Doctor of Philosophy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2018)
A Thioether-Ligated Cupric Superoxide Model with Hydrogen Atom Abstraction Reactivity.
Journal of the American Chemical Society
The central role of cupric superoxide intermediates proposed in hormone and neurotransmitter biosynthesis by noncoupled binuclear copper monooxygenases like dopamine-β-monooxygenase has drawn significant attention to the unusual methionine ligation of the CuM ("CuB") active site characteristic of this class of enzymes. The copper-sulfur interaction has proven critical for turnover, raising still-unresolved questions concerning Nature's selection of an oxidizable Met residue to facilitate C-H oxygenation. We describe herein a model for CuM, [(TMGN3S)CuI]+ (+), and its O2-bound analog [(TMGN3S)CuII(O2•-)]+ ([1·O2]+). The latter is the first reported cupric superoxide with an experimentally proven Cu-S bond which also possesses demonstrated hydrogen atom abstraction (HAA) reactivity. Introduction of O2 to a precooled solution of the cuprous precursor B(C6F5)4 (-135 °C, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF)) reversibly forms [1·O2]B(C6F5)4 (UV/vis spectroscopy: λmax 442, 642, 742 nm). Resonance Raman studies (413 nm) using 16O2 [18O2] corroborated the identity of [1·O2]+ by revealing Cu-O (446  cm-1) and O-O (1105  cm-1) stretches, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy showed a Cu-S interatomic distance of 2.55 Å. HAA reactivity between [1·O2]+ and TEMPO-H proceeds rapidly (1.28 × 10-1 M-1 s-1, -135 °C, 2-MeTHF) with a primary kinetic isotope effect of kH/kD = 5.4. Comparisons of the O2-binding behavior and redox activity of + vs +, the latter a close analog of + but with all N atom ligation (i.e., N3S vs N4), are presented.
View details for DOI 10.1021/jacs.1c00260
View details for PubMedID 33684290
Kinetic analysis of amino acid radicals formed in H2O2-driven CuI LPMO reoxidation implicates dominant homolytic reactivity.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) have been proposed to react with both [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] as cosubstrates. In this study, the [Formula: see text] reaction with reduced Hypocrea jecorina LPMO9A (CuI-HjLPMO9A) is demonstrated to be 1,000-fold faster than the [Formula: see text] reaction while producing the same oxidized oligosaccharide products. Analysis of the reactivity in the absence of polysaccharide substrate by stopped-flow absorption and rapid freeze-quench (RFQ) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) yields two intermediates corresponding to neutral tyrosyl and tryptophanyl radicals that are formed along minor reaction pathways. The dominant reaction pathway is characterized by RFQ EPR and kinetic modeling to directly produce CuII-HjLPMO9A and indicates homolytic O-O cleavage. Both optical intermediates exhibit magnetic exchange coupling with the CuII sites reflecting facile electron transfer (ET) pathways, which may be protective against uncoupled turnover or provide an ET pathway to the active site with substrate bound. The reactivities of nonnative organic peroxide cosubstrates effectively exclude the possibility of a ping-pong mechanism.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1922499117
View details for PubMedID 32414932