By multivariate analysis, transplantation without intraoperative transfusion of RBCs no longer remained statistically significant, and only sex and the patient's medical condition were independently associated with patient and graft survival. Patient and graft survival decreased if 5 or more U were transfused, but transfusion of 5 or more U was not independently associated with survival by multivariate analysis.Increased transfusion requirement for RBCs was independently associated with patient and graft survival. While transplantation without transfusion of intraoperative RBCs was associated with superior patient and graft survival, these effects were overridden by patient sex and medical condition at the time of transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078053500006

    View details for PubMedID 9927126

  • Increased dosage requirement and rejection after neoral conversion in pediatric liver transplant patients TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS Cao, S., Cox, K. L., Berquist, W., So, S., Concepcion, W., Monge, H., Esquivel, C. O. 1998; 30 (8): 4322-4324

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077593000129

    View details for PubMedID 9865373

  • Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders and gastrointestinal manifestations of Epstein-Barr virus infection in children following liver transplantation TRANSPLANTATION Cao, S., Cox, K., Esquivel, C. O., Berquist, W., Concepcion, W., Ojogho, O., Monge, H., Krams, S., Martinez, O., So, S. 1998; 66 (7): 851-856


    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is common after liver transplantation in children and is associated with the risk of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD).This retrospective study examined the frequency of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and the risk of PTLD in pediatric liver recipients who developed symptomatic EBV infection. We reviewed 172 children who received orthotopic liver transplants between March 1988 to December 1994. Twenty-two cases were retransplants. The mean age at transplantation was 3.7 years (range, 0.1-17 years). The immunosuppressive regimens consisted of induction therapy with Minnesota antilymphocyte globulin/antithymocyte globulin/OKT3 in most cases and maintenance therapy with prednisone and either cyclosporine or tacrolimus (FK506).After 1 year of minimum follow-up, 54 of 172 patients had symptomatic EBV infections (confirmed by serology, histology, or whole blood polymerase chain reaction. At the time of infection, 38.5% (21/54) had either diarrhea or GI bleeding or both. PTLD developed in 11 patients (6.4%). The incidence of PTLD was 42.9% (9/21) when GI bleeding or diarrhea was associated with EBV infections, compared with 6.1% (2/33) when EBV infection was not associated with GI symptoms. Seven of 10 (70%) patients with GI bleeding and 2 of 11 (18.2%) with diarrhea developed PTLD. Of seven patients examined by endoscopy for GI bleeding, two had biopsy-proven PTLD of the GI tract, whereas one of two patients examined by endoscopy for diarrhea had biopsy-proven PTLD.In summary, a high incidence of PTLD was found in patients who developed GI bleeding or diarrhea associated with EBV infection after pediatric liver transplantation. In these patients, endoscopy and biopsy may lead to early diagnosis of PTLD.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076585400007

    View details for PubMedID 9798693

  • Current status of living-related liver transplantation. Pediatric transplantation Hayashi, M., Cao, S., Concepcion, W., Monge, H., Ojogho, O., So, S., Esquivel, C. O. 1998; 2 (1): 16-25


    Living-related liver transplantation has come of age. This manuscript addresses the most important facets of the living-related liver transplant procedure including selection of the donor, the recipient operation, immunosuppression and rejection as well as the most common surgical complications. It also describes the results in terms of patient and graft survival, retransplantation and quality of life. Although living-related liver transplantation has not solved the problem of organ shortage, it has provided many children with an opportunity to live and enjoy life.

    View details for PubMedID 10084755

  • Experience with the piggyback technique without caval occlusion in adult orthotopic liver transplantation TRANSPLANTATION Busque, S., Esquivel, C. O., Concepcion, W., So, S. K. 1998; 65 (1): 77-82


    To assess the feasibility and outcome of a piggyback technique without caval occlusion or veno-venous bypass (VB), we retrospectively reviewed 131 consecutive adult orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) performed in 129 patients between May 1993 and February 1995. Six were second transplants, and six were combined liver-kidney transplants. The piggyback technique was attempted in all cases.We were able to perform the piggyback technique in 98 OLTs (75%). The remaining 33 OLTs (25%) were converted to the standard technique; of these, 20 (15%) required VB. The reasons for conversion to the standard technique were: anatomical (22 transplants), severe portal hypertension requiring VB (8 transplants), tumor (1 transplant), and other reasons (2 transplants). Six retransplantations were performed (four piggyback, two standard).There was no significant difference in age, United Network for Organ Sharing status, Child's classification, and diagnosis between the patients in whom piggyback was possible or not. The actuarial patient and graft survival at 1 year were similar between the piggyback group and the group of patients converted to standard technique (87/85% vs. 86/86%, respectively). No death was related to either technique. With piggyback, the average operative time was 8.6+/-1.9 hr, median amount of blood transfused intraoperatively was 2 U (33% did not require transfusion), and median intensive care unit and hospital stays were 3 and 11 days, respectively. With the piggyback technique, the mean preoperative and maximum postoperative serum creatinine levels were 1.4+/-1.0 and 1.8+/-1.5 mg/dl.The piggyback technique without caval occlusion is possible in the majority of patients. It is safe and has reduced the use of VB to 15% of our adult OLTs. The piggyback technique avoids retrocaval dissection, facilitates retransplantation, and is associated with a short anhepatic phase, low blood product usage, and short intensive care unit stay.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000071516900014

    View details for PubMedID 9448148

  • Factors affecting survival after orthotopic liver transplantation in infants TRANSPLANTATION Cacciarelli, T. V., Esquivel, C. O., Moore, D. H., Cox, K. L., Berquist, W. E., Concepcion, W., Hammer, G. B., So, S. K. 1997; 64 (2): 242-248


