Wearable Devices: Implications for Precision Medicine and the Future of Health Care.
Annual review of medicine
Wearable devices are integrated analytical units equipped with sensitive physical, chemical, and biological sensors capable of noninvasive and continuous monitoring of vital physiological parameters. Recent advances in disciplines including electronics, computation, and material science have resulted in affordable and highly sensitive wearable devices that are routinely used for tracking and managing health and well-being. Combined with longitudinal monitoring of physiological parameters, wearables are poised to transform the early detection, diagnosis, and treatment/management of a range of clinical conditions. Smartwatches are the most commonly used wearable devices and have already demonstrated valuable biomedical potential in detecting clinical conditions such as arrhythmias, Lyme disease, inflammation, and, more recently, COVID-19 infection. Despite significant clinical promise shown in research settings, there remain major hurdles in translating the medical uses of wearables to the clinic. There is a clear need for more effective collaboration among stakeholders, including users, data scientists, clinicians, payers, and governments, to improve device security, user privacy, data standardization, regulatory approval, and clinical validity. This review examines the potential of wearables to offer affordable and reliable measures of physiological status that are on par with FDA-approved specialized medical devices. We briefly examine studies where wearables proved critical for the early detection of acute and chronic clinical conditions with a particular focus on cardiovascular disease, viral infections, and mental health. Finally, we discuss current obstacles to the clinical implementation of wearables and provide perspectives on their potential to deliver increasingly personalized proactive health care across a wide variety of conditions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 75 is January 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
View details for DOI 10.1146/annurev-med-052422-020437
View details for PubMedID 37983384
Multi-omics approaches in psychoneuroimmunology and health research: Conceptual considerations and methodological recommendations.
Brain, behavior, and immunity
The field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) has grown substantially in both relevance and prominence over the past 40 years. Notwithstanding its impressive trajectory, a majority of PNI studies are still based on a relatively small number of analytes. To advance this work, we suggest that PNI, and health research in general, can benefit greatly from adopting a multi-omics approach, which involves integrating data across multiple biological levels (e.g., the genome, proteome, transcriptome, metabolome, lipidome, and microbiome/metagenome) to more comprehensively profile biological functions and relate these profiles to clinical and behavioral outcomes. To assist investigators in this endeavor, we provide an overview of multi-omics research, highlight recent landmark multi-omics studies investigating human health and disease risk, and discuss how multi-omics can be applied to better elucidate links between psychological, nervous system, and immune system activity. In doing so, we describe how to design high-quality multi-omics PNI studies, decide which biological samples (e.g., blood, stool, urine, saliva, solid tissue) are most relevant, incorporate behavioral and wearable sensing data into multi-omics research, and understand key data quality, integration, analysis, and interpretation issues. PNI researchers are addressing some of the most interesting and important questions at the intersection of psychology, neuroscience, and immunology. Applying a multi-omics approach to this work will greatly expand the horizon of what is possible in PNI and has the potential to revolutionize our understanding of mind-body medicine.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbi.2023.07.022
View details for PubMedID 37543247
- The Use of Smart Devices for Mental Health Diagnosis and Care. Journal of clinical medicine 2022; 11 (18)
Intravital 3D visualization and segmentation of murine neural networks at micron resolution.
2022; 12 (1): 13130
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows label-free, micron-scale 3D imaging of biological tissues' fine structures with significant depth and large field-of-view. Here we introduce a novel OCT-based neuroimaging setting, accompanied by a feature segmentation algorithm, which enables rapid, accurate, and high-resolution in vivo imaging of 700 μm depth across the mouse cortex. Using a commercial OCT device, we demonstrate 3D reconstruction of microarchitectural elements through a cortical column. Our system is sensitive to structural and cellular changes at micron-scale resolution in vivo, such as those from injury or disease. Therefore, it can serve as a tool to visualize and quantify spatiotemporal brain elasticity patterns. This highly transformative and versatile platform allows accurate investigation of brain cellular architectural changes by quantifying features such as brain cell bodies' density, volume, and average distance to the nearest cell. Hence, it may assist in longitudinal studies of microstructural tissue alteration in aging, injury, or disease in a living rodent brain.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-022-14450-0
View details for PubMedID 35907928
Gold Nanobipyramids as Second Near Infrared Optical Coherence Tomography Contrast Agents for in Vivo Multiplexing Studies.
Developing contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques is important for specific imaging of tissue lesions, molecular imaging, cell-tracking, and highly sensitive microangiography and lymphangiography. Multiplexed OCT imaging in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) window is highly desirable since it allows simultaneous imaging and tracking of multiple biological events in high resolution with deeper tissue penetration in vivo. Here we demonstrate that gold nanobipyramids can function as OCT multiplexing contrast agents, allowing high-resolution imaging of two separate lymphatic flows occurring simultaneously from different drainage basins into the same lymph node in a live mouse. Contrast-enhanced multiplexed lymphangiography of a melanoma tumor in vivo shows that the peritumoral lymph flow upstream of the tumor is unidirectional, and tumor is accessible to such flow. Whereas the lymphatic drainage coming out from the tumor is multidirectional. We also demonstrate real-time tracking of the contrast agents draining from a melanoma tumor specifically to the sentinel lymph node of the tumor and the three-dimensional distribution of the contrast agents in the lymph node.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b03344
View details for PubMedID 31585502