Stanford Advisors

  • Lei Xing, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor

Lab Affiliations

All Publications

  • Towards quantitative in vivo dosimetry using x-ray acoustic computed tomography MEDICAL PHYSICS Sun, L., Gonzalez, G., Pandey, P., Wang, S., Kim, K., Limoli, C., Chen, Y., Xiang, L. 2023; 50 (11): 6894-6907


    Radiation dosimetry is essential for radiation therapy (RT) to ensure that radiation dose is accurately delivered to the tumor. Despite its wide use in clinical intervention, the delivered radiation dose can only be planned and verified via simulation. This makes precision radiotherapy challenging while in-line verification of the delivered dose is still absent in the clinic. X-ray-induced acoustic computed tomography (XACT) has recently been proposed as an imaging tool for in vivo dosimetry.Most of the XACT studies focus on localizing the radiation beam. However, it has not been studied for its potential for quantitative dosimetry. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using XACT for quantitative in vivo dose reconstruction during radiotherapy.Varian Eclipse system was used to generate simulated uniform and wedged 3D radiation field with a size of 4 cm × $ \times \ $ 4 cm. In order to use XACT for quantitative dosimetry measurements, we have deconvoluted the effects of both the x-ray pulse shape and the finite frequency response of the ultrasound detector. We developed a model-based image reconstruction algorithm to quantify radiation dose in vivo using XACT imaging, and universal back-projection (UBP) reconstruction is used as comparison. The reconstructed dose was calibrated before comparing it to the percent depth dose (PDD) profile. Structural similarity index matrix (SSIM) and root mean squared error (RMSE) are used for numeric evaluation. Experimental signals were acquired from 4 cm × $ \times \ $ 4 cm radiation field created by Linear Accelerator (LINAC) at depths of 6, 8, and 10 cm beneath the water surface. The acquired signals were processed before reconstruction to achieve accurate results.Applying model-based reconstruction algorithm with non-negative constraints successfully reconstructed accurate radiation dose in 3D simulation study. The reconstructed dose matches well with the PDD profile after calibration in experiments. The SSIMs between the model-based reconstructions and initial doses are over 85%, and the RMSEs of model-based reconstructions are eight times lower than the UBP reconstructions. We have also shown that XACT images can be displayed as pseudo-color maps of acoustic intensity, which correspond to different radiation doses in the clinic.Our results show that the XACT imaging by model-based reconstruction algorithm is considerably more accurate than the dose reconstructed by UBP algorithm. With proper calibration, XACT is potentially applicable to the clinic for quantitative in vivo dosimetry across a wide range of radiation modalities. In addition, XACT's capability of real-time, volumetric dose imaging seems well-suited for the emerging field of ultrahigh dose rate "FLASH" radiotherapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mp.16476

    View details for Web of Science ID 000991469300001

    View details for PubMedID 37203253

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10656364

  • Model-Based 3-D X-Ray Induced Acoustic Computerized Tomography IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RADIATION AND PLASMA MEDICAL SCIENCES Pandey, P., Wang, S., Sun, L., Xing, L., Xiang, L. 2023; 7 (5): 532-543
  • Model-Based 3-D X-Ray Induced Acoustic Computerized Tomography. IEEE transactions on radiation and plasma medical sciences Pandey, P. K., Wang, S., Sun, L., Xing, L., Xiang, L. 2023; 7 (5): 532-543


    X-ray-induced acoustic (XA) computerized tomography (XACT) is an evolving imaging technique that aims to reconstruct the X-ray energy deposition from XA measurements. Main challenges in XACT are the poor signal-to-noise ratio and limited field-of-view, which cause artifacts in the images. We demonstrate the efficacy of model-based (MB) algorithms for three-dimensional XACT and compare with the traditional algorithms. The MB algorithm is based on iterative, matrix-free approach for regularized-least-squares minimization corresponding to XACT. The matrix-free-LSQR (MF-LSQR) and the non-iterative model-backprojection (MBP) reconstructions were evaluated and compared with universal backprojection (UBP), time-reversal (TR) and fast-Fourier transform (FFT)-based reconstructions for numerical and experimental XACT datasets. The results demonstrate the capability of MF-LSQR algorithm to reduce noisy artifacts thus yielding better reconstructions. MBP and MF-LSQR algorithms perform particularly well with the experimental XACT dataset, where noise in signals significantly affects the reconstruction of the target in UBP and FFT-based reconstructions. The TR reconstruction for experimental XACT are comparable to MF-LSQR, but takes thrice as much time and filters the frequency components greater than maximum frequency supported by the grid, resulting loss of resolution. The MB algorithms are able to overcome the challenges in XACT and hence are vital for the clinical translation of XACT.

    View details for DOI 10.1109/TRPMS.2023.3238017

    View details for PubMedID 38046375

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10691826