Bio


Professor Karl has published widely on comparative politics and international relations, with special emphasis on the politics of oil-exporting countries, transitions to democracy, problems of inequality, the global politics of human rights, and the resolution of civil wars. Her works on oil, human rights and democracy include The Paradox of Plenty: Oil Booms and Petro-States (University of California Press, 1998), honored as one of the two best books on Latin America by the Latin American Studies Association, the Bottom of the Barrel: Africa's Oil Boom and the Poor (2004 with Ian Gary), the forthcoming New and Old Oil Wars (with Mary Kaldor and Yahia Said), and the forthcoming Overcoming the Resource Curse (with Joseph Stiglitz, Jeffrey Sachs et al). She has also co-authored Limits of Competition (MIT Press, 1996), winner of the Twelve Stars Environmental Prize from the European Community. Karl has published extensively on comparative democratization, ending civil wars in Central America, and political economy. She has conducted field research throughout Latin America, West Africa and Eastern Europe. Her work has been translated into 15 languages.

Karl has a strong interest in U.S. foreign policy and has prepared expert testimony for the U.S. Congress, the Supreme Court, and the United Nations. She served as an advisor to chief U.N. peace negotiators in El Salvador and Guatemala and monitored elections for the United Nations. She accompanied numerous congressional delegations to Central America, lectured frequently before officials of the Department of State, Defense, and the Agency for International Development, and served as an adviser to the Chairman of the House Sub-Committee on Western Hemisphere Affairs of the United States Congress. Karl appears frequently in national and local media. Her most recent opinion piece was published in 25 countries.

Karl has been an expert witness in major human rights and war crimes trials in the United States that have set important legal precedents, most notably the first jury verdict in U.S. history against military commanders for murder and torture under the doctrine of command responsibility and the first jury verdict in U.S. history finding commanders responsible for "crimes against humanity" under the doctrine of command responsibility. In January 2006, her testimony formed the basis for a landmark victory for human rights on the statute of limitations issue. Her testimonies regarding political asylum have been presented to the U.S. Supreme Court and U.S. Circuit courts. She has written over 250 affidavits for political asylum, and she has prepared testimony for the U.S. Attorney General on the extension of temporary protected status for Salvadorans in the United States and the conditions of unaccompanied minors in U.S. custody. As a result of her human rights work, she received the Doctor of Humane Letters, honoris causa from the University of San Francisco in 2005.

Professor Karl has been recognized for "exceptional teaching throughout her career," resulting in her appointment as the William R. and Gretchen Kimball University Fellowship. She has also won the Dean's Award for Excellence in Teaching (1989), the Allan V. Cox Medal for Faculty Excellence Fostering Undergraduate Research (1994), and the Walter J. Gores Award for Excellence in Graduate and Undergraduate Teaching (1997), the University's highest academic prize. Karl served as director of Stanford's Center for Latin American Studies from 1990-2001, was praised by the president of Stanford for elevating the Center for Latin American Studies to "unprecedented levels of intelligent, dynamic, cross-disciplinary activity and public service in literature, arts, social sciences, and professions." In 1997 she was awarded the Rio Branco Prize by the President of Brazil, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, in recognition for her service in fostering academic relations between the United States and Latin America.

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Director, Center for Latin American Studies, Stanford University (1990 - 2002)
  • Visiting Professor, European University Institute (2002 - 2003)
  • Visiting Professor, Instituto Juan March (2000 - 2000)
  • Visiting Scholar, Human Sciences Research Council (1997 - 1997)
  • Visiting Professor, European University Institute (1997 - 1997)
  • Visiting Scholar, Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley (1984 - 1985)
  • Assistant Professor, Department of Government, Harvard University (1982 - 1985)
  • Research Associate, Center for International Affairs, Harvard University (1981 - 1985)
  • Instructor, Department of Political Science, Stanford University (1980 - 1980)
  • Research Associate, Universidad Central de Venezuela (1977 - 1979)
  • Instructor, Merrill College, University of California, Santa Cruz (1977 - 1977)
  • William R. and Gretchen Kimball University Fellow in for Excellence in Teaching, Stanford University (2002 - 2007)

