Alexander Chin, MD, MBA, is a radiation oncologist with Stanford Medicine Cancer Center and a clinical assistant professor in the Department of Radiation Oncology with the Stanford School of Medicine. He also serves as Director of Market Development for Stanford Health Care, acting as a liaison between faculty leadership and hospital administration, to advance Stanford Medicine’s mission of providing compassionate leading-edge care to the communities that we serve.

Dr. Chin is committed to ensuring the delivery of care of the highest quality and value. He provides clinical expertise in diagnosing and treating the full range of cancers, including those of the lung, breast, and central nervous system. In addition, he serves on national leadership teams formed to advance the practice of cancer care. Dr. Chin is currently a member of the Payment Reform Task Force for the American Society of Clinical Oncology and has previously served on their Clinical Practice Committee and as a health policy fellow. He was one of just two oncologists in the US selected to participate in a year-long program on policy leadership.

He currently serves on the Stanford Cancer Network Quality Committee. This team develops and implements our care delivery standards, strategies, and metrics to ensure consistently excellent cancer care from all Stanford Health Care providers in all locations.

Dr. Chin has conducted extensive research and published his findings in numerous peer-reviewed journals. Topics range from novel oncology payment models to the use of new imaging parameters in lung cancer. His scholarship appears in Cancer, JCO Oncology Practice, Clinical Lung Cancer, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, and elsewhere.

He has made presentations on stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and other treatment advances at meetings of the Radiological Society of North America and American Society for Radiation Oncology. He also has addressed these topics as an invited lecturer in training sessions for oncology residents.

He has won numerous awards, including recognition for his research from the Radiological Society of North America. He also has earned honors from the American Society of Clinical Oncology and from his alma maters: the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania as well as Wharton and Yale.

Dr. Chin earned a Bachelor of Science degree in molecular biophysics and biochemistry from Yale University. He earned his medical degree from Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, and his MBA at the Wharton School. He completed his residency in Radiation Oncology at Stanford Health Care.

He is a member of the Radiological Society of North America, American Society for Radiation Oncology, and American Society for Clinical Oncology.

Clinical Focus

  • Radiation Oncology

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Director of Market Development, Stanford Health Care (2019 - Present)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Member, Coverage & Reimbursement Steering Group, American Society of Clinical Oncology (2022 - Present)
  • Member, Clinical Practice Committee, American Society of Clinical Oncology (2018 - 2019)
  • Health Policy Fellow, American Society of Clinical Oncology (2017 - 2018)

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Radiology, Radiation Oncology (2021)
  • Residency: Stanford University Radiation Oncology Residency (2019) CA
  • Internship: Santa Clara Valley Medical Center Internal Medicine Residency (2015) CA
  • Medical Education: Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania (2014) PA
  • MD, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (2014)
  • MBA, The Wharton School, Health Care Management (2014)
  • BS, Yale University, Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry (2009)

All Publications

  • MRI of Soft-Tissue Tumors: What to Include in the Report. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc Riley, G. M., Steffner, R., Kwong, S., Chin, A., Boutin, R. D. 2024; 44 (6): e230086


    MRI serves as a critical step in the workup, local staging, and treatment planning of extremity soft-tissue masses. For the radiologist to meaningfully contribute to the management of soft-tissue masses, they need to provide a detailed list of descriptors of the lesion outlined in an organized report. While it is occasionally possible to use MRI to provide a diagnosis for patients with a mass, it is more often used to help with determining the differential diagnosis and planning of biopsies, surgery, radiation treatment, and chemotherapy (when provided). Each descriptor on the list outlined in this article is specifically aimed to assist in one or more facets of the overall approach to soft-tissue masses. This applies to all masses, but in particular sarcomas. Those descriptors are useful to help narrow the differential diagnosis and ensure concordance with a pathologic diagnosis and its accompanying grade assignment of soft-tissue sarcomas. These include a lesion's borders and shape, signal characteristics, and contrast enhancement pattern; the presence of peritumoral edema and peritumoral enhancement; and the presence of lymph nodes. The items most helpful in assisting surgical planning include a lesion's anatomic location, site of origin, size, location relative to a landmark, relationship to adjacent structures, and vascularity including feeding and draining vessels. The authors provide some background information on soft-tissue sarcomas, including their diagnosis and treatment, for the general radiologist and as a refresher for radiologists who are more experienced in tumor imaging. ©RSNA, 2024 See the invited commentary by Murphey in this issue.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/rg.230086