    The technical and medical management of small infants requiring orthotopic liver transplantation remains a challenge. The present study examined 117 orthotopic liver transplantations performed in 101 infants from <1 to 23 months of age between March 1988 and February 1995 to determine factors that influence patient and graft outcome. Factors analyzed included etiology of liver disease, recipient and donor age and weight, United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) status, retransplantation, ABO-compatibility, full-size (FS) versus reduced-size grafts, vascular thrombosis (VT), including hepatic artery and portal vein (PVT), and the presence of lymphoproliferative disease (LPD). UNOS status 1, fulminant hepatic failure, and the development of Epstein-Barr virus-associated LPD were each associated with 10-20% lower patient and graft survival rates. Of 101 infants, 11 (11%) developed LPD with an associated 36% mortality. VT occurred in 10 (9 hepatic artery and 1 portal vein) of 117 orthotopic liver transplantations (9%), all less than 1 year of age, and was associated with significantly poorer 1-year (50% vs. 85% no VT, P<0.01) and 5-year patient survival rates (50% vs. 83% no VT, P<0.01). One-year graft survival rates for FS grafts in recipients <12 months versus 12-23 months were 67% vs. 94% (P<0.01); the patient survival rate was also significantly lower in FS graft recipients <12 months (76% vs. 100%, P<0.05). Recipients <5 months of age had the worst survival rates: 1-year and 5-year patient survival rates were 65% and 46% for recipients 0-4 months (n=17) versus 82% and 82% for recipients 5-11 months (n=56), and 93% and 93% for recipients age 12-23 months (n=28; P<0.05). In summary, factors associated with reduced survival rates include recipient age <5 months, recipient age <12 months who received FS grafts, development of VT and donor weight <6 kg. There was a trend for UNOS status 1, fulminant hepatic failure, and presence of LPD to be associated with reduced survival rates.

    View details for PubMedID 9256181

  • Potential effect of cyclosporin A in formation of cholesterol gallstones in pediatric liver transplant recipients DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Cao, S., Cox, K., So, S. S., Berquist, W., Lee, S. P., Haigh, W. G., Concepcion, W., Monge, H., Esquivel, C. O. 1997; 42 (7): 1409-1415


    Recent advancements in liver transplantation have resulted in extended survival both for grafts and recipients. Such improvement, together with the shortage of donor organs has prompted expansion of the donor pool to include less than ideal donors, especially in life-threatening situations. The use of older liver donors has been associated with lower long-term survival. However, potential morbidity such as gallstone formation has not been explored. We analyzed bile composition in a child who developed cholesterol gallstones in the proximal bile duct two years after undergoing emergency liver transplantation with a liver from a 78-year-old donor. Oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (ursodiol) shifted the cholesterol composition of the bile from a supersaturated, potentially crystallized state to a liquid (micellar) state. Unlike cyclosporin A, FK506 showed an increase in the proportion of chenodeoxycholic acid and a decrease in the proportion of cholic acid, and thus may exhibit minimal or no hepatotoxic effect. Thus, in donor livers with factors known to be associated with cholesterol gallstone formation (such as age, sex, or obesity), one may consider analyzing the bile composition at the time of procurement. Depending on cholesterol and bile acid composition the use of FK506 with or without addition of ursodeoxycholic acid may be warranted.

    View details for PubMedID 9246038

  • Emergency transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in an infant: A case report JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC SURGERY Cao, S., Monge, H., Semba, C., Cox, K. L., Berquist, W., Concepcion, W., So, S. K., Esquivel, C. O. 1997; 32 (1): 125-127


    Since the first successful report regarding the feasibility of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) as an alternative to surgical decompression of portal hypertension, this method has been used extensively as a temporizing measure in controlling refractory variceal bleeding before liver transplantation in adults with cirrhosis. There are few reports of TIPS in pediatric patients because variceal bleeding in most of these patients can often be managed conservatively without invasive intervention. Recently, successful use of TIPS to treat complications of portal hypertension has been described in two children ages 10 and 13. To our knowledge, there are no reports of TIPS used in infants under the age of 1 year. The authors report a case in which TIPS was used to successfully control variceal bleeding in a 10-month-old infant before consideration for hepatic transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WE27500040

    View details for PubMedID 9021592

  • Primary liver transplantation without transfusion of red blood cells 53rd Annual Meeting of the Central-Surgical-Association Cacciarelli, T. V., Keeffe, E. B., Moore, D. H., BURNS, W., Chuljian, P., Busque, S., Concepcion, W., So, S. K., Esquivel, C. O. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 1996: 698–704


    This study examines factors associated with the performance of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) without red blood cell (RBC) transfusion.Between January 1992 and December 1994, 306 primary OLTs were performed with recipients divided into two groups: group 1 patients (61 recipients, 20% of total) underwent transplantation without packed RBCs, and group 2 patients (245 recipients, 80% of cases) received a transfusion of at least 1 unit of RBCs during operation.Recipients in group 1 compared with group 2 had less advanced liver disease (20% hospitalized and 48% Child's class C versus 58% hospitalized and 73% Child's class C, p < 0.01) and lower frequency of right upper quadrant surgery (13% versus 25%, p < 0.05). Group 1 recipients also had significantly higher preoperative hematocrits (38% versus 33%, p < 0.01), lower prothrombin times (15.4 versus 16.7 seconds, p < 0.001) and partial thromboplastin times (36.9 versus 42.2 seconds, p < 0.01), a greater proportion of patients transplanted by piggyback technique (87% versus 59%, p < 0.001), and shorter operative times (7.9 hours versus 9.2 hours, p < 0.001). Moreover, a greater percentage of patients underwent OLT without RBC transfusion in each successive year: 9% in 1992, 21% in 1993, and 31% in 1994 (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed the following factors to be independent predictors of OLT without RBC transfusion. Preoperative Hct, United Network of Organ Sharing status, piggyback technique, operative time, and year of transplantation.OLT can be performed without transfusion of RBCs in recipients with less advanced liver disease, and surgical technique, along with increased experience by the transplant team, are important factors.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VP42300036

    View details for PubMedID 8862380

  • Orthotopic liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma - Factors affecting long-term patient survival 67th Annual Session of the Pacific-Coast-Surgical-Association Ojogho, O. N., So, S. K., Keeffe, E. B., Berquist, W., Concepcion, W., GARCIAKENNEDY, R., Imperial, J., Esquivel, C. O. AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. 1996: 935–39