Honors & Awards


  • Named one of Time Magazine’s “10 Ideas that are changing the world”, Time Magazine (2008)
  • Bryce Wood Book Award, First Honorable Mention, Latin American Studies Association (1998)
  • Twelve Stars Prize, European Union (1995)
  • Commencement Speaker for the Senior Class of 2004, Stanford University (2004)
  • Outstanding Departmental Advising Award, Stanford University (1998-1999)
  • Walter J. Gores Prize for Excellence in Graduate and Undergraduate Teaching, Stanford University (1997)
  • Alan Cox Medal for Faculty Excellence Fostering Undergraduate Research, Stanford University (1994)
  • Dean's Award for Excellence in Teaching, Stanford University (1988-1989)
  • Radcliffe/Harvard Mentorship Award for Excellence in Teaching, Harvard University (1983)
  • The Miriam Aaron Roland Volunteer Service Prize, Stanford University (2007)
  • Doctor of Humane Letters, honoris causa, College of Arts and Sciences, University of San Francisco (2005)
  • Order of Rio Branco, Republic of Brazil (1997)
  • Appointed the Gildred Professor of Latin American Studies, Stanford University (2004)
  • POSCO Visiting Fellowship, East-West Center (2004)
  • Fellowship, Rockefeller Foundation (2001-2002)
  • Fellowship with Mary Kaldor, London School of Economics, Ford Foundation (2001-2002)
  • Fellowship, Shaler Adams Foundation (2000)
  • Fellowship, Shaler Adams Foundation (2001)
  • Fellowship, Shaler Adams Foundation (2002)
  • Fellowship, Shaler Adams Foundation (2003)
  • Fellowship, Human Sciences Research Council (1997)
  • Faculty Undergraduate Research Award, Undergraduate Research Opportunities, Stanford University (1992)
  • Research Support, Center for International Affairs, Harvard University (1981)
  • Dissertation Award, Social Science Research Council (1977-1979)
  • Fulbright-Hays Fellowship, United States Department of Education (1977-1979)
  • Doherty Dissertation Fellowship, Stanford University (1977)
  • Fellowship, Stanford University (1975-1977)
  • Awarded the "12 Stars Environmental Prize", European Union (EEC)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Member, Advisory Committee and Peer Consultant, United Nations Development Report (2002 - 2002)
  • Member, Advisory Committee, Caspian Revenue Oil Watch, Open Society Institute (2002 - 2002)
  • Member, Advisory Committee, Council on Foreign Relations Domestic Politics and American Foreign Policy Project (1994 - Present)
  • Member, Research Council, International Forum for Democratic Studies, National Endowment for Democracy (1994 - Present)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Journal of Democracy (1999 - Present)
  • Member, Editorial Board, World Policy Journal (1987 - Present)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Hemisfile (1990 - 2000)
  • Member, Advisory Council, Helen Kellogg Institute for International Relations, Notre Dame University (1992 - 2000)
  • Member, Social Science Research Council, Selection Committee (1998 - 1998)
  • Member, Social Science Research Council, Selection Committee (1999 - 1999)
  • Democracy and Governance Consultant to Management Systems International project, Agency for International Development (1996 - 1996)
  • Member, "Group of Lisbon," Advisory Council, European Commission (1992 - Present)
  • Board of Directors Member, General Services Foundation (1994 - 1997)
  • Member, Board of Directors, Vesper Society (1993 - 1996)
  • Member, Board of Directors, CINTERANDES (1994 - 1997)
  • Chair, Media Task Force, Latin American Studies Association (1995 - 1995)
  • Chair, Media Task Force, Latin American Studies Association (1993 - 1993)
  • Consultant, International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development, Montreal, Canada (1994 - 1994)
  • Consultant, MacArthur Foundation (1996 - 1996)
  • Consultant, MacArthur Foundation (1994 - 1994)
  • Consultant, MacArthur Foundation (1992 - 1992)
  • Consultant, MacArthur Foundation (1990 - 1990)
  • Consultant, MacArthur Foundation (1988 - 1988)
  • Consultant, MacArthur Foundation (1993 - 1993)
  • Consultant, Ford Foundation (1992 - 1992)
  • Consultant, Ford Foundation (1990 - 1990)
  • Consultant, Ford Foundation (1988 - 1988)
  • Member, Visiting Committee, Helen Kellogg Institute for International Relations, Notre Dame University (1991 - 1991)
  • Member, Nominating Committee, Latin American Studies Association (1985 - 1985)
  • Member, Executive Board, Committee on Latin American and Iberian Studies, Harvard University (1982 - 1985)
  • Member, Executive Committee, New England Council on Latin American Studies (1984 - 1984)
  • Reviewer, American Political Science Review
  • Reviewer, Comparative Politics
  • Reviewer, World Politics
  • Reviewer, Latin American Research Review
  • Reviewer, Journal of Latin American Politics
  • Reviewer, Studies in Comparative International Development
  • Reviewer, Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affairs.
  • Member, American Association of University Women
  • Member, American Political Science Association
  • Member, Council on Foreign Relations
  • Member, Latin American Studies Association
  • Member, Society for Comparative Research
  • Member, Inter-American Dialogue