    View details for PubMedID 38696323

  • Chest wall pain after single-fraction thoracic stereotactic ablative Radiotherapy: Dosimetric analysis from the iSABR trial. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Lau, B., Wu, Y. F., Cui, S., Fu, J., Jackson, S., Pham, D., Dubrowski, P., Eswarappa, S., Skinner, L., Shirato, H., Taguchi, H., Gensheimer, M. F., Gee, H., Chin, A. L., Diehn, M., Loo, B. W., Moiseenko, V., Vitzthum, L. K. 2024: 110317


    Concerns over chest wall toxicity has led to debates on treating tumors adjacent to the chest wall with single-fraction stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). We performed a secondary analysis of patients treated on the prospective iSABR trial to determine the incidence and grade of chest wall pain and modeled dose-response to guide radiation planning and estimate risk.This analysis included 99 tumors in 92 patients that were treated with 25 Gy in one fraction on the iSABR trial which individualized dose by tumor size and location. Toxicity events were prospectively collected and graded based on the CTCAE version 4. Dose-response modeling was performed using a logistic model with maximum likelihood method utilized for parameter fitting.There were 22 grade 1 or higher chest wall pain events, including five grade 2 events and zero grade 3 or higher events. The volume receiving at least 11 Gy (V11Gy) and the minimum dose to the hottest 2 cc (D2cc) were most highly correlated with toxicity. When dichotomized by an estimated incidence of ≥ 20 % toxicity, the D2cc > 17 Gy (36.6 % vs. 3.7 %, p < 0.01) and V11Gy > 28 cc (40.0 % vs. 8.1 %, p < 0.01) constraints were predictive of chest wall pain, including among a subset of patients with tumors abutting or adjacent to the chest wall.For small, peripheral tumors, single-fraction SABR is associated with modest rates of low-grade chest wall pain. Proximity to the chest wall may not contraindicate single fractionation when using highly conformal, image-guided techniques with sharp dose gradients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.radonc.2024.110317

    View details for PubMedID 38679202

  • Intra- and post-pandemic impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on Stanford Health Care. Academic pathology Phongpreecha, T., Berson, E., Xue, L., Shome, S., Saarunya, G., Fralick, J., Ruiz-Tagle, B. G., Foody, A., Chin, A. L., Lim, M., Arthofer, R., Albini, C., Montine, K., Folkins, A. K., Kong, C. S., Aghaeepour, N., Montine, T., Kerr, A. 2024; 11 (2): 100113


    Stanford Health Care, which provides about 7% of overall healthcare to approximately 9 million people in the San Francisco Bay Area, has undergone significant changes due to the opening of a second hospital in late 2019 and, more importantly, the COVID-19 pandemic. We examine the impact of these events on anatomic pathology (AP) cases, aiming to enhance operational efficiency in response to evolving healthcare demands. We extracted historical census, admission, lab tests, operation, and APdata since 2015. An approximately 45% increase in the volume of laboratory tests (P<0.0001) and a 17% increase in AP cases (P<0.0001) occurred post-pandemic. These increases were associated with progressively increasing (P<0.0001) hospital census. Census increase stemmed from higher admission through the emergency department (ED), and longer lengths of stay mostly for transfer patients, likely due to the greater capability of the new ED and changes in regional and local practice patterns post-pandemic. Higher census led to overcapacity, which has an inverted U relationship that peaked at 103% capacity for AP cases and 114% capacity for laboratory tests. Overcapacity led to a lower capability to perform clinical activities, particularly those related to surgical procedures. We conclude by suggesting parameters for optimal operations in the post-pandemic era.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acpath.2024.100113

    View details for PubMedID 38562568

  • Predicting Adverse Cardiac Events After Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. JACC. CardioOncology No, H. J., Guo, F. B., Park, N. J., Kastelowitz, N., Rhee, J. W., Clark, D. E., Chin, A. L., Vitzthum, L. K., Horst, K. C., Moding, E. J., Loo, B. W., Diehn, M., Binkley, M. S. 2023; 5 (6): 775-787