    To determine the influence of several clinicopathologic factors on the 3-year actuarial survival of patients with nonfibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).A case series of 26 consecutive patients with HCC treated with OLT, with a maximum follow-up of 90 months.A tertiary care center.Between March 1988 and December 1993, 521 OLTs were performed in 480 patients, 27 of whom had HCC. One patient was excluded because of donor-transmitted melanoma. Of the remaining 26 patients, there were 18 adults and 8 children, with a mean age of 41 years (range, 0.2-67.4 years). Fourteen patients (54%) had either hepatitis B (n = 6) or hepatitis C (n = 8), while 15 (58%) had coincidental tumor.OLT was performed using standard techniques.The effect of several clinicopathologic factors on 3-year actuarial patient survival.The overall actuarial survival rates for the 26 patients with HCC were 73%, 65.4%, and 65.4%, at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Sixteen patients (62%) were alive at the time of this report, with 14 (54%) free of disease. None of the clinicopathologic factors significantly affected the 3-year patient survival rate. However, the rate of recurrent HCC was significantly higher in nonincidental vs coincidental tumors and in solitary vs multiple tumors.Our results suggest that HCC should not contraindicate OLT, as long-term patient survival and cure can be achieved. While patient selection is important, survival in patients with HCC after OLT is not always predictable using the usual clinicopathologic prognostic factors.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VF46900009

    View details for PubMedID 8790178

  • Continuous venovenous hemofiltration with dialysis in combination with total hepatectomy and portocaval shunting - Bridge to liver transplantation TRANSPLANTATION Hammer, G. B., So, S. K., ALUZRI, A., Conley, S. B., Concepcion, W., Cox, K. L., Berquist, W. E., Esquivel, C. O. 1996; 62 (1): 130-132


    Children who experience acute liver failure following liver transplantation will have multiple organ failure and a high rate of mortality unless emergency retransplantation can be performed. Transplant hepatectomy with portocaval shunting has been described as a bridge to transplantation in the most severe cases, as well as in patients with fulminant hepatic failure at high risk for mortality who have not undergone liver transplantation. Patients with multiple organ failure who have undergone hepatectomy require renal replacement therapy. Continuous hemofiltration may be used in patients with fulminant hepatic failure to facilitate fluid removal and circulatory and metabolic balance. We used continuous venovenous hemofiltration with dialysis following hepatectomy with portocaval shunting in a patient who remained anhepatic for 66 hr in order to achieve circulatory and metabolic homeostasis as well as stable neurologic function prior to successful retransplantation.

    View details for PubMedID 8693530

  • Oral tacrolimus (FK506) induction therapy in pediatric orthotopic liver transplantation TRANSPLANTATION Cacciarelli, T. V., Esquivel, C. O., Cox, K. L., Hayashi, M., Berquist, W. E., Concepcion, W., So, S. K. 1996; 61 (8): 1188-1192


    We have adopted the use of an oral tacrolimus induction protocol in pediatric liver transplantation since the commercial release of tacrolimus in 1994. In this study we analyzed the efficacy of oral tacrolimus induction therapy in 17 consecutive transplants (15 patients) performed between 6/94 and 2/95 and 4 additional patients who were retransplanted between 11/93-5/94 and received compassionate oral tacrolimus induction. Sixteen transplants were treated with oral tacrolimus induction only; 5 transplants, oral tacrolimus + ATGAM/OKT3 induction. The protocol consisted of 0.2 mg/kg of tacrolimus orally on the first postoperative day with a corticosteroid taper. Oral tacrolimus was started at day 1-8 in the 5 patients receiving ATGAM/OKT3 induction. Dosages were adjusted over time to maintain a whole-blood trough level of 12-15 ng/ml at 0-1 month, 10-12 ng/ml at 1-3 months, and 5-10 ng/ml after 3 months. The incidence of acute rejection was 50% (8/16) in children on oral tacrolimus induction alone and 80% (4/5) in the tacrolimus + ATGAM/OKT3 group. Epstein-Barr virus infection occurred in 6 of 19 children (32%), with no child developing lymphoproliferative disorder. No adverse effect on renal function was noted. Serum fasting glucose was stable over time while a trend was noted in decreasing serum cholesterol levels at 6 months. Antihypertensive medication was required in 4 of 19 children (21%) posttransplantation. Corticosteroids were withdrawn in 11% (2/19) of patients. Actuarial 1-year patient and graft survivals were 95% and 86%, respectively. The use of oral tacrolimus induction therapy was associated with excellent survival and a low incidence of complications.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UJ00300012

    View details for PubMedID 8610416

  • A REASSESSMENT OF ABO INCOMPATIBILITY IN PEDIATRIC LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION TRANSPLANTATION Cacciarelli, T. V., So, S. K., Lim, J., Concepcion, W., Cox, K., Esquivel, C. O. 1995; 60 (7): 757-760


    The present study examined 144 pediatric liver transplants to determine the impact of ABO matching on liver allograft outcome. Pediatric transplants were divided into 3 groups: ABO identical (ABO-Id; n = 108), ABO-compatible nonidentical (ABO-Comp; n = 22), and ABO incompatible (ABO-Inc; n = 14). A higher proportion of United Network for Organ Sharing status 4 recipients in the ABO-Comp group (50% vs. 22% and 36% for ABO-Id and ABO-Inc, P < 0.05) and less time spent on the waiting list for ABO-Inc recipients (46 +/- 12 vs. 87 +/- 11 and 61 +/- 20 days for ABO-Id and ABO-Comp, P < 0.01) were noted. OKT3 induction therapy was greater in ABO-Inc grafts (57% vs. 19% and 14% for ABO-Id and ABO-Comp, P < 0.05), as was incidence of acute cellular rejection (79% vs. 59% and 41% for ABO-Id and ABO-Comp, P = 0.08). One- and 3-year patient survival rates were 87% and 83% in the ABO-Id group, 95% and 88% in the ABO-Comp group, and 79% and 79% in the ABO-Inc group (P = NS). One- and 3-year graft survival rates were 83% and 78% in the ABO-Id group, 87% and 80% in the ABO-Comp group, and 71% and 71% in the ABO-Inc group (P = NS). ABO-Inc transplantations can be performed successfully in pediatric recipients and warrant a reassessment of the utilization of ABO-Inc livers.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RZ96800024

    View details for PubMedID 7570989

  • LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION IN A CHILD WITH SICKLE-CELL-ANEMIA TRANSPLANTATION Lang, T., Berquist, W. E., So, S. K., Cox, K. L., RICH, E. J., Vichinsky, E., Concepcion, W., Esquivel, C. O. 1995; 59 (10): 1490-1492

