Clinical Focus

  • Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism (2022)
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Endocrinology Fellowship (2022) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine (2020)
  • Residency: Rutgers New Jersey Medical School UMDNJ Internal Medicine Residency (2020) NJ
  • Medical Education: Tehran University of Medical Sciences (2014) Iran

All Publications

  • Approach to Bone Health in the Patient with Breast Cancer. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Motlaghzadeh, Y., Wu, J. Y. 2024


    Treatment for breast cancer, including endocrine therapies, can contribute to bone loss and increase the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Management of bone health in cancer patients is often coordinated between oncologists, endocrinologists, and primary care physicians. In this article we discuss the approach to screening for fracture risk among patients initiating treatments for breast cancer, and recommendations for lifestyle modifications to optimize bone health. We will review three indications for pharmacologic bone-targeted therapies: prevention of cancer treatment-induced bone loss, adjuvant therapy to reduce recurrence, and management of bone metastases.

    View details for DOI 10.1210/clinem/dgae404

    View details for PubMedID 38864566

  • Surgical resection of mediastinal ectopic thyroid tissue: a case series. Journal of thoracic disease Motlaghzadeh, Y., Nesbit, S., Guo, H. H., Yang, E., Desai, K., Lui, N. S. 2023; 15 (3): 1473-1481


    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) is characterized by the presence of thyroid tissue in any location other than its normal anatomic position. Mediastinal ectopic thyroid gland is a rare entity, accounting for 1% of all ETT cases. In this article, we present seven cases with mediastinal ETT over the last 26 years admitted to Stanford hospital.Searching Stanford pathology database for specimens that contained term "ectopic thyroid" between 1996 and 2021, a total of 202 patients were collected. Among those seven were classified as mediastinal ETT. Patients' electronic medical records were reviewed for data collection purposes. The mean age of our seven cases was 54 years on the day of surgery, and four were female. Chest pressure, cough, and neck pain were most reported presenting symptoms. Four of our patients had thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) checks all within normal limits. All patients in our study had computed tomography (CT) imaging of the chest detecting the mediastinal mass. Histopathology of the mass revealed ectopic thyroid tissue negative for malignancy in all cases.Ectopic mediastinal thyroid tissue is a rare clinical entity that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all mediastinal masses as it usually requires different management and treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.21037/jtd-22-479

    View details for PubMedID 37065554

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10089840

  • Surgical resection of mediastinal ectopic thyroid tissue: a case series JOURNAL OF THORACIC DISEASE Motlaghzadeh, Y., Nesbit, S., Guo, H., Yang, E., Desai, K., Lui, N. S. 2023
  • Regression of calcinosis cutis after inkless tattoo in a patient with dermatomyositis: therapeutic potential of microneedling. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA Motlaghzadeh, Y., Tabatabai, L. S., Longo, E., Sellmeyer, D. E. 2022


    Calcinosis cutis is defined as abnormal deposition of calcium salts in the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Dystrophic calcification, the most common form of calcinosis cutis, is associated with autoimmune connective tissue diseases. This condition is associated with severe pain and can affect the patient's quality of life and lead to long-term disability. Treatment is often challenging, and there is a very limited evidence base for potential treatments of calcinosis cutis associated with systemic sclerosis and dermatomyositis. Inkless tattoo is very similar to microneedling, a minimally invasive procedure stimulating the wound-healing cascade contributing to elastin and collagen formation as well as neovascularization. This technique has not been reported as a potential therapeutic option for calcinosis cutis. Here, we present a patient with calcinosis cutis in the setting of dermatomyositis that responded dramatically to inkless tattoo application. Our results support the need for future studies of microneedling in patients with this disorder.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00198-022-06501-z

    View details for PubMedID 35881144

  • Skeletal Fluorosis Due to Inhalation Abuse of a Dust Cleaner Motlaghzadeh, Y., Ku, S., Sellmeyer, D. WILEY. 2022: 102
  • Rare Causes of Hypercalcemia: 2021 Update. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Motlaghzadeh, Y., Bilezikian, J. P., Sellmeyer, D. E. 2021


    CONTEXT: Primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy are the etiologies in 90% of cases of hypercalcemia. When these entities are not the etiology of hypercalcemia, uncommon conditions need to be considered. In 2005, Jacobs and Bilezikian published a clinical review of rare causes of hypercalcemia, focusing on mechanisms and pathophysiology. This review is an updated synopsis of rare causes of hypercalcemia, extending the observations of the original article.EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Articles reporting rare associations between hypercalcemia and unusual conditions were identified through a comprehensive extensive PubMed-based search using the search terms "hypercalcemia" and "etiology," as well as examining the references in the identified case reports. We categorized the reports by adults vs. pediatric and further categorized the adult reports based on etiology. Some included reports lacked definitive assessment of etiology and are reported as unknown mechanism with discussion of likely etiology.EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: There is a growing understanding of the breadth of unusual causes of hypercalcemia. When the cause of hypercalcemia is elusive, a focus on mechanism and review of prior reported cases is key to successful determination of the etiology.CONCLUSIONS: The ever-expanding reports of patients with rare and even unknown mechanisms of hypercalcemia illustrate the need for continued investigation into the complexities of human calcium metabolism.