    Radiotherapy may cause grade ≥3 cardiac events, necessitating a better understanding of risk factors. The potential predictive role of imaging biomarkers with radiotherapy doses for cardiac event occurrence has not been studied.The aim of this study was to establish the associations between cardiac substructure dose and coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores and cardiac event occurrence.A retrospective cohort analysis included patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with radiotherapy (2006-2018). Cardiac substructures, including the left anterior descending coronary artery, left main coronary artery, left circumflex coronary artery, right coronary artery, and TotalLeft (left anterior descending, left main, and left circumflex coronary arteries), were contoured. Doses were measured in 2-Gy equivalent units, and visual CAC scoring was compared with automated scoring. Grade ≥3 adverse cardiac events were recorded. Time-dependent receiver-operating characteristic modeling, the log-rank statistic, and competing-risk models were used to measure prediction performance, threshold modeling, and the cumulative incidence of cardiac events, respectively.Of the 233 eligible patients, 61.4% were men, with a median age of 68.1 years (range: 34.9-90.7 years). The median follow-up period was 73.7 months (range: 1.6-153.9 months). Following radiotherapy, 22.3% experienced cardiac events, within a median time of 21.5 months (range: 1.7-118.9 months). Visual CAC scoring showed significant correlation with automated scoring (r = 0.72; P < 0.001). In a competing-risk multivariable model, TotalLeft volume receiving 15 Gy (per 1 cc; HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.11-1.72; P = 0.004) and CAC score >5 (HR: 2.51; 95% CI: 1.08-5.86; P = 0.033) were independently associated with cardiac events. A model incorporating age, TotalLeft CAC (score >5), and volume receiving 15 Gy demonstrated a higher incidence of cardiac events for a high-risk group (28.9%) compared with a low-risk group (6.9%) (P < 0.001).Adverse cardiac events associated with radiation occur in more than 20% of patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy within a median time of <2 years. The present findings provide further evidence to support significant associations between TotalLeft radiotherapy dose and cardiac events and define CAC as a predictive risk factor.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaccao.2023.08.007

    View details for PubMedID 38205000

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10774791

  • Patient Selection and Outcomes for Hypofractionated Accelerated Radiation and Concurrent Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. Clinical lung cancer Hui, C., Marquez, C., Lau, B., Das, M., Myall, N. J., Roy, M., Wakelee, H. A., Neal, J. W., Kovalchuk, N., Chin, A., Diehn, M., Loo, B. W., Xiang, M., Vitzthum, L. K. 2023


    Adoption of hypofractionated accelerated radiation therapy (HART) with concurrent chemotherapy has been limited by toxicity concerns. We aimed to describe outcomes of patients treated with HART and concurrent chemotherapy and to evaluate dosimetry to organs at risk to guide patient selection.We evaluated a retrospective cohort of NSCLC patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy with HART (>2.2 Gy per fraction) or standard fractionated radiation therapy (SFRT; 2-2.2 Gy fractions). Dosimetric parameters to key organs at risk were compared, and toxicity, patterns of recurrence and survival were calculated for the cohorts.Fifty-three patients treated with HART were compared with 100 patients treated with SFRT. Median dose per fraction for the HART cohort was 2.75 Gy (range 2.4-3 Gy). HART patients had significantly lower doses to the lung, heart, and esophagus due to patient selection. The HART group and had rates of grade 2+ pneumonitis (9.4 vs. 19%, P = .16) and grade 2+ esophagitis (20.8 vs. 45%, P < .01) that compared favorably to SFRT. Cumulative incidence of in-field recurrence trended lower in the HART cohort (7.6% vs. 23.1%, P = .058). Among the HART group, 88.7% (47/53) met the newly proposed lung constraints based on the degree of hypofractionation CONCLUSION: In select patients with favorable dosimetry to organs at risk, definitive HART with concurrent chemotherapy achieved excellent local control with low toxicity. These results are being used to inform a prospective study on the safety and efficacy of HART with concurrent chemotherapy for select NSCLC patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cllc.2023.11.008

