Arabidopsis stomatal polarity protein BASL mediates distinct processes before and after cell division to coordinate cell size and fate asymmetries.
Development (Cambridge, England)
In many land plants, asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) create, and pattern differentiated cell types on the leaf surface. In the Arabidopsis stomatal lineage, BREAKING OF ASYMMETRY IN THE STOMATAL LINEAGE (BASL) regulates ACD division plane placement and cell fate enforcement. Polarized subcellular localization of BASL is initiated before ACD and persists for many hours after the division in one of the two daughters. Untangling the respective contributions of polarized BASL before and after division is essential to gain a better understanding of its roles in regulating stomatal lineage ACDs. Here we combine quantitative imaging and lineage tracking with genetic tools that provide temporally restricted BASL expression. We find that pre-division BASL is required for division orientation, whereas BASL polarity post-division ensures proper cell fate commitment. These genetic manipulations allowed us to uncouple daughter-cell size asymmetry from polarity crescent inheritance, revealing independent effects of these two asymmetries on subsequent cell behavior. Finally, we show that there is coordination between the division frequencies of sister cells produced by ACDs, and this coupling requires BASL as an effector of peptide signaling.
View details for DOI 10.1242/dev.199919
View details for PubMedID 34463761
Tuning self-renewal in the Arabidopsis stomatal lineage by hormone and nutrient regulation of asymmetric cell division.
Asymmetric and self-renewing divisions build and pattern tissues. In the Arabidopsis stomatal lineage, asymmetric cell divisions, guided by polarly localized cortical proteins, generate most cells on the leaf surface. Systemic and environmental signals modify tissue development, but the mechanisms by which plants incorporate such cues to regulate asymmetric divisions are elusive. In a screen for modulators of cell polarity, we identified CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1, a negative regulator of ethylene signaling. We subsequently revealed antagonistic impacts of ethylene and glucose signaling on the self-renewing capacity of stomatal lineage stem-cells. Quantitative analysis of cell polarity and fate dynamics showed that developmental information may be encoded in both the spatial and temporal asymmetries of polarity proteins. These results provide a framework for a mechanistic understanding of how nutritional status and environmental factors tune stem-cell behavior in the stomatal lineage, ultimately enabling flexibility in leaf size and cell-type composition.
View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.63335
View details for PubMedID 33739283
Quantitative and dynamic cell polarity tracking in plant cells.
The New phytologist
Quantitative information on the spatiotemporal distribution of polarized proteins is central for understanding cell-fate determination, yet collecting sufficient data for statistical analysis is difficult to accomplish with manual measurements. Here we present POME, a semi-automated pipeline for the quantification of cell polarity, and demonstrate its application to a variety of developmental contexts. POME analysis reveals that during asymmetric cell divisions in the Arabidopsis thaliana stomatal lineage, polarity proteins BASL and BRXL2 are more asynchronous and less mutually dependent than previously thought. A similar analysis of the linearly arrayed stomatal lineage of Brachypodium distachyon revealed that the MAPKKK BdYDA1 is segregated and polarized following asymmetric divisions. Our results demonstrate that POME is a versatile tool, which by itself or combined with tissue-level studies and advanced microscopy techniques can help uncover new mechanisms of cell polarity.
View details for DOI 10.1111/nph.17165
View details for PubMedID 33378550