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  • Dual Inhibitors of 8-Oxoguanine Surveillance by OGG1 and NUDT1. ACS chemical biology Tahara, Y., Kietrys, A. M., Hebenbrock, M., Lee, Y., Wilson, D. L., Kool, E. T. 2019

    Abstract

    Oxidative damage in DNA is one of the primary sources of mutations in the cell. The activities of repair enzymes 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and human MutT Homologue 1 (NUDT1 or MTH1), which work together to ameliorate this damage, are closely linked to mutagenesis, genotoxicity, cancer, and inflammation. Here we have undertaken the development of small-molecule dual inhibitors of the two enzymes as tools to test the relationships between these pathways and disease. The compounds preserve key structural elements of known inhibitors of the two enzymes, and they were synthesized and assayed with recently developed luminescence assays of the enzymes. Further structural refinement of initial lead molecules yielded compound 5 (SU0383) with IC50(NUDT1) = 0.034 muM and IC50(OGG1) = 0.49 muM. The compound SU0383 displayed low toxicity in two human cell lines at 10 muM. Experiments confirm the ability of SU0383 to increase sensitivity of tumor cells to oxidative stress. Dual inhibitors of these two enzymes are expected to be useful in testing multiple hypotheses regarding the roles of 8-oxo-dG in multiple disease states.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acschembio.9b00490

    View details for PubMedID 31622553

  • ATP-Linked Chimeric Nucleotide as a Specific Luminescence Reporter of Deoxyuridine Triphosphatase BIOCONJUGATE CHEMISTRY Ji, D., Kietrys, A. M., Lee, Y., Kool, E. T. 2018; 29 (5): 1614–21

    Abstract

    Nucleotide surveillance enzymes play important roles in human health, by monitoring damaged monomers in the nucleotide pool and deactivating them before they are incorporated into chromosomal DNA or disrupt nucleotide metabolism. In particular, deamination of cytosine, leading to uracil in DNA and in the nucleotide pool, can be deleterious, causing DNA damage. The enzyme deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) is currently under study as a therapeutic and prognostic target for cancer. Measuring the activity of this enzyme is important both in basic research and in clinical applications involving this pathway, but current methods are nonselective, detecting pyrophosphate, which is produced by many enzymes. Here we describe the design and synthesis of a dUTPase enzyme-specific chimeric dinucleotide (DUAL) that replaces the pyrophosphate leaving group of the native substrate with ATP, enabling sensitive detection via luciferase luminescence signaling. The DUAL probe functions sensitively and selectively to quantify enzyme activities in vitro and in cell lysates. We further report the first measurements of dUTPase activities in eight different cell lines, which are found to vary by a factor of 7-fold. We expect that the new probe can be of considerable utility in research involving this clinically significant enzyme.

    View details for PubMedID 29578692