Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy, Chinese Academy Of Sciences (2014)
  • Bachelor of Science, Zhongshan University (2009)

Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Light-sheet microscopy in the near-infrared II window NATURE METHODS Wang, F., Wan, H., Ma, Z., Zhong, Y., Sun, Q., Tian, Y., Qu, L., Du, H., Zhang, M., Li, L., Ma, H., Luo, J., Liang, Y., Li, W., Hong, G., Liu, L., Dai, H. 2019; 16 (6): 545-+
  • Enhanced Li-Ion-Storage Performance of MoS2 through Multistage Structural Design CHEMELECTROCHEM Wang, M., Xu, Y. H., Lu, F., Zhu, Z., Dong, J. Y., Fang, D. L., Zhou, J., Yang, Y. J., Zhong, Y. T., Chen, S. M., Bando, Y., Golberg, D., Wang, X. 2019; 6 (5): 1475–84
  • A theranostic agent for cancer therapy and imaging in the second near-infrared window NANO RESEARCH Ma, Z., Wan, H., Wang, W., Zhang, X., Uno, T., Yang, Q., Yue, J., Gao, H., Zhong, Y., Tian, Y., Sun, Q., Liang, Y., Dai, H. 2019; 12 (2): 273–79
  • Developing a Bright NIR-II Fluorophore with Fast Renal Excretion and Its Application in Molecular Imaging of Immune Checkpoint PD-L1 ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS Wan, H., Ma, H., Zhu, S., Wang, F., Tian, Y., Ma, R., Yang, Q., Hu, Z., Zhu, T., Wang, W., Ma, Z., Zhang, M., Zhong, Y., Sun, H., Liang, Y., Dai, H. 2018; 28 (50)
  • Near-Infrared IIb Fluorescence Imaging of Vascular Regeneration with Dynamic Tissue Perfusion Measurement and High Spatial Resolution ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS Ma, Z., Zhang, M., Yue, J., Alcazar, C., Zhong, Y., Doyle, T. C., Dai, H., Huang, N. F. 2018; 28 (36)
  • Recent Advances in Designing High-Capacity Anode Nanomaterials for Li-Ion Batteries and Their Atomic-Scale Storage Mechanism Studies ADVANCED SCIENCE Cui, Q., Zhong, Y., Pan, L., Zhang, H., Yang, Y., Liu, D., Teng, F., Bando, Y., Yao, J., Wang, X. 2018; 5 (7): 1700902


    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely applied in portable electronics (laptops, mobile phones, etc.) as one of the most popular energy storage devices. Currently, much effort has been devoted to exploring alternative high-capacity anode materials and thus potentially constructing high-performance LIBs with higher energy/power density. Here, high-capacity anode nanomaterials based on the diverse types of mechanisms, intercalation/deintercalation mechanism, alloying/dealloying reactions, conversion reaction, and Li metal reaction, are reviewed. Moreover, recent studies in atomic-scale storage mechanism by utilizing advanced microscopic techniques, such as in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and other techniques (e.g., spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, cryoelectron microscopy, and 3D imaging techniques), are highlighted. With the in-depth understanding on the atomic-scale ion storage/release mechanisms, more guidance is given to researchers for further design and optimization of anode nanomaterials. Finally, some possible challenges and promising future directions for enhancing LIBs' capacity are provided along with the authors personal viewpoints in this research field.

    View details for PubMedID 30027030

  • Bright quantum dots emitting at 1,600 nm in the NIR-IIb window for deep tissue fluorescence imaging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Zhang, M., Yue, J., Cui, R., Ma, Z., Wan, H., Wang, F., Zhu, S., Zhou, Y., Kuang, Y., Zhong, Y., Pang, D., Dai, H. 2018; 115 (26): 6590–95