    View details for PubMedID 38065707

  • Personalized Accelerated ChEmoRadiation (PACER) for Lung Cancer: Protocol for a Bayesian Optimal Phase I/II Trial. Clinical lung cancer Hui, C., Brown, E., Wong, S., Das, M., Wakelee, H., Neal, J., Ramchandran, K., Myall, N. J., Pham, D., Xing, L., Yang, Y., Kovalchuk, N., Yuan, Y., Lu, Y., Xiang, M., Chin, A., Diehn, M., Loo, B. W., Vitzthum, L. K. 2023


    Prior attempts to escalate radiation dose for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not improved survival. Given the high risk for cardiopulmonary toxicity with treatment and heterogenous presentation of locally advanced NSCLC, it is unlikely that a single dose regimen is optimal for all patients. This phase I/II trial aims to evaluate a novel treatment approach where the level of accelerated hypofractionation is determined by the predicted toxicity from dose to organs at risk (OARs).Patients ≥ 18 years old with lung cancer planned for fractionated radiotherapy to the lung with concurrent chemotherapy will be eligible. Radiation therapy (RT) will be delivered to a total dose of 60 to 66 Gy in 30, 25, or 20 fractions depending on the ability to meet constraints to key organs at risk including the lungs, heart, and esophagus. The primary endpoint is high grade pulmonary, esophageal, or cardiac toxicity. A Bayesian optimized design is used to determine stopping boundaries and evaluate the primary endpoint.PACER will evaluate the safety and feasibility of personalized accelerated chemoradiotherapy for lung cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cllc.2023.11.004

    View details for PubMedID 38040540

  • Patterns of local recurrence and risk of skin recurrence in soft tissue sarcomas after surgical resection. Practical radiation oncology Ewongwo, A., Oladipo, E. D., Hui, C., Avedian, R. S., Steffner, R. J., Mohler, D. G., Kalbasi, A., Chin, A. L., Million, L., Hiniker, S. M., Moding, E. J. 2023


    Although there is a theoretical risk of skin seeding during surgical resection of soft tissues sarcomas (STSs), current consensus guidelines recommend against routine use of bolus during RT. However, the risk of skin recurrence has not been systematically assessed. We aimed to assess the patterns of local recurrence (LR) in patients with STS treated with surgery with or without RT.We performed a retrospective analysis of adults with STSs evaluated at our institution between 2007-2021. For patients who developed LR, the depth was evaluated. Progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed from time of first LR using Kaplan-Meier method. Cumulative incidence of distant metastasis (CIDM) was calculated with competing risk analysis from date of LR.Of the 206 patients evaluated, 20 had LR (9.7%). Among patients with LR, five patients (25.0%) were treated with surgery alone and 15 patients (75.0%) with surgery and RT. In patients treated with RT, 46.7% had pre-operative RT, 53.3% had post operative RT, and bolus was used in 46.7%. Surgical margins were close (<1mm) in 4 patients (20.0%) and positive in 10 patients (50.0%). LR occurred in the deep subfascial tissue in 9 patients (45%), subcutaneous tissue in 10 patients (50.0%), and skin in 1 patient (5.0%). The patient with a skin recurrence was treated with surgery alone and the tumor involved the skin at presentation. In patients treated with RT, LR occurred within RT field in 13 patients (86.7%). At 1 year after LR, PFS was 70.3%, OS was 81.7%, and CIDM was 5.9%.Skin recurrences were rare after surgical resection of STSs, and only occurred in a tumor that involved the skin at initial presentation. These findings support current recommendations against routine use of bolus in STSs not involving the skin at presentation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.prro.2023.09.006

    View details for PubMedID 37804883

  • Individualized Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Lung Tumors: The iSABR Phase 2 Nonrandomized Controlled Trial. JAMA oncology Gensheimer, M. F., Gee, H., Shirato, H., Taguchi, H., Snyder, J. M., Chin, A. L., Vitzthum, L. K., Maxim, P. G., Wakelee, H. A., Neal, J., Das, M., Chang, D. T., Kidd, E., Hancock, S. L., Shultz, D. B., Horst, K. C., Le, Q. T., Wong, S., Brown, E., Nguyen, N., Liang, R., Loo, B. W., Diehn, M. 2023


