Honors & Awards

  • Eben J. Carey, MD Award, Phi Chi Medical Fraternity (2008-2009)
  • Michael J. Carey, MD Award, Phi Chi Medical Fraternity (2010-2011)
  • Patrick H. Hanley Medical Scholarship, Tulane University (2009-2012)
  • Jack Aron Medical Scholarship, Tulane University (2009-2012)
  • Schwartz-Stuckey Award, Tulane University (2008-2012)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Stanford University Healthcare Surgery Representative, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) Medical Honor Society (2012 - Present)
  • Member, Stanford Society of Physician Scholars (2013 - Present)
  • Member, Alpha Eta Mu Beta Biomedical Engineering Honor Society (2012 - Present)
  • Member, Kappa Delta Phi Honor Fraternity (2012 - Present)
  • Member, Science and Engineering Honor Society (2012 - Present)

Professional Education

  • MD, Tulane University School of Medicine, Medicine (2012)
  • BSE, Tulane University, Biomedical Engineering (2008)

Community and International Work

  • Parirenyatwa Hospital, Zimbabwe


    Global surgery

    Partnering Organization(s)

    University of Zimbabwe



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Young Women in Bio (YWIB)

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Women in Bio (WIB)

    Populations Served

    Young women


    Bay Area

    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement



  • William Christopher Kethman, Bronwyn Uber Harris, Frank Tinghwa Wang, Todd Edward Murphy. "United States Patent US20160224750A1 Monitoring system for assessing control of a disease state", Leland Stanford Junior University
  • David Rice, William Kethman, Bryan Molter, Stephanie Roberts, Mark Young. "United States Patent US8496668B2 Combined umbilical cord cutter, clamp, and disinfectant", Administrators of the Tulane Educational Fund
  • Steve Allen Franseen, William Kethman, Dann Schwartz. "United States Patent WO2016081822A1 Multi-component detachable cutting and clamping tool and methods of using same", Novate Medical Technologies

All Publications

  • Effects of Colorectal Surgery Classification on Reported Postoperative Surgical Site Infections. The Journal of surgical research Kethman, W. C., Shelton, E. A., Kin, C., Morris, A. M., Shelton, A. A. 2019; 236: 340–44


    BACKGROUND: Current procedural terminology (CPT) for colon and rectal surgery lacks procedural granularity and misclassification rates are unknown. However, they are used in performance measurement, for example, in surgical site infection (SSI). The objective of this study was to determine whether American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) abstraction methods accurately classify types of colorectal operations and, by extension, reported SSI rates.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted at a single tertiary care center. The colectomy- and proctectomy-targeted NSQIP database from January 2011 to July 2016 was used to perform a semiautomated reclassification (SAR) of all colectomy and proctectomy cases performed by colorectal surgeons. The primary outcome was the difference in perioperative SSI rates by case classification method.RESULTS: Thousand sixty-three patients underwent a colectomy or proctectomy during the study period with a mean age of 55.7 (SD=16.7) years. Use of the NSQIP classification scheme resulted in 849 colectomy and 214 proctectomy cases. Use of the SAR method resulted in 650 colectomy cases and 413 proctectomy cases (P<0.001), a 23.4% reclassification of colectomy cases. The group of cases classified as colectomy by SAR had a lower rate of deep/organ space infections than those classified as colectomy by NSQIP (4.5% versus 7.1%, P=0.034).CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the challenges of CPT code-based patient classification and subsequent outcomes analysis. Expanding the CPT system to more accurately represent colorectal operations would allow for more representative reported outcomes, thus enabling benchmarking and quality improvement.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2018.12.005

    View details for PubMedID 30694775

  • Passive Nocturnal Physiologic Monitoring Enables Early Detection of Exacerbations in Asthmatic Children: A Proof of Concept Study. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine Huffaker, M. F., Carchia, M., Harris, B. U., Kethman, W. C., Murphy, T. E., Sakarovitch, C. C., Qin, F., Cornfield, D. N. 2018