    With suppressed photon scattering and diminished autofluorescence, in vivo fluorescence imaging in the 1,500- to 1,700-nm range of the near-IR (NIR) spectrum (NIR-IIb window) can afford high clarity and deep tissue penetration. However, there has been a lack of NIR-IIb fluorescent probes with sufficient brightness and aqueous stability. Here, we present a bright fluorescent probe emitting at 1,600 nm based on core/shell lead sulfide/cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (CSQDs) synthesized in organic phase. The CdS shell plays a critical role of protecting the lead sulfide (PbS) core from oxidation and retaining its bright fluorescence through the process of amphiphilic polymer coating and transferring to water needed for imparting aqueous stability and compatibility. The resulting CSQDs with a branched PEG outer layer exhibited a long blood circulation half-life of 7 hours and enabled through-skin, real-time imaging of blood flows in mouse vasculatures at an unprecedented 60 frames per second (fps) speed by detecting 1,600-nm fluorescence under 808-nm excitation. It also allowed through-skin in vivo confocal 3D imaging of tumor vasculatures in mice with an imaging depth of 1.2 mm. The PEG-CSQDs accumulated in tumor effectively through the enhanced permeation and retention effect, affording a high tumor-to-normal tissue ratio up to 32 owing to the bright 1,600-nm emission and nearly zero autofluorescence background resulting from a large 800-nm Stoke's shift. The aqueous-compatible CSQDs are excreted through the biliary pathway without causing obvious toxicity effects, suggesting a useful class of 1,600-nm emitting probes for biomedical research.

    View details for PubMedID 29891702

  • The Role of Geometric Sites in 2D Materials for Energy Storage JOULE Yang, Y., Liu, X., Zhu, Z., Zhong, Y., Bando, Y., Golberg, D., Yao, J., Wang, X. 2018; 2 (6): 1075–94
  • Molecular Cancer Imaging in the Second Near-Infrared Window Using a Renal-Excreted NIR-II Fluorophore-Peptide Probe ADVANCED MATERIALS Wang, W., Ma, Z., Zhu, S., Wan, H., Yue, J., Ma, H., Ma, R., Yang, Q., Wang, Z., Li, Q., Qian, Y., Yue, C., Wang, Y., Fan, L., Zhong, Y., Zhou, Y., Gao, H., Ruan, J., Hu, Z., Liang, Y., Dai, H. 2018; 30 (22): e1800106


    In vivo molecular imaging of tumors targeting a specific cancer cell marker is a promising strategy for cancer diagnosis and imaging guided surgery and therapy. While targeted imaging often relies on antibody-modified probes, peptides can afford targeting probes with small sizes, high penetrating ability, and rapid excretion. Recently, in vivo fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) shows promise in reaching sub-centimeter depth with microscale resolution. Here, a novel peptide (named CP) conjugated NIR-II fluorescent probe is reported for molecular tumor imaging targeting a tumor stem cell biomarker CD133. The click chemistry derived peptide-dye (CP-IRT dye) probe afforded efficient in vivo tumor targeting in mice with a high tumor-to-normal tissue signal ratio (T/NT > 8). Importantly, the CP-IRT probes are rapidly renal excreted (≈87% excretion within 6 h), in stark contrast to accumulation in the liver for typical antibody-dye probes. Further, with NIR-II emitting CP-IRT probes, urethra of mice can be imaged fluorescently for the first time noninvasively through intact tissue. The NIR-II fluorescent, CD133 targeting imaging probes are potentially useful for human use in the clinic for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    View details for PubMedID 29682821

  • 3D NIR-II Molecular Imaging Distinguishes Targeted Organs with High-Performance NIR-II Bioconjugates ADVANCED MATERIALS Zhu, S., Herraiz, S., Yue, J., Zhang, M., Wan, H., Yang, Q., Ma, Z., Wang, Y., He, J., Antaris, A. L., Zhong, Y., Diao, S., Feng, Y., Zhou, Y., Yu, K., Hong, G., Liang, Y., Hsueh, A. J., Dai, H. 2018; 30 (13): e1705799