Professional Education


  • Doctor of Humane Letters, University of San Francsico, Human Rights (2005)
  • Ph.D., Stanford University, Political Science (1982)
  • M.A., Stanford University, Political Science (1976)
  • B.A., Stanford University, Humanities Special Programs (1970)

2018-19 Courses


All Publications


  • Oil Wars edited by Karl, T. L., Kaldor, M., Said, Y. London: Pluto Press. 2007
  • From Democracy to Democratization and Back A Diversity of Democracy: In Honor of Philippe C. Schmitter Karl, T. L. edited by Crouch, C., Streck, W. London: Elsevier. 2007
  • The Political Challenges of Escaping the Resource Curse Escaping the Resource Curse: Optimal Strategies and Best Practices for Oil and Gas Exporting Developing Countries Karl, T. L. edited by Humphreys, M., Sachs, J., Stiglitz, J. New York: Columbia University Press. 2007
  • Tumultuous Times: Latin America in the 1960s: A Debate Forum, Latin American Studies Association Karl, T. L. 2006; XXV (2)
  • Understanding the Resource Curse Covering Oil: A Guide to Energy and Development. Karl, T. L. edited by Tsalik, S., Schriffin, A. New York: Open Society Institute. 2005
  • Latin America - Virtuous or perverse cycle Workshop on the Quality of Democracy and Human Development in Latin America KARL, T. L. UNIV NOTRE DAME PRESS. 2004: 187–195
  • The Vicious Cycle of Inequality in Latin America What Justice? Whose Justice? Karl, T. L. edited by Wickham-Crowley, T. P., Eckstein, S. E. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2004
  • The Social and Political Consequences of Oil Encyclopedia of Energy Karl, T. L. edited by Cleveland, C. San Diego: Elsevier. 2004
  • The Nature of the Political Transition in El Salvador: Advances and Setbacks in Democratic Consolidation: A Comment El Salvador’s Democratic Transition Ten Years After the Peace Accord Karl, T. L. edited by Arson, C. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center. 2003
  • Accident or Intent? Reneging on Democratic Promotion in Venezuela British Journal of Latin American Studies Karl, T. L. 2003
  • “Not on Your Vita:” The Relevance of Comparative Politics for Public Life American Political Science Association/Comparative Politics Karl, T. L. 2003; 14 (2): 14-19
  • Democracia, Desarrollo, y Estado de Derecho Democracia, desarrollo humano y ciudadanía. Karl, T. L. edited by Iazetta, O., O'Donnell, G. e., Vargas-Cullell, J. Argentina: editorial Homo Sapiens. 2003
  • The Oil Trap TIQ Karl, T. L. 2003
  • Bottom of the Barrel: Africa’s Oil Boom and the Poor Karl, T. L., Gary, I. Catholic Relief Services Press. 2003
  • Comparing Modes of Transition to Democracy Between the East and the South Romanian Journal of Political Science Karl, T. L., Schmitter, P. 2002; 2 (1)
  • Democratic Governance for Human Development United Nations Development Report 2002 Karl, T. L. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2002
  • Deepening Democracy by Tackling Democratic Deficits United Nations Development Report 2002 Karl, T. L. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2002
  • Economic inequality and democratic instability JOURNAL OF DEMOCRACY KARL, T. L. 2000; 11 (1): 149-156
  • Crude Calculations: OPEC Lessons for Caspian Leaders Energy and Politics in Central Asia and the Caucasus Karl, T. L. edited by Ebel, R., Menon, R. New York: Rowman and Littlefield. 2000
  • Democratization and Inequality in Latin America: Chile as a Test Case From Frei to Frei Karl, T. L. 2000
  • Electoralism: Why Elections are not Democracy The International Encyclopedia of Elections Karl, T. L. edited by Rose, R. Congressional Quarterly Books. 2000
