Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • PLD3 affects axonal spheroids and network defects in Alzheimer's disease. Nature Yuan, P., Zhang, M., Tong, L., Morse, T. M., McDougal, R. A., Ding, H., Chan, D., Cai, Y., Grutzendler, J. 2022


    The precise mechanisms that lead to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease are unknown. Here we identify amyloid-plaque-associated axonal spheroids as prominent contributors to neural network dysfunction. Using intravital calcium and voltage imaging, we show that a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease demonstrates severe disruption in long-range axonal connectivity. This disruption is caused by action-potential conduction blockades due to enlarging spheroids acting as electric current sinks in a size-dependent manner. Spheroid growth was associated with an age-dependent accumulation of large endolysosomal vesicles and was mechanistically linked with Pld3-a potential Alzheimer's-disease-associated risk gene1 that encodes a lysosomal protein2,3 that is highly enriched in axonal spheroids. Neuronal overexpression of Pld3 led to endolysosomal vesicle accumulation and spheroid enlargement, which worsened axonal conduction blockades. By contrast, Pld3 deletion reduced endolysosomal vesicle and spheroid size, leading to improved electrical conduction and neural network function. Thus, targeted modulation of endolysosomal biogenesis in neurons could potentially reverse axonal spheroid-induced neural circuit abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease, independent of amyloid removal.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-022-05491-6

    View details for PubMedID 36450991

    View details for PubMedCentralID 3458508

  • 3D super-resolution deep-tissue imaging in living mice. Optica Velasco, M. G., Zhang, M., Antonello, J., Yuan, P., Allgeyer, E. S., May, D., M'Saad, O., Kidd, P., Barentine, A. E., Greco, V., Grutzendler, J., Booth, M. J., Bewersdorf, J. 2021; 8 (4): 442-450


    Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy enables the three-dimensional (3D) visualization of dynamic nanoscale structures in living cells, offering unique insights into their organization. However, 3D-STED imaging deep inside biological tissue is obstructed by optical aberrations and light scattering. We present a STED system that overcomes these challenges. Through the combination of two-photon excitation, adaptive optics, red-emitting organic dyes, and a long-working-distance water-immersion objective lens, our system achieves aberration-corrected 3D super-resolution imaging, which we demonstrate 164 µm deep in fixed mouse brain tissue and 76 µm deep in the brain of a living mouse.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OPTICA.416841

    View details for PubMedID 34239948

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8243577