    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is used for treating lung tumors but can cause toxic effects, including life-threatening damage to central structures. Retrospective data suggested that small tumors up to 10 cm3 in volume can be well controlled with a biologically effective dose less than 100 Gy.To assess whether individualizing lung SABR dose and fractionation by tumor size, location, and histological characteristics may be associated with local tumor control.This nonrandomized controlled trial (the iSABR trial, so named for individualized SABR) was a phase 2 multicenter trial enrolling participants from November 15, 2011, to December 5, 2018, at academic medical centers in the US and Japan. Data were analyzed from December 9, 2020, to May 10, 2023. Patients were enrolled in 3 groups according to cancer type: initial diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with an American Joint Committee on Cancer 7th edition T1-3N0M0 tumor (group 1), a T1-3N0M0 new primary NSCLC with a history of prior NSCLC or multiple NSCLCs (group 2), or lung metastases from NSCLC or another solid tumor (group 3).Up to 4 tumors were treated with once-daily SABR. The dose ranged from 25 Gy in 1 fraction for peripheral tumors with a volume of 0 to 10 cm3 to 60 Gy in 8 fractions for central tumors with a volume greater than 30 cm3.Per-group freedom from local recurrence (same-lobe recurrence) at 1 year, with censoring at time of distant recurrence, death, or loss to follow-up.In total, 217 unique patients (median [IQR] age, 72 [64-80] years; 129 [59%] male; 150 [69%] current or former smokers) were enrolled (some multiple times). There were 240 treatment courses: 79 in group 1, 82 in group 2, and 79 in group 3. A total of 285 tumors (211 [74%] peripheral and 74 [26%] central) were treated. The most common dose was 25 Gy in 1 fraction (158 tumors). The median (range) follow-up period was 33 (2-109) months, and the median overall survival was 59 (95% CI, 49-82) months. Freedom from local recurrence at 1 year was 97% (90% CI, 91%-99%) for group 1, 94% (90% CI, 87%-97%) for group 2, and 96% (90% CI, 89%-98%) for group 3. Freedom from local recurrence at 5 years ranged from 83% to 93% in the 3 groups. The proportion of patients with grade 3 to 5 toxic effects was low, at 5% (including a single patient [1%] with grade 5 toxic effects).The results of this nonrandomized controlled trial suggest that individualized SABR (iSABR) used to treat lung tumors may allow minimization of treatment dose and is associated with excellent local control. Individualized dosing should be considered for use in future Identifier: NCT01463423.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.3495

    View details for PubMedID 37707820

  • Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy to a lung tumor abutting the course of the phrenic nerve. Practical radiation oncology Eke, I., Guo, H. H., Loo, J. B., Sung, A. W., Diehn, M., Vitzthum, L., Chin, A. L., Gensheimer, M. F. 2023


    We present the case of a woman with metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma who received stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) with a total dose of 50 Gy in 4 fractions to two lung metastases and developed symptomatic left phrenic nerve injury 2 years after radiation. The maximum dose to the approximate location of the phrenic nerve was 57.7 Gy which corresponds to a biologically effective dose for late effects (using α/β ratio = 3) of 335.14 Gy. Here, we discuss the case, planning considerations by radiation oncologists and medical physicists, and the multidisciplinary medical management of this patient.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.prro.2023.04.010

    View details for PubMedID 37150318

  • Pulmonary Hemorrhage in Patients Treated with Thoracic Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy and Anti-Angiogenic Agents. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Lau, B., Wu, Y. F., No, H. J., Ko, R. B., Devine, M., Das, M. S., Neal, J. W., Wakelee, H. A., Ramchandran, K., Gensheimer, M. F., Diehn, M., Chin, A. L., Loo, B. W., Vitzthum, L. K. 2023