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RB42900025

    View details for PubMedID 7770941



    The histology of 72 livers from 72 children who underwent liver transplantation was reviewed. Nine children (12.5%) had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and/or liver cell dysplasia (LCD) in their native livers. Ages at the time of transplantation ranged from 2 months to 11 years. Primary liver diseases included tyrosinemia (3), biliary atresia (2), chronic active hepatitis B (1), chronic active non-A non-B non-C hepatitis (1), idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (1), and neonatal iron storage disease (1). Explanted livers showed large multifocal HCC in two cases, incidental HCC in three, and dysplastic nodules in four. LCD also was present in three cases in conjunction with HCC. All patients had cirrhosis. Alpha-fetoprotein was measured in six children and was elevated in all six (range, 300 to 1,770,000 ng/mL; normal, 0 to 15 ng/mL). Abdominal computed tomography, ultrasonography, and/or magnetic resonance imaging showed large masses in two cases, but did not detect the tumors of less than 2 cm or the dysplastic nodules in the other seven children. After a follow-up period of 2 months to 3 years (mean, 19.8 +/- 12.1 months), eight children are alive and have no evidence of recurrence. The patient with neonatal iron storage disease died 2 months after transplantation, without evidence of tumor recurrence. The authors conclude that children with end-stage liver disease of diverse causes referred for liver transplantation may have LCD and/or HCC. Serial determination of alpha-fetoprotein and images studies may detect early lesions curable by liver transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PQ67000016

    View details for PubMedID 7844722


    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PQ16900016

    View details for PubMedID 7952466



    A small number of liver transplant candidates experience variceal bleeding that cannot be controlled by standard medical therapy. The objective of this study was to analyze the role of urgent liver transplantation for this subset of patients with acute, refractory, portal hypertensive bleeding.Retrospective review of data from 416 patients undergoing 449 liver transplantations between March, 1988 and February, 1993 revealed seven patients (1.7%) with endstage liver disease who underwent transplantation for uncontrollable variceal bleeding. All patients failed therapy with intravenous pitressin, endoscopic sclerotherapy, balloon tamponade, and/or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and continued to bleed. Patients ranged in age from 6 months to 56 years. All patients were Child's class C. Two patients were listed for transplantation with the United Network for Organ Sharing as status 3, and five patients were listed as status 4.All patients underwent successful liver transplantation with immediate control of bleeding. One patient expired on the 26th postoperative day from multiple organ failure, and another patient expired with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma on the 110th postoperative day. No patients experienced late rebleeding from varices after transplantation.Urgent liver transplantation is effective and feasible for the small subset of patients with uncontrollable variceal bleeding and endstage liver disease. Prompt and complete evaluation of the potential recipient and availability of a donor organ are critical to the success of this approach.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PK76700014

    View details for PubMedID 7942675

  • COMPARISON OF TRANSJUGULAR AND SURGICAL PORTOSYSTEMIC SHUNTS ON THE OUTCOME OF LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION ARCHIVES OF SURGERY Menegaux, F., Keeffe, E. B., Baker, E., Egawa, H., Concepcion, W., Russell, T. R., Esquivel, C. O. 1994; 129 (10): 1018-1024


    To analyze the effect of previous transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) vs surgical portosystemic shunt (SPS) on the outcome of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).A case series of 38 patients who underwent OLT: 25 with a previous TIPS and 13 with a previous SPS.A liver transplant center and interventional radiology service in a private, tertiary referral medical center.Eighteen men and seven women who had a TIPS before OLT were compared with nine men and four women who had an SPS before OLT.Operative transfusion requirements, operative time, length of hospital stay, postoperative liver chemistry studies, and graft and patient survival.Compared with patients who had an SPS, patients who had a TIPS had significantly less median transfusion requirements for packed red blood cells (5 vs 12 U), fresh-frozen plasma (0 vs 8 U), and thrombocytes (0 vs 1 U). The median operative time (9 vs 13 hours), length of intensive care unit stay (3 vs 5 days), and length of hospital stay (12 vs 24 days) were also significantly less in patients who had a TIPS. The 2-year actuarial patient survival rate was 92% in both groups.In patients undergoing OLT, TIPS is associated with reduced operative transfusion requirements, operative time, and length of intensive care unit and hospital stays compared with SPS. In the potential liver transplant candidate with refractory complications of portal hypertension, TIPS is preferred to SPS.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PL49300006

    View details for PubMedID 7944930

  • AORTIC-VALVE ENDOCARDITIS AFTER ORTHOTOPIC LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION TRANSPLANTATION Egawa, H., Woodley, S., Keeffe, E. B., Concepcion, W., WIVIOTT, L. D., Menegaux, F., Esquivel, C. O. 1994; 58 (6): 732-734

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PK26700019

    View details for PubMedID 7940698

  • NEUROLOGICAL COMPLICATIONS OF LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION IN ADULT VERSUS PEDIATRIC-PATIENTS TRANSPLANTATION Menegaux, F., Keeffe, E. B., Andrews, B. T., Egawa, H., Monge, H., Concepcion, W., So, S. K., Esquivel, C. O. 1994; 58 (4): 447-450


    Neurological complications are important contributors to morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation. We reviewed 391 patients who underwent 427 consecutive orthotopic liver transplantations to analyze the clinical features of patients who experienced one or more neurological complication (74 patients [19%]) and to compare postoperative neurological problems in adults versus children. Neurological complications were more frequent in adults (64 of 273 patients [23%]) than children (10 of 118 patients [8%]) (P < 0.01). The most common neurological complication was encephalopathy (59%), which ranged widely in severity and occurred with similar frequency in adults and children. Other common neurological complications were seizures (12 patients), brachial plexus and peripheral nerve injuries (16 patients, 15 of whom were adults), stroke (5 patients), and central nervous system infections (5 patients). In 27 patients, drug toxicity was the primary cause of neurological complications, all of which reversed with dosage reduction or discontinuation of drug. Cyclosporine and FK506, primarily during intravenous administration for induction of immunosuppression, accounted for 25 of 27 drug-induced neurological complications, which included encephalopathy, seizures, severe tremor, and severe headache. Despite a higher rate of neurological complications in adults, those in children were more severe and associated with a higher mortality rate. When compared with liver transplant recipients without neurological complications, patients with neurological complications had a higher posttransplant mortality rate (14% vs. 5% for adults, and 50% vs. 7% for children). In conclusion, neurological complications after liver transplantation are more common in adults, more severe and associated with a higher mortality rate in children, and associated with a higher mortality rate in both children and adults when compared with transplant recipients without neurological complications.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PE12000010

    View details for PubMedID 8073514


    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PA26400020

    View details for PubMedID 7965461

  • FK506 CONVERSION THERAPY IN PEDIATRIC LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION TRANSPLANTATION Egawa, H., Esquivel, C. O., So, S. K., Cox, K., Concepcion, W., Lawrence, L. 1994; 57 (8): 1169-1173