  • The Venezuelan Revolution of 1958 The Encyclopedia of Political Revolutions Karl, T. L. edited by Goldstone, J. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly. 2000
  • The Perils of Petroleum: Reflections on The Paradox of Plenty The Journal of International Affairs Karl, T. L. 1999; 53 (1)
  • War Transitions Versus Peace Transitions The Challenge of Democratic Transitions in Post-Conflict Situations Karl, T. L. United Nations Institute for Training and Research and the Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland, Geneva. 1999
  • State-Building and Petro-Revenues The Geopolitics of Oil, Gas and Ecology in the Caucasus and Caspian Basin Karl, T. L. Berkeley Program in Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies. 1998
  • Democratization y globalizacion en America Latina: Un nuevo marco para el debate Revista de Ciencias Sociales Karl, T. L. 1998; 81
  • The Paradox of Plenty: Oil Booms and Petro-States Karl, T. L. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1997
  • The Limits to Competition Karl, T. L. Luchterhand. 1997
  • Limites a Competicão Karl, T. L. Lisboa: Publicações Europa-America. 1997
  • Democratization Around the Globe: Opportunities and Risks The Political Economy of Development and Underdevelopment Karl, T. L., Schmitter, P. edited by Jameson, K. P., Wilber, C. K. McGraw Hill. 1996; 6th
  • How Much Inequality Can Democracy Stand? Constructing Democracy in Markets: Comparing Latin America and Asia Karl, T. L. edited by Diamond, L., Lowenthal, A. Washington, D.C.: International Forum for Democratic Studies. 1996
  • Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America Democracy and Development in Latin America: Patterns and Cycles Karl, T. L. edited by Camp, R. A. Delaware: Scholarly Resources Inc. 1996: 21–46
  • The hybrid regimes of Central America JOURNAL OF DEMOCRACY KARL, T. L. 1995; 6 (3): 72-86
  • Limites a Competicão Karl, T. L. Lisboa: Publicações Europa-America. 1995
  • Modes of Transition in Latin America, Southern and Eastern Europe Transitions to Democracy: Comparative Perspectives from Southern Europe, Latin America and Eastern Europe Karl, T. L., Schmitter, P. edited by Pridham, G. Aldershot, England: Dartmouth. 1995: 153–172
  • Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America, Transitions to Democracy: Comparative Perspectives from Southern Europe, Latin America, and Eastern Europe Karl, T. L. edited by Pridham, G. Aldershot, England: Dartmouth. 1995: 271–293
  • What Democracy Is... and Is Not Transitions to Democracy: Comparative Perspectives from Southern Europe, Latin America and Eastern Europe Karl, T. L., Schmitter, P. edited by Pridham, G. Aldershot, England: Dartmouth Press. 1995: 3–16
  • Oscar Arias The Encyclopedia of Democracy Karl, T. L. edited by Lipset, S. M. Washington: Library of Congress. 1995
  • The Limits to Competition Karl, T. L. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. 1995
  • Limites a la Competivite Karl, T. L. Quebec: Boreal. 1995
  • I Limiti della Competitività Karl, T. L. Roma: Manifestolibri. 1995
  • Democracy in Venezuela The Encyclopedia of Democracy Karl, T. L. edited by Lipset, S. M. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 1995
  • Rómulo Betancourt The Encyclopedia of Democracy. Karl, T. L. edited by Lipset, S. M. Washington: Library of Congress. 1995
  • From an Iron Curtain of Coercion to a Paper Curtain of Concepts: Grounding Transitologists or Confining Students of Post-Communism? Slavic Review Karl, T. L., Schmitter, P. 1995; 54 (4)
  • Comparing Neo-Democracies: Origins, Trajectories, and Outcomes Conversations About Democratization and Economic Reform Karl, T. L., Schmitter, P. edited by Armijo, L. E. University of Miami: North-South Center. 1995
