Dr. Qian is a board-certified radiation oncologist and a clinical assistant professor in the Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology.
In his clinical practice, he specializes in urologic, head and neck, and thoracic cancers, but treats a broad spectrum of cancers including lymphoma, gastrointestinal, and brain tumors. For each patient, he develops a comprehensive, compassionate care plan customized to individual needs. His goal is to deliver the most effective cancer treatment to help patients enjoy the best possible health and quality of life.
In addition to his clinical practice, Dr. Qian has conducted extensive research that is often focused on the impact of radiation therapy on patient outcomes and health care system costs.
He has presented the findings at annual meetings of the American Radium Society, American Society for Radiation Oncology, American Society of Clinical Oncology Cancer Survivorship Symposium, Palliative Care in Oncology Symposium, and elsewhere.
Dr. Qian has published articles in journals such as Clinical Cancer Research, the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Practical Radiation Oncology, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (IJROBP), and more.
Dr. Qian co-authored the chapter on radiation therapy for liver tumors in the book Radiation Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Clinical Data. He also co-authored the chapter on liver care for the book Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy.
He has earned numerous honors, including the Malcolm A. Bagshaw Award for leadership and outstanding scientific achievement.
- Radiation Oncology
- Prostate Cancer
- Bladder Cancer
- Head and Neck Neoplasms
- Lung Cancer
- Brain Cancer
- Gastrointestinal Cancer
Clinical Assistant Professor, Radiation Oncology - Radiation Therapy
Board Certification: American Board of Radiology, Radiation Oncology (2019)
Residency: Stanford University Radiation Oncology Residency (2018) CA
Internship: Oakwood Hospital and Medical Center (2014) MI
Medical Education: University of Michigan Medical School (2013) MI
- Outcomes and Characteristics of Patients Treated with Emergent Palliative Radiation Therapy PRACTICAL RADIATION ONCOLOGY 2019; 9 (2): E203–E209
- Rising rates of bilateral mastectomy with reconstruction following neoadjuvant chemotherapy INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER 2018; 143 (12): 3262–72
- F-18-EF5 PET-based Imageable Hypoxia Predicts Local Recurrence in Tumors Treated With Highly Conformal Radiation Therapy INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS 2018; 102 (4): 1183–92
- Invasive nodal evaluation prior to stereotactic ablative radiation for non-small cell lung cancer LUNG CANCER 2018; 124: 76–85
Cost Effectiveness of Radiation and Chemotherapy for High-Risk Low Grade Glioma
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: E26
View details for Web of Science ID 000432447200062
18F-EF5 Pet-Based Imageable Hypoxia Predicts for Local Control in Tumors Treated With Conformal Radiotherapy
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: E17–E18
View details for Web of Science ID 000432447200042
National trends in mastectomy for operable breast cancers treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy
AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2018
View details for Web of Science ID 000425489402128
18F-EF5 PET-based Imageable Hypoxia Predicts Local Recurrence in Tumors Treated With Highly Conformal Radiation Therapy.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
Tumor hypoxia contributes to radiation resistance. A noninvasive assessment of tumor hypoxia would be valuable for prognostication and possibly selection for hypoxia-targeted therapies. 18F-pentafluorinated etanidazole (18F-EF5) is a nitroimidazole derivative that has demonstrated promise as a positron emission tomography (PET) hypoxia imaging agent in preclinical and clinical studies. However, correlation of imageable hypoxia by 18F-EF5 PET with clinical outcomes after radiation therapy remains limited.Our study prospectively enrolled 28 patients undergoing radiation therapy for localized lung or other tumors to receive pretreatment 18F-EF5 PET imaging. Depending on the level of 18F-EF5 tumor uptake, patients underwent functional manipulation of tumor oxygenation with either carbogen breathing or oral dichloroacetate followed by repeated 18F-EF5 PET. The hypoxic subvolume of tumor was defined as the proportion of tumor voxels exhibiting higher 18F-EF5 uptake than the 95th percentile of 18F-EF5 uptake in the blood pool. Tumors with a hypoxic subvolume ≥ 10% on baseline 18F-EF5 PET imaging were classified as hypoxic by imaging. A Cox model was used to assess the correlation between imageable hypoxia and clinical outcomes after treatment.At baseline, imageable hypoxia was demonstrated in 43% of all patients (12 of 28), including 6 of 16 patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy and 6 of 12 patients with other cancers. Carbogen breathing was significantly associated with decreased imageable hypoxia, while dichloroacetate did not result in a significant change under our protocol conditions. Tumors with imageable hypoxia had a higher incidence of local recurrence at 12 months (30%) than those without (0%) (P < .01).Noninvasive hypoxia imaging by 18F-EF5 PET identified imageable hypoxia in about 40% of tumors in our study population. Local tumor recurrence after highly conformal radiation therapy was higher in tumors with imageable hypoxia.