    The safety and efficacy of conversion to FK506 after failing immunosuppression with cyclosporine was prospectively evaluated in 31 pediatric liver transplant recipients between April 1991 and March 1993. The patients, who ranged in age from 40 days to 14 years, accounted for 28 primary transplantations and 3 retransplantations. The initial immunosuppression regimen consisted of cyclosporine in combination with prednisone. The indications for conversion were acute or chronic rejection refractory to OKT3, Minnesota antilymphocyte globulin, or steroids (13 patients); hypertension (8 patients); inability to reach a therapeutic level of cyclosporine (6 patients); hirsutism (3 patients); and growth retardation (1 patient). After an average follow-up of 10 months (range, 2 to 25 months), 27 (87%) of the patients are alive and have functioning grafts. Of the 13 patients who were converted for refractory rejection, 9 are alive. Six of these 9 patients experienced a complete biochemical reversal of the rejection process within 3 months of conversion; 2 had a partial response to conversion, and 1 patient failed but underwent successful retransplantation. Three of the 4 patients who died did so without showing any improvement. The remaining 18 patients who were converted for various other reasons are alive and have functioning grafts. Of the 8 patients who developed hypertension on cyclosporine and prednisone, 6 experienced a resolution of this problem within 3 months of conversion. Three of the 18 children who underwent rescue therapy for reasons other than refractory rejection experienced rejection episodes after conversion to FK506. Two of these 3 children achieved resolution with either steroid therapy or an increased dosage of FK506, while the third child developed chronic rejection. The side effects of FK506 were generally minor and resolved by lowering the dose. Lymphoproliferative disease developed in 2 patients (6%). The present study suggests that FK506 is a relatively safe and effective rescue therapy for pediatric liver transplant recipients who have failed immunosuppression with cyclosporine. Longer follow-up is needed to assess the effect of FK506 on growth.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NJ20800005

    View details for PubMedID 7513911

  • Liver transplantation at California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California. Clinical transplants Esquivel, C. O., Martinez, O., Krams, S., Lim, J., So, S. K., Concepcion, W., Cox, K. L., Keeffe, E. B. 1994: 163-171


    A number of modifications in patient selection, operative technique, and immunosuppressive management have greatly contributed to the success of the liver transplant program at CPMC. Graft rejection and the timely detection of EBV infection are ongoing problems in hepatic transplantation that are foci of active research in our field. To address these issues, our group is investigating the activity of cytokines and adhesion molecules using sophisticated molecular techniques, and we are developing a sensitive assay for EBV markers in blood. These and other projects currently in progress will continue when we move our liver transplant program to Stanford University Medical Center in January 1995.

    View details for PubMedID 7547535

  • Continuous Infusion Ranitidine in Postoperative Pediatric Liver Transplant Patients: Effects on Intragastric pH, Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Metabolic Alkalosis. American journal of therapeutics Dimand, R. J., Burckart, G. n., Concepcion, W. n., Hall, R. J., Bishop, A. L., Borland, L. n., Starzl, T. E. 1994; 1 (4): 281–86


    The effects of ranitidine, an H(2)-receptor antagonist, on gastric pH, incidence of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and postoperative metabolic alkalosis were evaluated in 23 pediatric liver transplant recipients. Intragastric pH probes were inserted postoperatively and pH was monitored for 48 h. Ranitidine was infused for 48 h at 0.2 mg kg(minus sign1) h(minus sign1) (0.15 with renal impairment) and increased once by 0.05 mg kg(minus sign1) if the pH was less than 4.0 for 4 h. The pretreatment gastric pH was 2.1 plus minus 0.7; ranitidine infusion raised the pH to 6.8 plus minus 0.6 (p greater-than-or-equal 0.05). An intragastric pH > 4 was achieved in 64 plus minus 36 min, with a median ED(50) (50% of maximum response) of 0.24 mg kg(minus sign1). The pH was < 4 for 5.3 plus minus 4.8% of the time after the initial response. Loss of pH control occurred in three patients, two of whom had bacterial sepsis. The incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and metabolic alkalosis was evaluated by comparing the study patients to age- and weight-matched historic controls from our center. Bleeding occurred in 1 of 23 (4%) study patients compared to 7 of 23 (30%) controls (p greater-than-or-equal 0.05). Metabolic alkalosis did not develop in the study patients at 24 or 48 h postoperatively (p greater-than-or-equal 0.05 versus controls). Whole blood cyclosporine levels and hepatocellular enzymes were similar in the two groups. We conclude that continuous intravenous infusion of ranitidine in the postoperative pediatric liver transplant recipient raises intragastric pH, decreases the incidence of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and prevents the development of metabolic alkalosis.

    View details for PubMedID 11835101

  • COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF BLOOD, COLLOID, AND RINGERS LACTATE TERMINAL ALLOGRAFT RINSE ON THE RESULTS OF ORTHOTOPIC LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION 2nd International Congress of the Society-for-Organ-Sharing Menegaux, F., Egawa, H., Keeffe, E. B., So, S. K., Concepcion, W., Collins, G. M., Esquivel, C. O. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1993: 3196–98

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993ML92400093

    View details for PubMedID 8266513

  • CHARACTERIZATION OF CHOLECYSTOKININ RECEPTORS ON THE HUMAN SPHINCTER OF ODDI SURGERY Tokunaga, Y., Cox, K. L., Itasaka, H., Concepcion, W., Nakazato, P., Esquivel, C. O. 1993; 114 (5): 942-950


    The present in vitro study investigated the interaction between cholecystokinin (CCK) and receptors on human sphincter of Oddi tissue obtained from donated human livers that were being transplanted.Radiolabeled ligands with cholecystokinin receptor specificity, autoradiography, and crystal scintillation counting were used to directly characterize cholecystokinin receptors on tissue sections.The binding of 125I-BH-CCK-8 to the tissue was saturable, specific, and dependent on time, pH, and temperature. Saturable binding of 125I-BH-CCK-8 was localized on the smooth muscle layer, and binding was inhibited only by cholecystokinin-related peptides. Computer analysis of 125I-BH-CCK-8 binding indicated the presence of two classes of binding sites, one with a high affinity and the other with a low affinity for CCK-8. CCK-8 caused relaxation (half-maximal concentration, 6 nmol/L) and carbachol caused contraction (half-maximal concentration, 10 nmol/L) of circular, cross-sectional strips of the tissue. Longitudinal strips were less responsive. The relative 125I-BH-CCK-8 binding inhibition potency of CCK-8 agreed closely with its relative ability to cause sphincter relaxation. Tetrodotoxin (1 mumol/L) and atropine (1 mumol/L) caused a rightward shift of the dose-response curve for CCK-8-stimulated sphincter relaxation.The present results indicate that cholecystokinin receptors on the human sphincter of Oddi are sulfate dependent and mediate sphincter relaxation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MF75400013