    View details for DOI 10.1210/clinem/dgab504

    View details for PubMedID 34240162

  • The weekend effect does not influence management of inflammatory bowel disease. JGH open : an open access journal of gastroenterology and hepatology Persaud, A., Patel, P., Motlaghzadeh, Y., Ahlawat, S. 2020; 4 (1): 44-48


    The weekend effect describes worsened outcomes due to perceived inefficiency occurring over the weekend. This effect has not been studied in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) despite increasing prevalence in the community. Therefore, our aim is to assess differences in the outcomes of weekend versus weekday management of IBD exacerbations.The National Inpatient Sample database comprises approximately 20% of admissions to nonfederal hospitals in the United States. Complications requiring hospitalization ("flares") were the criteria upon which patient selection was based. A total of 193, 848 flares were identified from 2008 to 2014 using the International Classification of Diseases 9th edition codes. Differences in time to first procedure, length of stay (LOS), and cost were evaluated for patients with flares between weekend and weekday admissions.The time to first procedure was 3.33 days on weekends versus 3.19 days on weekdays (P < 0.001). The mean LOS was shorter when admissions occurred on weekends versus weekdays (8.01 days vs 8.22 days, P < 0.001). Finally, the cost of hospitalization was higher for weekday admissions versus weekend admissions ($18 072 vs $17 495, P < 0.001).Our results showed a similar LOS and cost associated with the management of exacerbations on the weekend compared to weekdays. While many high-risk conditions exhibit increased mortality and prolonged hospital course over the weekend, this phenomenon does not appear to affect IBD. These findings indicate efficient patient care on the weekend and can be utilized for logistical purposes such as resource allocation and procedure scheduling in the endoscopy suite.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jgh3.12205

    View details for PubMedID 32055696

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7008161

  • Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and Its Effects in Human Disease: Emphasizing Its Role in Inflammation, Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Syndrome. Current nutrition reports Rojas, E., Bermúdez, V., Motlaghzadeh, Y., Mathew, J., Fidilio, E., Faria, J., Rojas, J., de Bravo, M. C., Contreras, J., Mantilla, L. P., Angarita, L., Sepúlveda, P. A., Kuzmar, I. 2018


    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a perennial shrub with zero calorie content that has been increasing in popularity for its potential use as an adjuvant in the treatment of obesity. The level of evidence supporting general benefits to human health is insufficient. We conducted a review of the literature summarizing the current knowledge and role in human disease.Despite stevia's minimal systemic absorption, studies have been promising regarding its potential benefits against inflammation, carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis glucose control, and hypertension. On the other hand, the growing popularity of artificial sweeteners does not correlate with improved trends in obesity. An increased intake of artificial non-caloric sweeteners may not be associated with decreased intake of traditional sugar-sweetened beverages and foods. The effects of Stevia on weight change have been linked to bacteria in the intestinal microbiome, mainly by affecting Clostridium and Bacteroides sp.A growing body of evidence indicates that Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is protective against malignant conversion by inhibition of DNA replication in human cancer cell growth in vitro. Consumption of Stevia has demonstrated to be generally safe in most reports. Further clinical studies are warranted to determine if regular consumption brings sustained benefits for human health.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s13668-018-0228-z

    View details for PubMedID 29995279

  • Assessment of Vitamin D Status and Response to Vitamin D3 in Obese and Non-Obese Iranian Children. Journal of tropical pediatrics Motlaghzadeh, Y., Sayarifard, F., Allahverdi, B., Rabbani, A., Setoodeh, A., Sayarifard, A., Abbasi, F., Haghi-Ashtiani, M. T., Rahimi-Froushani, A. 2016; 62 (4): 269-75


    Obesity seems to be a critical issue nowadays because of its high prevalence and its adverse effects on health. There is some evidence indicating the relationship between obesity and lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration. The aim of the present study was to examine serum 25(OH)D status of obese and non-obese Iranian children and compare their therapeutic response with identical oral vitamin D3 treatment.In a non-randomized clinical trial, serum 25(OH)D level of 45 obese and 45 non-obese Iranian children aged 2-14 years was measured. Those with serum 25(OH)D status <30 ng/ml (73 cases) were treated with one pearl of vitamin D3 (50 000 International Units) once a week for 6 weeks. Serum vitamin D was measured once more 2 weeks after treatment.The frequency of hypovitaminosis D was 43/45 (95.6%) in obese and 30/45 (66.7%) in non-obese children at baseline (p < 0.001). After treatment of 73 cases (43 obese, 30 non-obese), the above percentages were decreased to 24/43 (55.8%) and 1/30 (3.3%), respectively (p < 0.001).Our study demonstrated a high frequency of vitamin D deficiency among Iranian children, particularly the obese ones. Moreover, low therapeutic response in the obese group is witnessed.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/tropej/fmv091

    View details for PubMedID 26995012