  • Democracy in Central America The Encyclopedia of Democracy. Karl, T. L. edited by Lipset, S. M. Washington: Library of Congress. 1995
  • THE CONCEPTUAL TRAVELS OF TRANSITOLOGISTS AND CONSOLIDOLOGISTS - HOW FAR TO THE EAST SHOULD THEY ATTEMPT TO GO SLAVIC REVIEW Schmitter, P. C., KARL, T. L. 1994; 53 (1): 173-185
  • Grenzen aan de Concurrentie Karl, T. L. Brussel: VUB Press. 1994
  • The Hybrid Regimes of Central America Project Latin America 2000, Karl, T. L. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame. 1994
  • Democratization Around the Globe: Opportunities and Risks World Security: Challenges for a New Century Karl, T. L., Schmitter, P. edited by Klare, M. T., Thomas, D. C. New York: St. Martin's Press. 1994: 43–62
  • Los modelos de democracia emergentes en la Europa meridional y del Este y en la América del Sur y Central Cuadernos de la Cátedra Fadrique Furio Ceriol Karl, T. L., Schmitter, P. Valencia: Universitat de Valencia. 1994: 21–43
  • The Venezuelan Petro-State and the Crisis of "Its" Democracy Venezuelan Democracy Under Stress Karl, T. L. edited by McCoy, J. New Brunswick: Transaction Press. 1994
  • Qué es y no es la democracia? Sistema Karl, T. L. 1993: 17-30
  • Mi A Demokrácia Es Mi Nem? Beszélö, Uj folyam Karl, T. L., Schmitter, P. 1993; IV (11)
  • What Democracy Is... and Is Not The Global Resurgence of Democracy. Karl, T. L., Schmitter, P. edited by Plattner, M. F., Diamond, L. D.C.: Johns Hopkins University Press. 1993
  • EL-SALVADOR NEGOTIATED REVOLUTION FOREIGN AFFAIRS KARL, T. L. 1992; 71 (2): 147-164
  • La revolución negociada de El Salvador América Latina Internacional Karl, T. L. 1992; 9 (32)
  • What Kinds of Democracies are Emerging in South America, Central America, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe? Bound to Change: Consolidating Democracy in Central Europe Karl, T. L., Schmitter, P. edited by Volten, P. New York: IEWSS. 1992: 42–68
  • Dilemas de la democratización en América Latina Transiciones a la Democracia en Europa y América Latina Karl, T. L. edited by Solano, C. B., Barrios Horcasitas, J. L., Hurtado, J. Mexico: Grupo Editorial Miguel Angel Porrúa. 1991
  • Dilemas de democratización en América Latina Foro Internacional Karl, T. L. 1991; XXXI
  • Les Modes de transition en Amérique Latine, en Europe du Sud et de l'Est Revue Internationale des Sciences Sociales Karl, T. L., Schmitter, P. 1991
  • What Democracy Is... And Is Not Journal of Democracy Karl, T. L., Schmitter, P. 1991: 75-89
  • Modes of Transition in Southern and Eastern Europe and South and Central America International Social Science Journal Karl, T. L., Schmitter, P. 1991: 269-284
  • Modos de Transición en Europa del Sur, Europa del Este y América Latina Revista Internacional de Ciencias Sociales Karl, T. L., Schmitter, P. 1991
  • Dilemas de la democratización en América Latina Estratégias para el desarrollo de la democracia: En Perú y América Latina Karl, T. L. edited by Cotler, J. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos. 1991
  • Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America Comparative Political Dynamics: Global Research Perspectives Karl, T. L. edited by Rustow, D., Erickson, K. P. New York: Harper Collins. 1991: 163–192
  • Getting to Democracy: A Research Perspective The Transition to Democracy: Proceedings of a Workshop Karl, T. L. National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy Press: Washington, D.C.. 1991: 29–40
  • Central America at the End of the Cold War Beyond the Cold War Karl, T. L. edited by Breslauer, G. W., Kreisler, H., Ward, B. Berkeley: Institute of International and Area Studies, University of California. 1991