    View details for PubMedID 8236019



    Liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis remains controversial. In particular, criteria for the selection of patients who will remain recovered from alcoholism post-transplant require better definition. We analyzed the long-term predictive value of categorizing transplant referral patients with alcoholism and end-stage liver disease into risk groups for recidivism and noncompliance. Forty-seven patients with the diagnosis of alcoholism and advanced liver disease were evaluated and placed into predefined risk groups (low-, moderate-, and high-risk) for recidivism and noncompliance. No absolute period of abstinence from alcohol was required. All patients were asked to sign a contract not to drink alcohol and comply with a rehabilitation program before and after transplantation. Compliance with alcohol rehabilitation, abstinence, functional level, employment, and survival were assessed. Patients who were not compliant with the rehabilitation program or consumed alcohol were scored as failures. Thirty-one patients were ranked as low risk, and were accepted for liver transplantation; 27 patients were transplanted. Five of 31 patients (16%) drank alcohol. One patient drank before and four patients drank transiently after transplantation. Ten patients were categorized as moderate risk, and were deferred for transplantation; two patients underwent later transplantation. All 10 patients (100%) were noncompliant or drank alcohol, including two patients who drank after transplantation after a period of abstinence and rehabilitation. Six patients were ranked as high risk, and were denied liver transplantation. Five patients (83%) drank alcohol and were noncompliant. Minimum follow-up was 12 months (mean, 24 months; range, 12-41 months). The mean Karnofsky performance score was 34 before and 84 after liver transplantation. Actuarial survival of alcoholic patients undergoing transplantation was 93%. We conclude that categorization of transplant referral patients with alcoholism and liver failure into predefined risk groups for recidivism and noncompliance accurately predicts pre- and post-transplant behavior. As defined, only low-risk alcoholic patients are good candidates for liver transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LW16600006

    View details for PubMedID 8362826



    Reduced-size liver transplantation has been recognized as a powerful modality in alleviating the global donor shortage in pediatric liver transplantation. We describe, for the first time, a technique for revascularizing reduced-size grafts which has not been patterned after adult revascularization techniques. This revascularization method for reduced-size liver transplantation is particularly suitable for infants weighing < 10 kg. This technique differs from adult revascularization techniques in that the supraceliac aorta is always used as the origin for graft arterialization, and that the anastomoses are always performed in the following order: end-to-side donor celiac artery to supraceliac aorta anastomoses first, followed by the suprahepatic vena caval anastomoses, infrahepatic vena caval anastomoses, and then portal vein anastomoses. Hepatic artery thrombosis in infants weighing < 10 kg has occurred in 4 of 32 nonreduced versus 0 of 21 reduced transplantations (P = .05616, Z test, one tail). Adult revascularization was primarily used in the nonreduced group, whereas our proposed revascularization method was primarily used in the reduced group. We conclude that, for infants weighing < 10 kg receiving reduced grafts, this proposed technique should be used to decrease hepatic artery thrombosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LN64600014

    View details for PubMedID 8229570



    A portoenterostomy (PE) procedure for extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA) is sometimes performed with a stoma in an attempt to reduce the incidence of acute cholangitis. The purpose of this study was to determine if the presence of a stoma increased the complication rate of patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for EHBA. The medical records of 42 consecutive patients with EHBA who underwent primary OLT between October 1988 and October 1991 were retrospectively reviewed. Three patients were excluded, since their grafts were lost within 3 days of OLT. The remaining 39 patients were divided into three groups: no PE (n = 7), PE without stoma (n = 23), and PE with stoma (n = 9). The mean age of the whole group was 19.62 +/- 24.37 months, with a range of 5 to 132 months. Mean weight was 9.62 kg, with a range of 4.2 to 41 kg. Survival at 3 and 12 months as well as number of retransplantations were similar among the three groups. However, at the time of OLT increased morbidity was observed, consisting of increased operative time and number of reoperations, whether or not the stoma had been closed prior to OLT.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KR55100019

    View details for PubMedID 8468652


    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KN62200314

    View details for PubMedID 8442207

  • CHARACTERIZATION OF CHOLECYSTOKININ RECEPTORS ON THE HUMAN GALLBLADDER SURGERY Tokunaga, Y., Cox, K. L., Coleman, R., Concepcion, W., Nakazato, P., Esquivel, C. O. 1993; 113 (2): 155-162


    Several studies examined in vivo and in vitro biologic activity of the human gallbladder in response to cholecystokinin (CCK). However, few studies have demonstrated directly the interaction of CCK with receptors on the human gallbladder, which is responsible for this biologic activity.To characterize CCK receptors on human gallbladder tissue, gallbladders were removed from human donor grafts that were being used for liver transplantation. The gallbladders were rapidly frozen and sectioned for measurement of binding of 125I-Bolton-Hunter-labeled-CCK-8 and were cut into strips for in vitro bioassay.Binding of 125I-BH-CCK-8 to human gallbladder was saturable, specific, and dependent on time, pH, and temperature. The binding was inhibited only by cholecystokinin-related peptides including CCK-8 (IC50 10 +/- 1.0 nmol/L) (mean +/- SD), des(SO3) CCK-8 (IC50 0.9 +/- 0.2 mumol/L), and gastrin-17-I (IC50 9.0 +/- 2.0 mumol/L) or specific CCK receptor antagonist L-364,718. Computer analysis of binding of 125I-BH-CCK-8 to gallbladder tissue showed a single class of binding sites with high affinity for CCK-8. Autoradiography localized binding of 125I-BH-CCK-8 only to the smooth muscle layer of the gallbladder. In the bioassay des(SO3) CCK-8 (EC50 1.2 +/- 0.7 mumol/L) and gastrin-17-I (EC50 4.5 +/- 2.4 mumol/L) were 150- and 563-fold less potent than CCK-8 (EC50 8.0 +/- 2.2 nmol/L). The relative potencies of CCK agonists for inhibiting binding of 125I-BH-CCK-8 agreed closely with their relative potencies for causing gallbladder contraction. The dose-response curve for CCK-8 alone to induce gallbladder contraction was not significantly different from those caused by CCK-8 plus 1 mumol/L tetrodotoxin or 1 mumol/L atropine.These results characterized the CCK receptors on smooth muscle of human gallbladder as sulfate dependent and causing gallbladder contraction.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KL37600007

