Crystal aggregates record the pre-eruptive flow field in the volcanic conduit at Kilauea, Hawaii.
2020; 6 (49)
Developing reliable, quantitative conduit models that capture the physical processes governing eruptions is hindered by our inability to observe conduit flow directly. The closest we get to direct evidence is testimony imprinted on individual crystals or bubbles in the conduit and preserved by quenching during the eruption. For example, small crystal aggregates in products of the 1959 eruption of Kilauea Iki, Hawaii contain overgrown olivines separated by large, hydrodynamically unfavorable angles. The common occurrence of these aggregates calls for a flow mechanism that creates this crystal misorientation. Here, we show that the observed aggregates are the result of exposure to a steady wave field in the conduit through a customized, process-based model at the scale of individual crystals. We use this model to infer quantitative attributes of the flow at the time of aggregate formation; notably, the formation of misoriented aggregates is only reproduced in bidirectional, not unidirectional, conduit flow.
View details for DOI 10.1126/sciadv.abd4850
View details for PubMedID 33277257
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Wettability and capillary effects: Dynamics of pinch-off in unconstricted straight capillary tubes.
Physical review. E
2020; 102 (2-1): 023109
We study the interfacial evolution of immiscible two-phase flow within a capillary tube in the partial wetting regime using direct numerical simulation. We investigate the flow patterns resulting from the displacement of a more viscous fluid by a less viscous one under a wide range of wettability conditions. We find that beyond a wettability dependent critical capillary number, a uniform displacement by a less viscous fluid can transition into a growing finger that eventually breaks up into discrete blobs by a series of pinch-off events for both wetting and nonwetting contact angles. This study validates previous experimental observations of pinch-off for wetting contact angles and extends those to nonwetting contact angles. We find that the blob length increases with the capillary number. We observe that the time between consecutive pinch-off events decreases with the capillary number and is greater for more wetting conditions in the displaced phase. We further show that the blob separation distance as a function of the difference between the inlet velocity and the contact line speed collapses into two monotonically decreasing curves for wetting and nonwetting contact angles. For the phase separation in the form of pinch-off, this work provides a quantitative study of the emerging length and timescales and their dependence on the wettability conditions, capillary effects, and viscous forces.
View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevE.102.023109
View details for PubMedID 32942359
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