  • DILEMMAS OF DEMOCRATIZATION IN LATIN-AMERICA CONF ON LATIN AMERICA AT THE THRESHOLD OF THE 1990S KARL, T. L. CITY UNIV NEW YORK. 1990: 1–21
  • Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America Comparative Politics Karl, T. L. 1990; 23 (1): 1-23
  • The Christian Democratic Party and the Prospects for Democratization in El Salvador The Sociology of Developing Societies: Central America. Karl, T. L. edited by Flora, J., Rivas, E. T. New York: Monthly Review Press. 1989: 140–164
  • Hégemonistes et entrepreneurs politiques: dépendence, démocratization et coopération dans les Amériques Etudes Internationales Karl, T. L. 1989; 86
  • Hegemonistas y empresarios políticos: dependencia, democratización y cooperación en las Américas Estudios Internacionales num Karl, T. L. 1989; 22: 183-223
  • El Salvador at the Crossroads: Negotiations or Total War: Interview with Salvador Samayoa World Policy Journal Karl, T. L. 1989: 321-355
  • Exporting Democracy: U.S. Electoral Policy in El Salvador Crisis in Central America: Regional Dynamics and U.S. Policy in the 1980s Karl, T. L. edited by Hamilton, N. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. 1988: 173–192
  • PETROLEUM AND POLITICAL PACTS - THE TRANSITION TO DEMOCRACY IN VENEZUELA LATIN AMERICAN RESEARCH REVIEW KARL, T. L. 1987; 22 (1): 63-94
  • Forging Peace: The Challenge of Central America Karl, T. L., Fagen, R. R. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. 1987
  • La Palma and Ayaguayo: Brief Peaceful Encounters in a Long Civil War El Salvador: Central America in the Cold War Karl, T. L. edited by Gettleman, M. New York: Grove Press. 1986: 404–434
  • The Logics of Hegemony: The United States as a Superpower in Central America Dominant Powers and Subordinate States: The United States in Latin America and the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe Karl, T. L., Fagen, R. R. edited by Triska, J. North Carolina: Duke University Press. 1986: 218–238
  • Regional Powers and Central American Peace: Mexico, Venezuela, and the Contadora Initiative Confronting Revolution: Security Through Diplomacy in Central America Karl, T. L. edited by Blachman, M., Leogrande, W., Sharpe, K. New York: Pantheon Press. 1986: 271–291
  • Imposing Consent: Electoralism Versus Democratization in El Salvador Elections in Latin America Karl, T. L. edited by Drake, P., Silva, E. University of California, San Diego. 1986: 9–36
  • AFTER LA-PALMA - THE PROSPECTS FOR DEMOCRATIZATION IN EL-SALVADOR WORLD POLICY JOURNAL KARL, T. L. 1985; 2 (2): 305-330
  • Democracy by Design: The Christian Democratic Party in El Salvador The Central American Impasse Karl, T. L. edited by DiPalma, G., Whitehead, L. London: Croom Helm Publishers. 1985: 305–330
  • Petroleum and Political Pacts: The Transition to Democracy in Venezuela Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Latin America Karl, T. L. edited by O'Donnell, G., Schmitter, P., Whitehead, L. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. 1985
  • EL-SALVADOR AFTER LA-PALMA - REPLY WORLD POLICY JOURNAL KARL, T. L. 1985; 2 (3): 589-592
  • La Reforme des entreprises d'état au Venezuela Problèmes Amérique Latine Karl, T. L. 1981
  • La administración Carter y las relaciones Venezuela/Estados Unidos Carter y América Latina Karl, T. L. edited by Borja, A. México: Cuadernos Semestrales, Estados Unidos, Perspectiva Latinoamericana, CIDE. 1978: 213–232
  • Venezuela in Contemporary International Affairs The Monthly Report Karl, T. L. 1978: 12-30
  • Work Incentives in Cuba Latin American Perspectives Karl, T. L. 1975; II (7.4): 21-41