Ultrafast dynamics in van der Waals heterostructures.
2018; 13 (11): 994–1003
Van der Waals heterostructures are synthetic quantum materials composed of stacks of atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) layers. Because the electrons in the atomically thin 2D layers are exposed to layer-to-layer coupling, the properties of van der Waals heterostructures are defined not only by the constituent monolayers, but also by the interactions between the layers. Many fascinating electrical, optical and magnetic properties have recently been reported in different types of van der Waals heterostructures. In this Review, we focus on unique excited-state dynamics in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) heterostructures. TMDC monolayers are the most widely studied 2D semiconductors, featuring prominent exciton states and accessibility to the valley degree of freedom. Many TMDC heterostructures are characterized by a staggered band alignment. This band alignment has profound effects on the evolution of the excited states in heterostructures, including ultrafast charge transfer between the layers, the formation of interlayer excitons, and the existence of long-lived spin and valley polarization in resident carriers. Here we review recent experimental and theoretical efforts to elucidate electron dynamics in TMDC heterostructures, extending from timescales of femtoseconds to microseconds, and comment on the relevance of these effects for potential applications in optoelectronic, valleytronic and spintronic devices.
View details for PubMedID 30397296
Efficient generation of neutral and charged biexcitons in encapsulated WSe2 monolayers.
2018; 9 (1): 3718
Higher-order correlated excitonic states arise from the mutual interactions of excitons, which generally requires a significant exciton density and therefore high excitation levels. Here, we report the emergence of two biexcitons species, one neutral and one charged, in monolayer tungsten diselenide under moderate continuous-wave excitation. The efficient formation of biexcitons is facilitated by the long lifetime of the dark exciton state associated with a spin-forbidden transition, as well as improved sample quality from encapsulation between hexagonal boron nitride layers. From studies of the polarization and magnetic field dependence of the neutral biexciton, we conclude that this species is composed of a bright and a dark excitons residing in opposite valleys in momentum space. Our observations demonstrate that the distinctive features associated with biexciton states can be accessed at low light intensities and excitation densities.
View details for PubMedID 30214026
Optically coupled methods for microwave impedance microscopy
REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS
2018; 89 (4): 043703
Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy (MIM) measurement of photoconductivity with 50 nm resolution is demonstrated using a modulated optical source. The use of a modulated source allows for the measurement of photoconductivity in a single scan without a reference region on the sample, as well as removing most topographical artifacts and enhancing signal to noise as compared with unmodulated measurement. A broadband light source with a tunable monochrometer is then used to measure energy resolved photoconductivity with the same methodology. Finally, a pulsed optical source is used to measure local photo-carrier lifetimes via MIM, using the same 50 nm resolution tip.
View details for PubMedID 29716321