    RATIONALE: Asthma management depends on prompt identification of symptoms, which challenges both patients and providers. In asthma, a misapprehension of health between exacerbations can compromise compliance. Thus, there is a need for a tool that permits objective longitudinal monitoring without increasing the burden of patient compliance.OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether changes in nocturnal physiology are associated with asthma symptoms in pediatric patients.METHODS: Using a contactless bed sensor, nocturnal heart rate, respiratory rate, relative stroke volume, and movement in asthmatic children 5-18 years old (n=16) were recorded. Asthma symptoms and Asthma Control Test score were reported every two weeks. Random forest model was used to identify physiologic parameters associated with asthma symptoms. Elastic net regression was used to identify variables associated with Asthma Control Test score.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The model on the full cohort performed with sensitivity of 47.2%, specificity of 96.3%, and accuracy of 87.4%; heart rate and respiratory parameters were the most important variables in this model. The model predicted asthma symptoms 35% of the time on the day prior to perception of symptoms, and 100% of the time for a select subject for which the model performed with greater sensitivity. Multivariable and bivariable analyses demonstrated significant association between heart rate and respiratory rate parameters and Asthma Control Test score.CONCLUSIONS: Nocturnal physiologic changes correlate with asthma symptoms, supporting the notion that nocturnal physiologic monitoring represents an objective diagnostic tool capable longitudinally assessing disease control and predicting asthma exacerbations in asthmatic children at home.

    View details for DOI 10.1164/rccm.201712-2606OC

    View details for PubMedID 29688023

  • Trends and surgical outcomes of laparoscopic versus open pyloromyotomy. Surgical endoscopy Kethman, W. C., Harris, A. H., Hawn, M. T., Wall, J. K. 2018


    Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) is one of the most common pediatric illnesses necessitating surgical intervention. Controversy remains over the optimal surgical approach between laparoscopic pyloromyotomy (LP) and open pyloromyotomy (OP). LP has gained acceptance for management of HPS in an era of expanding minimal access surgical approaches to pediatric conditions. Several studies suggest advantages of LP over OP; however, selection bias and small sample sizes remain a concern. This study compares the outcomes of LP versus OP using propensity score methods.The 2013-2015 ACS NSQIP Pediatric PUF was queried for all infants undergoing pyloromyotomy. The trend in the proportion of infants undergoing LP was described and perioperative outcomes between the OP and LP cohorts were compared using propensity score weighted regression models.4847 infants were identified to have undergone surgical pyloromyotomy. The proportion of LP performed increased significantly from 59% in 2013 to 65.5% in 2015 (p < 0.001). LP was associated with lower overall complications (1.4% vs 2.9%) (ORadj 0.52, 95% CI 0.34-0.80), surgical site-related complications (1.1% vs 2.1%) (ORadj 0.52, 95% CI 0.32-0.84), and post-operative length of stay (1.5 days vs 1.9 days) (ORadj 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98) without significant differences in related re-operation (0.9% vs 0.9%) (ORadj 1.01, 95% CI 0.52-1.93) or readmissions (1.4% vs 2.1%) (ORadj 0.73, 95% CI 0.46-1.17).Our study demonstrates that LP is increasingly utilized for management of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis and is associated with shorter length of stay, and lower odds of surgical site-specific and overall complications without differences in related re-operations. This study supports LP as a safe and effective method for management of HPS.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00464-018-6060-0

    View details for PubMedID 29340829

  • Advanced minimal access surgery in infants weighing less than 3kg: A single center experience. Journal of pediatric surgery Wall, J. K., Sinclair, T. J., Kethman, W., Williams, C., Albanese, C., Sylvester, K. G., Bruzoni, M. 2017


    Minimal access surgery (MAS) has gained popularity in infants less than 5kg, however, significant challenges still arise in very low weight infants.A retrospective chart review was performed to identify all infants weighing less than 3kg who underwent an advanced MAS or equivalent open procedure from 2009 to 2016. Advanced case types included Nissen fundoplication, duodenal atresia repair, Ladd procedure, congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair, esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula repair, diaphragmatic plication, and pyloric atresia repair. A comparative analysis was performed between the MAS and open cohorts.A total of 45 advanced MAS cases and 17 open cases met the inclusion criteria. Gestational age and age at operation were similar between the cohorts, while infants who underwent open procedures had significantly lower weight at operation (p=0.003). There were no deaths within 30days related to surgery in either group. Only 3 MAS cases required unintended conversion to open. There were 2 (4.4%) postoperative complications related to surgery in the MAS cohort and 2 (11.8%) in the open cohort.Advanced MAS may be performed in infants weighing less than 3kg with low mortality, acceptable rates of conversion, and similar rates of complications as open procedures.Prognosis study.Level III.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2017.05.006

