Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • A genome-wide CRISPR screen identifies CALCOCO2 as a regulator of beta cell function influencing type 2 diabetes risk. Nature genetics Rottner, A. K., Ye, Y., Navarro-Guerrero, E., Rajesh, V., Pollner, A., Bevacqua, R. J., Yang, J., Spigelman, A. F., Baronio, R., Bautista, A., Thomsen, S. K., Lyon, J., Nawaz, S., Smith, N., Wesolowska-Andersen, A., Fox, J. E., Sun, H., Kim, S. K., Ebner, D., MacDonald, P. E., Gloyn, A. L. 2022


    Identification of the genes and processes mediating genetic association signals for complex diseases represents a major challenge. As many of the genetic signals for type 2 diabetes (T2D) exert their effects through pancreatic islet-cell dysfunction, we performed a genome-wide pooled CRISPR loss-of-function screen in a human pancreatic beta cell line. We assessed the regulation of insulin content as a disease-relevant readout of beta cell function and identified 580 genes influencing this phenotype. Integration with genetic and genomic data provided experimental support for 20 candidate T2D effector transcripts including the autophagy receptor CALCOCO2. Loss of CALCOCO2 was associated with distorted mitochondria, less proinsulin-containing immature granules and accumulation of autophagosomes upon inhibition of late-stage autophagy. Carriers of T2D-associated variants at the CALCOCO2 locus further displayed altered insulin secretion. Our study highlights how cellular screens can augment existing multi-omic efforts to support mechanistic understanding and provide evidence for causal effects at genome-wide association studies loci.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41588-022-01261-2

    View details for PubMedID 36543916

  • The T-type calcium channel CaV3.2 regulates insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell. Cell calcium Barghouth, M., Ye, Y., Karagiannopoulos, A., Ma, Y., Cowan, E., Wu, R., Eliasson, L., Renstrom, E., Luan, C., Zhang, E. 2022; 108: 102669


    Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channel dysfunction leads to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells and contributes to the development of type-2 diabetes (T2D). The role of the low-voltage gated T-type CaV channels in beta-cells remains obscure. Here we have measured the global expression of T-type CaV3.2 channels in human islets and found that gene expression of CACNA1H, encoding CaV3.2, is negatively correlated with HbA1c in human donors, and positively correlated with islet insulin gene expression as well as secretion capacity in isolated human islets. Silencing or pharmacological blockade of CaV3.2 attenuates glucose-stimulated cytosolic Ca2+ signaling, membrane potential, and insulin release. Moreover, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ store depletion is also impaired in CaV3.2-silenced beta-cells. The linkage between T-type (CaV3.2) and L-type CaV channels is further identified by the finding that the intracellular Ca2+ signaling conducted by CaV3.2 is highly dependent on the activation of L-type CaV channels. In addition, CACNA1H expression is significantly associated with the islet predominant L-type CACNA1C (CaV1.2) and CACNA1D (CaV1.3) genes in human pancreatic islets. In conclusion, our data suggest the essential functions of the T-type CaV3.2 subunit as a mediator of beta-cell Ca2+ signaling and membrane potential needed for insulin secretion, and in connection with L-type CaV channels.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ceca.2022.102669

    View details for PubMedID 36347081