    Severe pulmonary hemorrhage can occur in patients treated with thoracic stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) and vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (VEGFi). There is limited understanding of which patients are at risk for toxicity with the combination of thoracic SABR and VEGFis or how the risk differs over either therapy alone.We evaluated a prospectively maintained cohort of 690 patients with 818 pulmonary tumors treated with highly conformal SABR. Rates of any grade and grade-three-plus (G3+) pulmonary hemorrhage were compared between patients treated with or without VEGFi therapy across tumor locations. Outcomes were compared between patients treated with SABR + VEGFi and a propensity-matched cohort of those treated with VEGFi therapy alone.Treatment with VEGFi + SABR was associated with higher rates of G3+ pulmonary hemorrhage compared to those treated with SABR alone for the overall cohort (3-year incidence: 7.9% vs 0.6%, p<0.01) and those with central tumors (19.1% vs 3.3%, p=0.04). When further subdivided, there were significantly higher toxicity rates with VEGFi for the ultracentral (9.0% vs 45.0%, p = 0.044), but not central non-abutting tumors (0.0% vs 1.3% p = 0.69). There was an increased incidence of G3+ hemorrhage in patients treated with VEGFi + SABR compared to VEGFi alone (9.6 vs 1.3%, p=0.04).The combination of VEGFi and SABR was associated with an increased risk of high-grade pulmonary hemorrhage over either therapy alone. Low rates of toxicity were observed when excluding patients with SABR to ultracentral tumors and applying highly conformal SABR techniques.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtho.2023.04.007

    View details for PubMedID 37085030

  • Real-world risk of brain metastases in stage III non-small cell lung cancer in the era of PET and MRI staging. Frontiers in oncology Alhusaini, S., Lanman, T. A., Ko, R. B., Therkelsen, K. E., Eyben, R. V., Diehn, M., Soltys, S. G., Pollom, E. L., Chin, A., Vitzthum, L., Wakelee, H. A., Padda, S. K., Ramchandran, K., Loo, B. W., Neal, J. W., Nagpal, S. 2023; 13: 1139940


    The 2-year incidence of brain metastases (BrMs) in stage III non-small lung cell cancer (NSCLC) has been estimated to be around 30%. However, recent clinical trials have demonstrated considerably lower BrMs rates in this patient population. In this study, we aimed to review the real-world incidence, surveillance, and treatment patterns of BrMs in stage III NSCLC.Using a retrospective single-center study design, we identified patients with stage III NSCLC who received radiation with curative intent over a 10-year period. Outcome variables included BrMs incidence, overall survival (OS), and survival from date of BrMs. Additionally, we assessed patterns of BrMs surveillance in stage III NSCLC and treatment.We identified a total of 279 stage III NSCLC patients, of which 160 with adequate records were included in the final analyses [adenocarcinoma (n = 96), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 53), other histology subtype (n = 11)]. The median OS for the entire cohort was 41 months (95% CI, 28-53), while the median time from BrMs to death was 19 months (95% CI, 9-21). Twenty-three patients (14.4%) received planned surveillance brain MRIs at 6, 12, and 24 months after completion of treatment. The remaining 137 patients (85.6%) received brain MRIs at systemic recurrence (restaging) or when neurologically symptomatic. A total of 37 patients (23%) developed BrMs, with a 2-year cumulative BrMs incidence of 17% (95% CI, 11-23). A higher incidence of BrMs was identified in patients with adenocarcinoma relative to those with squamous cell carcinoma (p < 0.01). Similarly, a higher 2-year BrMs incidence was observed in patients who received planned surveillance brain MRI relative to those who did not, although statistical significance was not reached. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treated 29 of BrMs patients (78.4%) and was preferred over WBRT, which treated only 3 patients (8.1%).At our center, BrMs incidence in stage III NSCLC patients was lower than historically reported but notably higher than the incidence described in recent clinical trials. Routine BrMs surveillance potentially allows earlier detection of asymptomatic BrMs. However, asymptomatic BrMs were mostly detected on restaging MRI at the time of recurrence.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fonc.2023.1139940

    View details for PubMedID 37035171

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10080021

  • Early Outcomes and Toxicity with Concurrent Chemotherapy and Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Hui, C., Marquez, C., Lau, B., Von Eyben, R., Das, M., Myall, N., Roy, M., Chin, A., Diehn, M., Loo, B., Vitzthum, L. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022: S44
  • Diagnostic CT Planning for Palliative Inpatient Treatments: A Cost-savings and Clinical Analysis of a Pilot Program to Reduce the Need for CT Simulation Scans Blomain, E., Alnajjar, N., Chin, A., Lewis, J., Kovalchuk, N., Horst, K. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022: S55
  • Dosimetric Predictors of Local Control after Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) for Lung Tumors: A Secondary Analysis of a Phase II Prospective Trial of Individualized SABR (iSABR) Wu, Y., Lau, B., Fu, J., Skinner, L., Gensheimer, M., Gee, H., Diehn, M., Loo, B., Chin, A., Vitzthum, L. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2022: S16
  • Isolated Nodal Recurrence After Definitive Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Practical radiation oncology Devine, M., Merriott, D. J., No, H. J., Lau, B., Say, C., Yoo, C., Yi, E., Ko, R. B., Neal, J. W., Wakelee, H. A., Das, M., Loo, B. W., Diehn, M., Chin, A. L., Vitzthum, L. K. 2022