    View details for PubMedID 7679224

  • TRANSIENT DETERIORATION OF INTRAPULMONARY SHUNTING AFTER PEDIATRIC LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION TRANSPLANTATION Itasaka, H., Hershon, J. J., Cox, K. L., Tokunaga, Y., Concepcion, W., Nakazato, P., Esquivel, C. O. 1993; 55 (1): 212-214

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KH66000042

    View details for PubMedID 8420052

  • GRAFT INVOLVEMENT BY LEGIONELLA IN A LIVER-TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT ARCHIVES OF SURGERY Tokunaga, Y., Concepcion, W., Berquist, W. E., Cox, K. L., WIVIOTT, L. D., GARCIAKENNEDY, R., Itasaka, H., Nakazato, P., Esquivel, C. O. 1992; 127 (4): 475-477


    Legionella pneumophila, serogroup 1, was identified by direct immunofluorescence in the lung and liver graft from a 2 1/2-month-old infant who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation because of fulminant hepatic failure secondary to neonatal hepatitis. The patient died of respiratory failure owing to this infection 22 days after transplantation despite treatment with erythromycin lactobionate. To our knowledge, this represents the first reported case of hepatic infection with Legionella in liver transplant recipients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HM46400020

    View details for PubMedID 1558502

  • TOTAL ABDOMINAL EVISCERATION - AN EN-BLOC TECHNIQUE FOR ABDOMINAL ORGAN HARVESTING SURGERY Nakazato, P. Z., Concepcion, W., Bry, W., Limm, W., Tokunaga, Y., Itasaka, H., FEDUSKA, N., Esquivel, C. O., Collins, G. M. 1992; 111 (1): 37-47


    This paper describes an en bloc total abdominal evisceration (TAE) technique that has been used successfully in 81 consecutive multi-organ procurements in donors ranging from 2.5 to 85 kg. Preliminary dissection performed by the surgeon and physician's assistant averaged 30 to 45 minutes before aortic cross-clamping. Removal of all abdominal organs (liver, kidneys, pancreas, bowel) en bloc averaged 16 to 24 minutes after aortic cross-clamping, depending on the speed of the thoracic procurement. Organ grafts were preserved with the University of Wisconsin preservation solution. Total procurement time for the removal of the liver, pancreas, and kidneys averaged 1.5 to 2.25 hours. Because all vascular anomalies were easily recognized ex vivo, vascular reconstruction was possible, so that all donors could potentially provide for combined liver, pancreas, and kidney transplantation. In the TAE group, primary liver graft nonfunction was 1.2% (1/81 grafts), which is less than the non-TAE liver graft nonfunction rate of 7% (7/99 grafts); this is statistically significant (p less than 0.05). Also, the incidence of fresh frozen plasma support after liver transplantation in the TAE group (2/81 transplantations) was lower than the non-TAE group (9/99 transplantations) (p less than 0.05). The overall liver recipient survival rate was 87% (non-TAE; 78/94 recipients; TAE; 65/70 recipients). Kidney-graft initial function has been similar in both the TAE and non-TAE groups. All pancreas tissue was histologically normal, and extraction of viable islet cells (average, 3600 islets per gram pancreas) was possible with yields similar to standard pancreatic (average, 379 islets per gram pancreas) harvest techniques. Preliminary experience with combined liver and whole-organ pancreas transplantations has been encouraging, with immediate discontinuation of intraoperative insulin during transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992GY46500006

    View details for PubMedID 1728073


    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GV17500096

    View details for PubMedID 1721345

  • LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION - EXPERIENCE WITH 100 CASES WESTERN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Szpakowski, J. L., Cox, K., Nakazato, P., Concepcion, W., Levin, B., Esquivel, C. O. 1991; 155 (5): 494-499


    Between March 1988 and November 1989, 100 liver transplants were performed on 90 patients at Pacific Presbyterian (now California Pacific) Medical Center in San Francisco. The immunosuppressive regimen was a combination of prophylactic Minnesota antilymphocyte globulin, cyclosporine, and low-dose corticosteroids. Rejections were treated with OKT3, a monoclonal antibody, or corticosteroids. Of the 100 transplants, 32 were done on 30 children, 18 of whom weighed less than 10 kg and 9 of whom received livers that had been surgically reduced in size to fit the recipient. The overall patient survival at 2 years was 85%. Of 100 liver transplants, treatment was given for 80 (80%) for at least 1 episode of rejection. At least 1 episode of serious infection occurred in 34 of the 60 adult patients and 25 of the 30 children. Of the entire group, 2% had hepatic artery thrombosis, and 12% had biliary complications that necessitated reoperation. The quality of life has been good, with a follow-up from 1 to almost 3 years (mean = 22 months). Comparing these data with those of other published series shows a decreased incidence of surgical complications and a lower rate of fungal and viral infections. We attribute this to the reduction of steroid dosage during convalescence without jeopardizing patient or graft survival.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GP12600003

    View details for PubMedID 1815388

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1003060



    Reduced-size liver transplantation (RSLT) in children was introduced to alleviate a shortage of small-organ donors. The impact of RSLT on the waiting time for an organ and on morbidity and mortality was investigated. Between March 25, 1988, and August 11, 1990, 61 hepatic transplantations were performed in 55 children at the Pacific Transplant Institute in San Francisco, Calif. Full-size liver transplantation was performed in 41 cases and RSLT in 20 cases. The overall 30-month actuarial patient and graft survival rates were 89% and 73%, respectively. A comparison between full-size liver transplantation and RSLT showed no difference in patient and graft survival, reoperations, infections, or rejection. Benefits of RSLT were an increase in the donor pool size, a decrease in waiting time for a suitable donor, and a decrease in the rate of arterial thrombosis. The main morbidity of RSLT was an increase in perioperative blood requirement. We conclude that RSLT offers small children with end-stage liver disease a chance for long-term survival.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GJ52400018

