Tether-free photothermal deep-brain stimulation in freely behaving mice via wide-field illumination in the near-infrared-II window.
Nature biomedical engineering
Neural circuitry is typically modulated via invasive brain implants and tethered optical fibres in restrained animals. Here we show that wide-field illumination in the second near-infrared spectral window (NIR-II) enables implant-and-tether-free deep-brain stimulation in freely behaving mice with stereotactically injected macromolecular photothermal transducers activating neurons ectopically expressing the temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1). The macromolecular transducers, ~40 nm in size and consisting of a semiconducting polymer core and an amphiphilic polymer shell, have a photothermal conversion efficiency of 71% at 1,064 nm, the wavelength at which light attenuation by brain tissue is minimized (within the 400-1,800 nm spectral window). TRPV1-expressing neurons in the hippocampus, motor cortex and ventral tegmental area of mice can be activated with minimal thermal damage on wide-field NIR-II illumination from a light source placed at distances higher than 50 cm above the animal's head and at an incident power density of 10 mW mm-2. Deep-brain stimulation via wide-field NIR-II illumination may open up opportunities for social behavioural studies in small animals.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41551-022-00862-w
View details for PubMedID 35314800
Anisotropy and anharmonicity in polystyrene stable glass
JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS
2020; 153 (21): 214508
We have used ellipsometry to characterize the anisotropy in stable polymer glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition. These measurements reveal birefringence values (as measured by the magnitude of in-plane vs out-of-plane refractive index) less than 0.002 in vapor-deposited polystyrenes with N from 6 to 12 and with fictive temperatures between 10 K and 35 K below the Tg values. We have measured the thermal expansivity of these stable glasses and compared to ordinary rejuvenated glass. The thermal expansivity of the stable glasses is less than that of ordinary glass with a difference that increases as the fictive temperature Tf decreases.
View details for DOI 10.1063/5.0032153
View details for Web of Science ID 000597328700003
View details for PubMedID 33291898
Ultrastable monodisperse polymer glass formed by physical vapour deposition
Stable glasses prepared by vapour deposition are an analogue of glassy materials aged for geological timescales. The ability to prepare such materials allows the study of near-ideal glassy systems. We report the preparation and characterization of stable glasses of polymers prepared by physical vapour deposition. By controlling the substrate temperature, deposition rate and polydispersity, we prepared and characterized a variety of stable polymer glasses. These materials display the kinetic stability, low fictive temperatures and high-density characteristic of stable glasses. Extrapolation of the measured transformation times between the stable and normal glass provides estimates of the relaxation times of the equilibrium supercooled liquid at temperatures as much as 30 K below the glass transition temperature. These results demonstrate that polymer stable glasses are an exciting and powerful tool in the study of ultrastable glass and disordered materials in general.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41563-020-0723-7
View details for Web of Science ID 000546427400004
View details for PubMedID 32632279
A highly sensitive double-layer structured nanodevice for moisture induced power generation
2020; 31 (26): 265401
With the increasing global energy demand, traditional energy sources are gradually failing to meet society's needs while also having a potential of being harmful to the environment. As such, energy generating technologies capable of converting ubiquitous environmental energy into usable forms, such as electricity, have received increasing attention. In this research, a power generating device composed of a graphene (G) and titanium dioxide nanowire (TiO2 NWs) double-layer structure is prepared by an electrophoretic deposition method. Since both materials have special nanochannel structures and non-zero zeta potential, they can convert environmental energy into electricity through the diffusion, ionization, and natural evaporation of water. Furthermore, the efficiency of this novel sensor is much higher than their respective single-layer devices. By application of only 6 μl of water, the open circuit voltage (UOC) generated on the G-TiO2 sensor is as high as 1.067 ± (0.008) V. In comparison, TiO2 NWs single layer can only generate a UOC around 500 mV, and graphene itself can only produce a UOC no more than 250 mV under the same condition. Additionally, the effect of different deposition times of graphene on the surface morphology and thickness of graphene film is explored, and the effects of these changes in microstructure on performance is discussed in depth. Aside from power generation, the high sensitivity of the device to different volumes of water brings its use in the detection of trace amounts of water, and its high efficiency of energy conversion suggests a potential application as a power supply. This research not only provides a satisfactory candidate for inexpensive and efficient evaporative power generation, but also builds a foundation for developing new, intelligent, and self-powered electronic technologies.
View details for DOI 10.1088/1361-6528/ab7fcd
View details for Web of Science ID 000528541500001
View details for PubMedID 32168494