    View details for PubMedID 28549685

  • Say What? Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba Syndrome Presenting with Gastrointestinal Bleeding Due to Hamartoma-Induced Intussusception. Digestive diseases and sciences Kethman, W., Rao, A., Devereaux, K., Ouellet, E., Kin, C. 2017

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-016-4443-4

    View details for PubMedID 28168574

  • Surgical Site Infections after Appendectomy Performed in Low and Middle Human Development-Index Countries: A Systematic Review. Surgical infections Foster, D., Kethman, W., Cai, L. Z., Weiser, T. G., Forrester, J. D. 2017


    Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency worldwide. Early intervention is associated with better outcomes. In low and middle Human Development-Index Countries (LMHDICs), late presentation and poor access to healthcare facilities can contribute to greater illness severity and higher complication rates, such as post-operative surgical site infections (SSIs). The current rate of SSIs post-appendectomy in low- and middle-index settings has yet to be described.We performed a systemic review of the literature describing the incidence and management of SSIs after appendectomy in LMHDICs. We conducted qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data in manuscripts describing patients undergoing appendectomy to establish a baseline SSI rate for this procedure in these settings.Four hundred twenty-three abstracts were initially identified. Of these, 35 studies met the criteria for qualitative and quantitative analysis. The overall weighted, pooled SSI rated were 17.9 infections/100 open appendectomies (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.4-25.3 infections/100 open appendectomies) and 8.8 infections/100 laparoscopic appendectomies (95% CI 4.5-13.2 infections/100 laparoscopic appendectomies). The SSI rates were higher in complicated appendicitis and when pre-operative antibiotic use was not specified.Observed SSI rates after appendectomy in LMHDICs are dramatically higher than rates in high Human Development-Index Countries. This is particularly true in cases of open appendectomy, which remains the most common surgical approach in LMHDICs. These findings highlight the need for SSI prevention in LMHDICs, including prompt access to medical and surgical care, routine pre-operative antibiotic use, and implementation of bundled care packages and checklists.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/sur.2017.188

    View details for PubMedID 29058569

  • Initial experience with peroral endoscopic myotomy for treatment of achalasia in children. Journal of pediatric surgery Kethman, W. C., Thorson, C. M., Sinclair, T. J., Berquist, W. E., Chao, S. D., Wall, J. K. 2017


    Achalasia is a primary esophageal motility disorder characterized by aperistalsis of the esophagus and failed relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter that presents rarely in childhood. The peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) procedure is an emerging treatment for achalasia in adults that has recently been introduced into pediatric surgical practice.This is a prospective case series of all children referred to Stanford University Lucile Packard Children's Hospital with manometry-confirmed achalasia who underwent a POEM procedure from 2014 to 2016.We enrolled 10 subjects ranging in age from 7 to 17years (M=13.4). The mean pre- and 1-month post-procedure Eckardt scores were 7 (SD=2.5) and 2.4 (SD=2) (p<0.001), respectively. The median procedure time for the entire cohort was 142min (range 60-259min) with ongoing improvement with increased experience (R2=0.6, p=0.008). There were no major adverse events.The POEM procedure can be successfully completed in children for the treatment of achalasia with demonstrated short-term post-operative improvement in symptoms. The adoption of advanced endoscopic techniques by pediatric surgeons may enable development of unique intraluminal approaches to congenital anomalies and other childhood diseases.Treatment Study - Level IV.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2017.07.023

    View details for PubMedID 28827050

  • New Approaches to Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract Kethman, W., Hawn, M. 2017; 21 (9): 1544–52


    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common gastrointestinal disorder of the esophagus. It is a chronic, progressive disorder that presents most typically with heartburn and regurgitation and atypically with chest pain, dysphagia, chronic cough, globus, or sore throat. The mainstay for diagnosis and characterization of the disorder is esophagoduodenoscopy (EGD), high-resolution esophageal manometry, and symptom-associated ambulatory esophageal pH impedance monitoring. Additional studies that can be useful in certain clinical presentations include gastric scintigraphy and oral contrast upper gastrointestinal radiographic series.Refractory GERD can be surgically managed with various techniques. In obese individuals, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass should be considered due to significant symptom improvement and lower incidence of recurrent symptoms with weight loss. Otherwise, laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is the preferred surgical technique for treatment of this disease with concomitant hiatal hernia repair when present for either procedure. The short-term risks associated with these procedures include esophageal or gastric injury, pneumothorax, wound infection, and dysphagia. Emerging techniques for treatment of this disease include the Linx Reflux Management System, EndoStim LES Stimulation System, Esophyx® and MUSE™ endoscopic fundoplication devices, and the Stretta endoscopic ablation system. Outcomes after surgical management of refractory GERD are highly dependent on adherence to strict surgical indications and appropriate patient-specific procedure selection.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-017-3439-5