    Greatly reduced scattering in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) region (1000-1700 nm) opens up many new exciting avenues of bioimaging research, yet NIR-II fluorescence imaging is mostly implemented by using nontargeted fluorophores or wide-field imaging setups, limiting the signal-to-background ratio and imaging penetration depth due to poor specific binding and out-of-focus signals. A newly developed high-performance NIR-II bioconjugate enables targeted imaging of a specific organ in the living body with high quality. Combined with a home-built NIR-II confocal set-up, the enhanced imaging technique allows 900 µm-deep 3D organ imaging without tissue clearing techniques. Bioconjugation of two hormones to nonoverlapping NIR-II fluorophores facilitates two-color imaging of different receptors, demonstrating unprecedented multicolor live molecular imaging across the NIR-II window. This deep tissue imaging of specific receptors in live animals allows development of noninvasive molecular imaging of multifarious models of normal and neoplastic organs in vivo, beyond the traditional visible to NIR-I range. The developed NIR-II fluorescence microscopy will become a powerful imaging technique for deep tissue imaging without any physical sectioning or clearing treatment of the tissue.

    View details for PubMedID 29446156

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5931222

  • A bright organic NIR-II nanofluorophore for three-dimensional imaging into biological tissues NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Wan, H., Yue, J., Zhu, S., Uno, T., Zhang, X., Yang, Q., Yu, K., Hong, G., Wang, J., Li, L., Ma, Z., Gao, H., Zhong, Y., Su, J., Antaris, A. L., Xia, Y., Luo, J., Liang, Y., Dai, H. 2018; 9: 1171


    Fluorescence imaging of biological systems in the second near-infrared (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) window has shown promise of high spatial resolution, low background, and deep tissue penetration owing to low autofluorescence and suppressed scattering of long wavelength photons. Here we develop a bright organic nanofluorophore (named p-FE) for high-performance biological imaging in the NIR-II window. The bright NIR-II >1100 nm fluorescence emission from p-FE affords non-invasive in vivo tracking of blood flow in mouse brain vessels. Excitingly, p-FE enables one-photon based, three-dimensional (3D) confocal imaging of vasculatures in fixed mouse brain tissue with a layer-by-layer imaging depth up to ~1.3 mm and sub-10 µm high spatial resolution. We also perform in vivo two-color fluorescence imaging in the NIR-II window by utilizing p-FE as a vasculature imaging agent emitting between 1100 and 1300 nm and single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) emitting above 1500 nm to highlight tumors in mice.

    View details for PubMedID 29563581

  • Near-Infrared IIb Fluorescence Imaging of Vascular Regeneration with Dynamic Tissue Perfusion Measurement and High Spatial Resolution. Advanced functional materials Ma, Z., Zhang, M., Yue, J., Alcazar, C., Zhong, Y., Doyle, T. C., Dai, H., Huang, N. F. 2018; 28 (36)


    Real-time optical imaging is a promising approach for visualizing in vivo hemodynamics and vascular structure in mice with experimentally induced peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We report the application of a novel fluorescence-based all-optical imaging approach in the near-infrared IIb (NIR-IIb, 1500-1700 nm emission) window, for imaging hindlimb microvasculature and blood perfusion in a mouse model of PAD. In phantom studies, lead sulfide/cadmium sulfide (PbS/CdS) quantum dots showed better retention of image clarity, in comparison with single-walled nanotube (SWNT) NIR-IIa (1000-1400nm) dye, at varying depths of penetration. When systemically injected to mice, PbS/CdS demonstrated improved clarity of the vasculature, compared to SWNTs, as well as higher spatial resolution than in vivo microscopic computed tomography. In a mouse model of PAD, NIR-IIb imaging of the ischemic hindlimb vasculature showed significant improvement in blood perfusion over the course of 10 days (P<0.05), as well as a significant increase in microvascular density over the first 7 days after induction of PAD. In conclusion, NIR-IIb imaging of PbS/CdS vascular contrast agent is a useful multi-functional imaging approach for high spatial resolution imaging of the microvasculature and quantification of blood perfusion recovery.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adfm.201803417

    View details for PubMedID 31327961

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6640151

  • Molecular imaging of biological systems with a clickable dye in the broad 800-to 1,700-nm near-infrared window PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Zhu, S., Yang, Q., Antaris, A. L., Yue, J., Ma, Z., Wang, H., Huang, W., Wan, H., Wang, J., Diao, S., Zhang, B., Li, X., Zhong, Y., Yu, K., Hong, G., Luo, J., Liang, Y., Dai, H. 2017; 114 (5): 962-967