    View details for PubMedID 1929830

  • SUCCESSFUL 20-HOUR RAT-LIVER PRESERVATION WITH CHLORPROMAZINE IN SODIUM LACTOBIONATE SUCROSE SOLUTION SURGERY Tokunaga, Y., Wicomb, W. N., Concepcion, W., Nakazato, P., Collins, G. M., Esquivel, C. O. 1991; 110 (1): 80-86


    We investigated the effect of the addition of chlorpromazine to a new, simplified organ preservation solution, sodium lactobionate sucrose (SLS), for 20-hour hypothermic rat liver preservation. Survival beyond 7 days after orthotopic transplantation of the stored liver was eight of eight rats in control groups (immediate transplantation, less than 1-hour preservation), one of 14 rats with the University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, four of 14 rats with SLS, seven of eight rats with SLS + chlorpromazine, 1 mg/L, and seven of eight rats with SLS + chlorpromazine, 10 mg/L. The differences is survival between UW and SLS and between SLS and SLS + chlorpromazine were significant (p less than 0.05). Lactic dehydrogenase levels in the effluent after reflushing through the portal vein at the time of transplantation were 145 +/- 20 IU/L (mean +/- SEM) in the controls, 525 +/- 78 IU/L in UW, 492 +/- 44 IU/L in SLS, 290 +/- 39 IU/L in SLS + chlorpromazine, 1 mg/L, 290 +/- 11 IU/L in SLS + chlorpromazine, 10 mg/L. The values for the SLS + chlorpromazine were significantly lower than for SLS and UW (p less than 0.05). The pH of the effluent was 7.10 +/- 0.10 in controls, 6.42 +/- 0.12 in UW, 6.64 +/- 0.18 in SLS, and 7.07 +/- 0.02 in SLS + chlorpromazine, 1 mg/L and 10 mg/L. The pH drop was significantly greater in the groups without chlorpromazine (p less than 0.01). This study shows that superior rat liver preservation was achieved with a simplified lactobionate solution containing sodium as the principal cation, sucrose in place of raffinose, and omitting the colloid and several of the other UW components. The addition of low concentrations of chlorpromazine further enhanced the effectiveness of this solution, without the need for donor pretreatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FV58700011

    View details for PubMedID 1866698


    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EV39000259

    View details for PubMedID 1990638

  • LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION IN LANGERHANS CELL HISTIOCYTOSIS (HISTIOCYTOSIS-X) SEMINARS IN ONCOLOGY Concepcion, W., Esquivel, C. O., Terry, A., Nakazato, P., GARCIAKENNEDY, R., Houssin, D., Cox, K. L. 1991; 18 (1): 24-28


    Two children with biopsy-proven LCH underwent successful hepatic transplantation for end-stage liver disease. These patients were thought not to have active LCH disease at the time of transplantation, although one had developed a new osteolytic lesion a few months before the operation and the other had suspicious osteolytic lesions at the time of transplantation. The histologic examination of the excised liver showed features consistent with primary sclerosing cholangitis. The two patients had an excellent recovery with no evidence of progression of LCH or recurrence of the underlying disease in the hepatic allograft at 1 and 3 years after organ transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EX24100005

    View details for PubMedID 1992520

  • LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION IN INFANTS WEIGHING LESS THAN 10-KILOGRAMS TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS Cox, K., Nakazato, P., Berquist, W., Concepcion, W., Tokunaga, Y., Esquivel, C. 1991; 23 (1): 1579-1580

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EV39100273

    View details for PubMedID 1989298

  • LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION - AN UNFINISHED PRODUCT TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS Starzl, T. E., Todo, S., Tzakis, A. G., Gordon, R. D., Makowka, L., Stieber, A., Podesta, L., Yanaga, K., Concepcion, W., Iwatsuki, S. 1989; 21 (1): 2197-2197


    Liver transplantation has become an extraordinarily valuable and useful operation, but one that is not perfect and that has not been exploited to anything like its full potential. Better immunosuppression may become available soon as exemplified by developments with the Japanese drug, FK506. Improved preservation with the UW solution is already here. With these advantages, liver transplantation is certain to become far more widely used than at any time in the past. Examples were cited of innovative approaches using liver transplantation for the treatment of hepatic malignancies.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989U152400390

    View details for PubMedID 2469232

  • Evidence for hyperacute rejection of human liver grafts: The case of the canary kidneys. Clinical transplantation Starzl, T. E., Demetris, A. J., Todo, S. n., Kang, Y. n., Tzakis, A. n., Duquesnoy, R. n., Makowka, L. n., Banner, B. n., Concepcion, W. n., Porter, K. A. 1989; 3: 37–45


    Sequential liver and kidney transplantation from the same donor was performed in 2 patients. The kidney in Patient 1, which was transplanted after the liver, was hyperacutely rejected and removed 6 hours later. The first liver as well as another liver transplanted 3 days later developed widespread hemorrhagic necrosis. Although the cytotoxic crossmatch of preoperative recipient serum with both donors was negative, patchy widespread IgM and C(1q) deposits were found in all 3 organs. In Patient 2, who had a strongly positive cytotoxic crossmatch with his donor, the liver suffered a massive but reversible injury, while the kidney never functioned. Both patients developed a coagulopathy a few minutes after liver revascularization. The kidneys in these cases had served like the canaries which miners once used to detect a hostile environment and their presence made more understandable how an indolent version of hyperacute rejection of the liver can take place.

    View details for PubMedID 21151799

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3000169



    Technical details of investigational orthotopic cardiac transplantation for management of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in a neonate are presented. Extracorporeal perfusion technique and need for extensive aortic arch reconstruction are emphasized. Although this experience was with a subhuman primate (baboon) donor, source of donor graft makes little difference with regards to the unique technical aspects of cardiac transplantation in a ductus-dependent newborn infant with a diminutive aortic arch.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986D068800001

    View details for PubMedID 3523049



    This report details the first case of cardiac xenotransplantation in a neonate. The recipient, a victim of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), survived 20 days. Autopsy findings are documented. The cardiac graft showed only traces of cell-mediated rejection. Graft failure appears to have resulted from a progressive, potentially avoidable humoral response, unmodified by immunosuppression. Cardiac allotransplantation and selective baboon-to-human xenotransplantation deserve further exploration as investigational therapy for neonatal HLHS.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AVW1000017

    View details for PubMedID 2933538