View details for PubMedID 29859786
Rising rates of bilateral mastectomy with reconstruction following neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
International journal of cancer
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is used to allow more limited breast surgery without compromising local control. We sought to evaluate nationwide surgical trends in patients with operable breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and factors associated with surgical type. We used the National Cancer Database to identify 235,339 women with unilateral T1-3N0-3M0 breast cancer diagnosed between 2010 and 2014, and treated with surgery and chemotherapy. Of these, 59,568 patients (25.3%) were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Rates of pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy increased from 33.3% at the start of the study period in 2010 to 46.3% at the end of the period in 2014 (p=0.02). Rates of breast-conserving surgery changed little, from 37.0% to 40.8% (p=0.22). While rates of unilateral mastectomy decreased from 43.3% to 34.7% (p=0.02) and rates of bilateral mastectomy without immediate reconstruction remained similar (11.7% to 11.5%, p=0.82), rates of bilateral mastectomy with immediate reconstruction rose from 8.0% to 13.1% (p=0.02). Patients who were younger, with private/managed care insurance, and diagnosed in more recent years were more likely to achieve pathologic complete response; however, these same characteristics were associated with receipt of bilateral mastectomy (versus breast-conserving surgery). Additionally, non-Hispanic white race and higher area education attainment were both associated with bilateral mastectomy. These findings did not differ by age or molecular subtype. Further study of non-clinical factors that influence selection of more extensive surgery despite excellent response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is warranted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View details for PubMedID 29992582
Extent of lymphovascular space invasion may predict lymph node metastasis in uterine serous carcinoma
2017; 147 (1): 24–29
Emerging evidence suggests that extent of lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) predicts for risk of lymph node metastasis in endometrioid uterine cancers. However, this correlation remains unknown in the setting of uterine serous carcinoma (USC). We sought to examine the association between extent of LVSI and other histopathologic characteristics with risk of nodal metastasis for women with USC.Pathological data from all cases of uterine serous carcinoma between July 1998 to July 2015 at our institution were reviewed. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate logistic regression analysis of selected pathologic features were performed.88 patients with USC underwent total abdominal or laparoscopic hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and selective lymphadenectomy. Surgical staging revealed the following FIGO stage distributions: I (41%), II (8%), III (32%), IV (19%). LVSI was present in 44 (50%) patients. 36 patients (41%) had LN metastases with median number of total nodes removed of 17 (range, 1-49). On univariate analysis, depth of myometrial invasion, LVSI, tumor size, and cervical stromal involvement were significantly associated with nodal involvement. In a multivariate model, LVSI (OR 6.25, 95% CI 2.2-18.0, p<0.01) and cervical stromal involvement (OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.10-10.0, p=0.03) were the only factors that remained significant. Among patients with LVSI-positive disease, extensive LVSI was associated with increased risk of nodal involvement compared to focal LVSI (90% vs 29%, p=0.04).Presence and extent of LVSI, and cervical stromal invasion are important predictors for lymph node metastasis in uterine serous carcinoma.
View details for PubMedID 28709703
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5605436
- Radiation Therapy for Colorectal Liver Metastases CURRENT COLORECTAL CANCER REPORTS 2017; 13 (3): 240–49
- Comparison of Survival by Different Palliative Radiation Therapy Fractionation Schedules ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2017: E39
Sinoatrial node dysfunction after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy in the chest
AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2017
View details for Web of Science ID 000443300500123
Cost-Effectiveness of Radiation and Chemotherapy for High-Risk Low-Grade Glioma.
The addition of PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine) chemotherapy to radiotherapy (RT) for patients with high-risk (≥ 40 years old or sub-totally resected) low-grade glioma (LGG) results in an absolute median survival benefit of over 5 years. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this treatment strategy.A decision tree with an integrated three-state Markov model was created to follow patients with high risk LGG after surgery treated with RT vs. RT+PCV. Patients existed in one of 3 health states: stable, progressive, and dead. Survival and freedom from progression were modeled to reflect the results of RTOG 9802 using time-dependent transition probabilities. Health utility values and costs of care were derived from the literature and national registry databases. Analysis was conducted from the healthcare perspective. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis explored uncertainty in model parameters.Modeled outcomes demonstrated agreement with clinical data in expected benefit of addition of PCV to RT. The addition of PCV to RT yielded an incremental benefit of 4.77 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (9.94 for RT+PCV vs. 5.17 for RT alone) at an incremental cost of $48,635 ($188,234 for RT+PCV vs. $139,598 for RT alone), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $10,186 per QALY gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrates that within modeled distributions of parameters, RT+PCV has 99.96% probability of being cost-effectiveness at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per QALY.The addition of PCV to RT is a cost-effective treatment strategy for patients with high-risk LGG.