    Fluorescence imaging multiplicity of biological systems is an area of intense focus, currently limited to fluorescence channels in the visible and first near-infrared (NIR-I; ∼700-900 nm) spectral regions. The development of conjugatable fluorophores with longer wavelength emission is highly desired to afford more targeting channels, reduce background autofluorescence, and achieve deeper tissue imaging depths. We have developed NIR-II (1,000-1,700 nm) molecular imaging agents with a bright NIR-II fluorophore through high-efficiency click chemistry to specific molecular antibodies. Relying on buoyant density differences during density gradient ultracentrifugation separations, highly pure NIR-II fluorophore-antibody conjugates emitting ∼1,100 nm were obtained for use as molecular-specific NIR-II probes. This facilitated 3D staining of ∼170-μm histological brain tissues sections on a home-built confocal microscope, demonstrating multicolor molecular imaging across both the NIR-I and NIR-II windows (800-1,700 nm).

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1617990114

    View details for PubMedID 28096386

  • Rational Design of Molecular Fluorophores for Biological Imaging in the NIR-II Window. Advanced materials Yang, Q., Ma, Z., Wang, H., Zhou, B., Zhu, S., Zhong, Y., Wang, J., Wan, H., Antaris, A., Ma, R., Zhang, X., Yang, J., Zhang, X., Sun, H., Liu, W., Liang, Y., Dai, H. 2017


    A new design for second near-infrared window (NIR-II) molecular fluorophores based on a shielding unit-donor-acceptor-donor-shielding unit (S-D-A-D-S) structure is reported. With 3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene as the donor and fluorene as the shielding unit, the best performance fluorophores IR-FE and IR-FEP exhibit an emission quantum yield of 31% in toluene and 2.0% in water, respectively, representing the brightest organic dyes in NIR-II region reported so far.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201605497

    View details for PubMedID 28117499

  • Boosting the down-shifting luminescence of rare-earth nanocrystals for biological imaging beyond 1500 nm. Nature communications Zhong, Y., Ma, Z., Zhu, S., Yue, J., Zhang, M., Antaris, A. L., Yuan, J., Cui, R., Wan, H., Zhou, Y., Wang, W., Huang, N. F., Luo, J., Hu, Z., Dai, H. 2017; 8 (1): 737


    In vivo fluorescence imaging in the near-infrared region between 1500-1700 nm (NIR-IIb window) affords high spatial resolution, deep-tissue penetration, and diminished auto-fluorescence due to the suppressed scattering of long-wavelength photons and large fluorophore Stokes shifts. However, very few NIR-IIb fluorescent probes exist currently. Here, we report the synthesis of a down-conversion luminescent rare-earth nanocrystal with cerium doping (Er/Ce co-doped NaYbF4 nanocrystal core with an inert NaYF4 shell). Ce doping is found to suppress the up-conversion pathway while boosting down-conversion by ~9-fold to produce bright 1550 nm luminescence under 980 nm excitation. Optimization of the inert shell coating surrounding the core and hydrophilic surface functionalization minimize the luminescence quenching effect by water. The resulting biocompatible, bright 1550 nm emitting nanoparticles enable fast in vivo imaging of blood vasculature in the mouse brain and hindlimb in the NIR-IIb window with short exposure time of 20 ms for rare-earth based probes.Fluorescence imaging in the near-infrared window between 1500-1700 nm (NIR-IIb window) offers superior spatial resolution and tissue penetration depth, but few NIR-IIb probes exist. Here, the authors synthesize rare earth down-converting nanocrystals as promising fluorescent probes for in vivo imaging in this spectral region.

    View details for PubMedID 28963467

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5622117

  • Energy Migration Engineering of Bright Rare-Earth Upconversion Nanoparticles for Excitation by Light-Emitting Diodes ADVANCED MATERIALS Zhong, Y., Rostami, I., Wang, Z., Dai, H., Hu, Z. 2015; 27 (41): 6418-?