Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Reorientation-induced Stokes shifts caused by directional interactions in electronic spectroscopy: Fast dynamics of poly(methyl methacrylate). The Journal of chemical physics Thomaz, J. E., Kramer, P. L., Fica-Contreras, S. M., Hoffman, D. J., Fayer, M. D. 2019; 150 (19): 194201


    Dynamic Stokes shift measurements report on structural relaxation, driven by a dipole created in a chromophore by its excitation from the ground electronic state to the S1 state. Here, we demonstrate that it is also possible to have an additional contribution from orientational relaxation of the Stokes shift chromophore. This effect, called reorientation-induced Stokes shift (RISS), can be observed when the reorientation of the chromophore and the solvent structural relaxation occur on similar time scales. Through a vector interaction, the electronic transition of the chromophore couples to its environment. The orientational diffusive motions of the chromophores will have a slight bias toward reducing the transition energy (red shift) as do the solvent structural diffusive motions. RISS is manifested in the polarization-dependence of the fluorescence Stokes shift using coumarin 153 (C153) in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). A similar phenomenon, reorientation-induced spectral diffusion (RISD), has been observed and theoretically explicated in the context of two dimensional infrared (2D IR) experiments. Here, we generalize the existing RISD theory to include properties of electronic transitions that generally are not present in vibrational transitions. Expressions are derived that permit determination of the structural dynamics by accounting for the RISS contributions. Using these generalized equations, the structural dynamics of the medium can be measured for any system in which the directional interaction is well represented by a first order Stark effect and RISS or RISD is observed. The theoretical results are applied to the PMMA data, and the structural dynamics are obtained and discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.5094806

    View details for PubMedID 31117782

  • Fast dynamics of a hydrogen-bonding glass forming liquid: Chemical exchange-induced spectral diffusion in 2D IR spectroscopy. The Journal of chemical physics Hoffman, D. J., Fica-Contreras, S. M., Fayer, M. D. 2019; 150 (12): 124507


    Polarization-selective Two Dimensional Infrared (2D IR) and IR pump-probe spectroscopies have been performed on the hydrogen bonding glass forming liquid 2-biphenylmethanol doped with the long-lived vibrational probe phenylselenocyanate over a wide range of temperatures. The spectral diffusion seen in the 2D spectra was found to have a large polarization dependence, in large excess of what is predicted by standard theory. This anomaly was explained by decomposing the 2D spectra into hydrogen-bonding and non-bonding components, which exchange through large-angle orientational motion. By adapting chemical exchange theories, parameters for the component peaks were then calculated by fitting the polarization-dependent spectral diffusion and the pump-probe anisotropy. A model of highly heterogeneous exchange and orientational dynamics was used to explain the observed time dependences as a function of temperature on fast time scales. The experimental observations, the kinetic modeling, and physical arguments lead to the determination of the times for interconversion of slow dynamics structural domains to fast dynamics structural domains in the supercooled liquid as a function of temperature. The slow to fast domain interconversion times range from 40 ps at 355 K to 5000 ps at 270 K.

    View details for PubMedID 30927894

  • Discontinuity in Fast Dynamics at the Glass Transition of ortho-Terphenyl JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B Hoffman, D. J., Fayer, M. D. 2017; 121 (45): 10417–28


    The dynamics of the molecular glass former ortho-terphenyl through the glass transition were observed with two-dimensional infrared vibrational spectroscopy measurements of spectral diffusion using the small probe molecule phenylselenocyanate. Although the slow diffusive motions were not visible on the experimental time scale, a picosecond-scale exponential relaxation was observed at temperatures from above to well below the glass transition temperature. The characteristic time scale has a smooth temperature dependence from the liquid into the glass phase, but the range of vibrational frequencies the probe samples displayed a discontinuity at the glass transition temperature. Complementary pump-probe experiments associate the observed motion with density fluctuations. The key features of the dynamics are reproduced with a simple corrugated well potential energy surface model. In addition, the temperature dependence of the homogeneous vibrational dephasing was found to have a T2 functional form, where T is the absolute temperature.

    View details for PubMedID 29039665

  • Direct observation of dynamic crossover in fragile molecular glass formers with 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Hoffman, D. J., Sokolowsky, K. P., Fayer, M. D. 2017; 146 (12)


    The dynamics of supercooled liquids of the molecular glass formers benzophenone and ortho-terphenyl were investigated with 2D IR spectroscopy using long-lived vibrational probes. The long lifetimes of the probes enabled structural dynamics of the liquids to be studied from a few hundred femtoseconds to a nanosecond. 2D IR experiments measured spectraldiffusion of a vibrational probe, which reports on structural fluctuations of the liquid. Analysis of the 2D IR data provides the frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF). Two vibrational probes were examined with equivalent results, demonstrating the observed liquid dynamics are not significantly influenced by the probe molecules. At higher temperatures, the FFCF is a biexponential decay. However, at mild supercooling, the biexponential decay is no longer sufficient, indicating a dynamic crossover. The crossover occurs at a temperature well above the mode-coupling theory critical temperature for the given liquid, indicating dynamic heterogeneity above the critical temperature. Examination of the low temperature data with lifetime density analysis shows that the change is best described as an additional, distinct relaxation that shows behavior consistent with a slow β-process.

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4978852

    View details for Web of Science ID 000397929300058

    View details for PubMedID 28388155

  • Critical Slowing of Density Fluctuations Approaching the Isotropic-Nematic Transition in Liquid Crystals: 2D IR Measurements and Mode Coupling Theory. journal of physical chemistry. B Sokolowsky, K. P., Bailey, H. E., Hoffman, D. J., Andersen, H. C., Fayer, M. D. 2016; 120 (28): 7003-7015


    Two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) data are presented for a vibrational probe in three nematogens: 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl, 4-cyano-4'-octylbiphenyl, and 4-(trans-4-amylcyclohexyl)-benzonitrile. The spectral diffusion time constants in all three liquids in the isotropic phase are proportional to [T*/(T - T*)](1/2), where T* is 0.5-1 K below the isotropic-nematic phase transition temperature (TNI). Rescaling to a reduced temperature shows that the decays of the frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF) for all three nematogens fall on the same curve, suggesting a universal dynamic behavior of nematogens above TNI. Spectral diffusion is complete before significant orientational relaxation in the liquid, as measured by optically heterodyne detected-optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) spectroscopy, and before any significant orientational randomization of the probe measured by polarization selective IR pump-probe experiments. To interpret the OHD-OKE and FFCF data, we constructed a mode coupling theory (MCT) schematic model for the relationships among three correlation functions: ϕ1, a correlator for large wave vector density fluctuations; ϕ2, the orientational correlation function whose time derivative is the observable in the OHD-OKE experiment; and ϕ3, the FFCF for the 2D IR experiment. The equations for ϕ1 and ϕ2 match those in the previous MCT schematic model for nematogens, and ϕ3 is coupled to the first two correlators in a straightforward manner. Resulting models fit the data very well. Across liquid crystals, the temperature dependences of the coupling constants show consistent, nonmonotonic behavior. A remarkable change in coupling occurs at ∼5 K above TNI, precisely where the rate of spectral diffusion in 5CB was observed to deviate from that of a similar nonmesogenic liquid.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b04997

    View details for PubMedID 27363680

  • Quasi-rotating frame: accurate line shape determination with increased efficiency in noncollinear 2D optical spectroscopy JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA B-OPTICAL PHYSICS Kramer, P. L., Giammanco, C. H., Tamimi, A., Hoffman, D. J., Sokolowsky, K. P., Fayer, M. D. 2016; 33 (6): 1143-1156