View details for PubMedID 28666368
Nonoperative Management of Rectal Cancer: A Modern Perspective.
Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
2017; 31 (10): e13–e22
Nonoperative management of rectal cancer is an emerging treatment approach that aims to enable carefully selected patients to avoid the morbidity of radical surgical resection, while benefiting from the same excellent rates of tumor control achieved with radical surgery-based combined-modality therapy. The success of nonoperative management in this setting is based on the accurate assessment of tumor eradication after chemoradiotherapy, without pathologic verification. Therefore, clinical evidence of complete response-based on physical examination, endoscopic procedures, and imaging-must be utilized as a marker to predict for pathologic complete response and thus help select the patients who are most appropriate for nonoperative management. Initial evidence from retrospective and prospective single-arm and cohort studies has demonstrated high rates of local control and disease-free survival with nonoperative management of rectal cancer, compared with historical results of combined-modality therapy. Several trials and registries are prospectively investigating nonoperative management vs standard treatment of rectal cancer. At this time, combined-modality therapy with total mesorectal excision remains the standard of care for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer; nonoperative management should not be routinely offered outside of clinical trials.
View details for PubMedID 29083469
Impact of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy on Health Care Costs of Patients With Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Journal of oncology practice
Drivers of variation in the cost of care after chemoradiotherapy for the management of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have not been fully elucidated. We sought to characterize the direct and indirect impact of radiotherapy modality on health care costs among patients with anal SCC.A retrospective cohort study was performed using the 2014 linkage of the SEER-Medicare database. We identified 1,025 patients with anal SCC diagnosed between 2001 and 2011 and treated with chemoradiotherapy. Propensity score matching was used to balance baseline differences between patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and those treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Differences in total, cancer-attributable, and procedure-specific costs between groups were measured.Radiation-related, patient out-of-pocket, and total costs in the 1-year period after radiotherapy start were all higher for the IMRT group than the 3D-CRT group (median total cost, $35,890 v $27,262, respectively; P < .001). Patients who received IMRT had lower cumulative costs associated with urgent hospitalizations and emergency department visits at both 9 months and 1 year after treatment start compared with a matched cohort of patients who received 3D-CRT (median, $711 v $4,957 at 1 year, respectively; P = .021).Although total costs of care were higher for IMRT compared with 3D-CRT, primarily as a result of higher radiotherapy-specific costs, IMRT was associated with decreased unplanned health care utilization costs starting at 9 months after treatment start. Radiotherapy-centered episodes of care may need to encompass a longer time horizon to capture the full cost savings associated with more advanced radiation modalities.
View details for DOI 10.1200/JOP.2017.024810
View details for PubMedID 29035618
Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
Clinical lung cancer
2016; 17 (6): 588-594
Alternative treatment regimens are needed for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who cannot receive definitive treatment with concurrent chemoradiotherapy, surgery, or stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR).We report survival, patterns of failure and toxicity outcomes for patients with NSCLC who were not eligible for surgical resection, concurrent chemoradiotherapy, or SABR and underwent hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to evaluate the progression-free and overall survival. Competing risk analysis was used to evaluate in-field, locoregional, and distant failure.A total of 42 patients treated to 52.5 to 60 Gy in 15 fractions were included. Most of the patients had metastatic or recurrent disease (64%) and a relatively large, centrally located tumor burden (74%). The median follow-up period was 13 months (interquartile range, 6-18 months). All patients received the total prescribed dose. The median survival was 15.1 months. The overall and progression-free survival rates at 1 year were 63% and 22.5%, respectively. The pattern of failure was predominantly distant, with only 2% of patients experiencing isolated in-field recurrence. The cumulative incidence of in-field failure at 6 and 12 months was 2.5% (95% confidence interval, 0.4%-15.6%) and 16.1% (95% confidence interval, 7.5%-34.7%), respectively. The risk of esophageal toxicity was associated with the esophageal mean dose, maximal point dose, and dose to the 5 cm(3) volume. The risk of pneumonitis was associated with the lung mean dose and volume receiving 18 Gy.Hypofractionated IMRT without concurrent chemotherapy provides favorable rates of local control and survival for well-selected patients with NSCLC who cannot tolerate standard definitive therapy.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cllc.2016.05.024
View details for PubMedID 27378172
- Reply to R. Colomer et al. Journal of clinical oncology 2016; 34 (26): 3227-3228
Pre-treatment non-target lung FDG-PET uptake predicts symptomatic radiation pneumonitis following Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR).