    View details for PubMedID 28623447

  • Surgical Site Infections after Inguinal Hernia Repairs Performed in Low and Middle Human Development Index Countries: A Systematic Review. Surgical infections Cai, L. Z., Foster, D., Kethman, W. C., Weiser, T. G., Forrester, J. D. 2017


    Inguinal hernias are a common disorder in low- and middle-human development index countries (LMHDICs). Poor access to surgical care and lack of patient awareness often lead to delayed presentations of incarcerated or strangulated hernias and their associated morbidities. There is a scarcity of data on the baseline incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) after hernia repair procedures in LMHDICs.We performed a systematic review of the literature describing the incidence and management of SSIs after inguinal hernia repair in LMHDICs. We conducted qualitative and quantitative analyses of manuscripts describing patients undergoing hernia repair to establish a baseline SSI rate for this procedure in these settings.Three hundred twenty-three abstracts were identified after applying search criteria, and 31 were suitable for the quantitative analysis. The overall pooled SSI rate was 4.1 infections/100 open hernia repairs (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0-5.3 infections/100 open repairs), which is consistent with infection rates from high-human development index countries. A separate subgroup analysis of laparoscopic hernia repairs found a weighted pooled SSI rate of 0.4 infections/100 laparoscopic repairs (95% CI 0-2.4 infections/100 laparoscopic repairs).As surgical access continues to expand in LMHDIC settings, it is imperative to monitor surgical outcomes and ensure that care is provided safely. Establishing a baseline SSI rate for inguinal hernia repairs offers a useful benchmark for future studies and surgical programs in these countries.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/sur.2017.154

    View details for PubMedID 29048997

  • Case Report: Rapid staged abdominal closure using Gore-Tex (R) mesh as a bridge to primary omphalocele sac closure JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC SURGERY CASE REPORTS Kethman, W. C., Sinclair, T. C., Abrajano, C. T., Chao, S., Wall, J. K. 2016; 9: 37–39
  • Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy, Surveillance Ultrasonography, and Fine-Needle Aspiration After Hemithyroidectomy ANNALS OF OTOLOGY RHINOLOGY AND LARYNGOLOGY Noureldine, S. I., Khan, A., Massasati, S. A., Kethman, W., Kandil, E. 2013; 122 (7): 450-456


    We undertook a retrospective analysis of a single surgeon's experience at a tertiary care teaching hospital to determine the rates of surveillance ultrasound, fine-needle aspiration (FNA), and the need for thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT) after hemithyroidectomy.The study population comprised 120 consecutive patients who underwent hemithyroidectomy by one surgeon from January 2008 to June 2011. The medical records were reviewed for preoperative and postoperative calcium levels, fiberoptic direct laryngoscopy examination of vocal fold mobility, postoperative complications, final pathology, and postoperative follow-up.Fifteen patients required completion thyroidectomy for malignancy and were excluded from the surveillance analysis. Of the remaining 105 patients, 10 (9.5%) required postoperative THRT. The likelihood for THRT was significantly associated with increased age (p = 0.01) and the presence of thyroiditis (p = 0.04). Other factors, such as gender, body mass index, residual thyroid volume, and presence of contralateral lobe nodules, were not significantly associated with this likelihood (p > 0.05). Twenty-three patients (21.9%) were followed with surveillance ultrasound, of whom 12 (11.4%) underwent FNA for nodule(s) in the contralateral lobe. Seventy-eight percent of patients did not require any long-term postoperative surveillance. There were no instances of permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve injury or hypoparathyroidism.Hemithyroidectomy is an effective and efficient option for the management of benign and suspicious thyroid nodules. However, patients of increased age and/or with thyroiditis are at higher risk for postoperative hypothyroidism, and should be counseled to consider total thyroidectomy to avoid the need for long-term surveillance and the possible need for a second operation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321880700007

    View details for PubMedID 23951697