Structure-Aided Development of Small-Molecule Inhibitors of ENPP1, the Extracellular Phosphodiesterase of the Immunotransmitter cGAMP.
Cell chemical biology
Cancer cells initiate an innate immune response by synthesizing and exporting the small-molecule immunotransmitter cGAMP, which activates the anti-cancer Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) pathway in the host. An extracellular enzyme, ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), hydrolyzes cGAMP and negatively regulates this anti-cancer immune response. Small-molecule ENPP1 inhibitors are much needed as tools to study the basic biology of extracellular cGAMP and as investigational cancer immunotherapy drugs. Here, we surveyed structure-activity relationships around a series of cell-impermeable and thus extracellular-targeting phosphonate inhibitors of ENPP1. In addition, we solved the crystal structure of an exemplary phosphonate inhibitor to elucidate the interactions that drive potency. This study yielded several best-in-class inhibitors with Ki< 2nM and excellent physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Finally, we demonstrate that an ENPP1 inhibitor delays tumor growth in a breast cancer mouse model. Together, we have developed ENPP1 inhibitors that are excellent tool compounds and potential therapeutics.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.chembiol.2020.07.007
View details for PubMedID 32726585