Radiotherapy and oncology
2016; 119 (3): 454-460
To determine if pre-treatment non-target lung FDG-PET uptake predicts for symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) following lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR).We reviewed a 258 patient database from our institution to identify 28 patients who experienced symptomatic (grade ⩾ 2) RP after SABR, and compared them to 57 controls who did not develop symptomatic RP. We compared clinical, dosimetric and functional imaging characteristics between the 2 cohorts including pre-treatment non-target lung FDG-PET uptake.Median follow-up time was 26.9 months. Patients who experienced symptomatic RP had significantly higher non-target lung FDG-PET uptake as measured by mean SUV (p < 0.0001) than controls. ROC analysis for symptomatic RP revealed area under the curve (AUC) of 0.74, with sensitivity 82.1% and specificity 57.9% with cutoff mean non-target lung SUV > 0.56. Predictive value increased (AUC of 0.82) when mean non-target lung SUV was combined with mean lung dose (MLD). We developed a 0-2 point model using these 2 variables, 1 point each for SUV > 0.56 or MLD > 5.88 Gy equivalent dose in 2 Gy per fraction (EQD2), predictive for symptomatic RP in our cohort with hazard ratio 10.01 for score 2 versus 0 (p < 0.001).Patients with elevated pre-SABR non-target lung FDG-PET uptake are at increased risk of symptomatic RP after lung SABR. Our predictive model suggests patients with mean non-target lung SUV > 0.56 and MLD > 5.88 Gy EQD2 are at highest risk. Our predictive model should be validated in an external cohort before clinical implementation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.radonc.2016.05.007
View details for PubMedID 27267049
- Socioeconomic resources and survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with palliative radiotherapy AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2016
Cost-Effectiveness of Pertuzumab in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer.
Journal of clinical oncology
2016; 34 (9): 902-909
The Clinical Evaluation of Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab (CLEOPATRA) study showed a 15.7-month survival benefit with the addition of pertuzumab to docetaxel and trastuzumab (THP) as first-line treatment for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the value of adding pertuzumab.We developed a decision-analytic Markov model to evaluate the cost effectiveness of docetaxel plus trastuzumab (TH) with or without pertuzumab in US patients with metastatic breast cancer. The model followed patients weekly over their remaining lifetimes. Health states included stable disease, progressing disease, hospice, and death. Transition probabilities were based on the CLEOPATRA study. Costs reflected the 2014 Medicare rates. Health state utilities were the same as those used in other recent cost-effectiveness studies of trastuzumab and pertuzumab. Outcomes included health benefits expressed as discounted quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs in US dollars, and cost effectiveness expressed as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. One- and multiway deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses explored the effects of specific assumptions.Modeled median survival was 39.4 months for TH and 56.9 months for THP. The addition of pertuzumab resulted in an additional 1.82 life-years gained, or 0.64 QALYs, at a cost of $713,219 per QALY gained. Deterministic sensitivity analysis showed that THP is unlikely to be cost effective even under the most favorable assumptions, and probabilistic sensitivity analysis predicted 0% chance of cost effectiveness at a willingness to pay of $100,000 per QALY gained.THP in patients with metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer is unlikely to be cost effective in the United States.
View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2015.62.9105
View details for PubMedID 26351332
- Severe Chest Wall Toxicity From Cryoablation in the Setting of Prior Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy CUREUS 2016; 8 (2)
Severe Chest Wall Toxicity From Cryoablation in the Setting of Prior Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy.
2016; 8 (2)
We present the case of a 42-year-old woman with metastatic synovial sarcoma of parotid origin, treated definitively with chemoradiation, who subsequently developed oligometastatic disease limited to the lungs. She underwent multiple left and right lung wedge resections and left lower lobectomy, followed by right lower lobe stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR), 54 Gy in three fractions to a right lower lobe lesion abutting the chest wall. Two years later, she was treated with cryoablation for a separate right upper lobe nodule abutting the chest wall. Two months later, she presented with acute shortness of breath, pleuritic chest pain, decreased peripheral blood O2 saturation, and productive cough. A computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated severe chest wall necrosis in the area of recent cryoablation that, in retrospect, also received a significant radiation dose from her prior SABR. This case demonstrates that clinicians should exercise caution in using cryoablation when treating lung tumors abutting a previously irradiated chest wall. Note: Drs. Loo and Shah contributed equally as co-senior authors.
View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.477
View details for PubMedID 27004154
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4780688
- Fractionation of palliative radiotherapy in metastatic breast cancer: Selection and survival AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2015
- Survival comparison of patients treated with one versus five fraction palliative radiotherapy AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2015