    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) results in high rates of primary tumor control for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For patients with isolated hilar or mediastinal nodal recurrences (INR) after SABR, the optimal salvage treatment strategy is unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine the rate of INR after SABR for early-stage NSCLC and to describe patterns of care and treatment outcomes after salvage therapy.This retrospective cohort study included 342 patients with Stage T1-3N0M0 NSCLC treated with definitive SABR from 2003-2018. We evaluated the incidence of INR and baseline factors between patients who did and did not experience INR. Among patients who experienced INR, we described treatment patterns and outcomes including overall (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) from the time of nodal failure using the Kaplan-Meier method.With a median follow-up of 3.3 years, the 3-year INR rate was 10.6% (6.6% -13.4%). Among the 34 patients experiencing INR, the 3-year rates of OS and PFS were 39.3% (24.4 - 63.3%) and 26.7% (14.1 - 50.3%), respectively. The 34 patients with INR were treated with RT alone (26.7 %), concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (43.3 %), chemotherapy alone (13.3%), or observation (16.7%). CRT had the best survival outcomes with a 3-year OS and PFS of 81.5% (61.1 - 100.0%) and 63.9% (40.7 - 100.0%), respectively. Of the patients treated with salvage RT or CRT, 14.3% experienced grade 3 toxicity with no patients having grade 4+ toxicity.INR occurred in approximately 10% of patients treated with SABR for early-stage NSCLC. The highest rates of OS an PFS among patients with INR were observed in those treated with salvage chemoradiotherapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.prro.2022.06.013

    View details for PubMedID 35858658

  • Characterization of Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Oligometastatic Incidence in an Era of Changing Treatment Paradigms. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics No, H. J., Raja, N., Von Eyben, R., Das, M., Roy, M., Myall, N., Neal, J., Wakelee, H., Chin, A., Diehn, M., Loo, B. W., Chang, D. T., Pollom, E. L., Vitzthum, L. K. 2022


    Due to the limitations of current staging systems and evolving definitions, there are limited data on oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) epidemiology. The purpose of this study is to evaluate metastatic disease burden and the incidence of oligometastatic disease using recent clinical trial edibility criteria.A cohort of patients with metastatic NSCLC, diagnosed from 2016 to 2019, were randomly sampled from a curated tumor registry. Definitions for oligometastatic disease were obtained from relevant clinical trials. The Stanford Cancer Institute Research Database (SCIRDB) was used to identify baseline patient factors, systemic and local therapy, extent and location of metastatic lesions, and survival outcomes.Among 120 patients presenting with metastatic NSCLC, the majority had de novo metastatic disease (75%) with a median of 4 metastatic lesions involving 3 organ systems. 37.5% would have been eligible for at least one oligometastatic trial with 28.3% meeting criteria for MDACC, 20.0% for NRG-LU002, 6.7% for SINDAS and 16.7% for SABR-COMET. By adding malignant pleural effusions (MPE) and early progression as exclusionary criteria, only 54.1% of patients with ≤3 synchronous metastases were eligible for consideration of local therapy. Early progression on systemic therapy was associated with worse survival (10.0 vs. 42.4 months, p < 0.001), whereas presence of MPE was not. Of those tumors identified as oligometastatic, 44.4% received local therapy and 28.9% underwent ablative therapy to all sites. There was a trend towards greater overall survival (44.4 vs 24.9 months, p=0.055) and progression free survival (8.0 vs. 5.4 months, p=0.06) in patients meeting eligibility for at least one oligometastatic trial.Around 48% of patients with metastatic NSCLC had ≤3 metastases at presentation and 28% met clinical trial criteria for oligometastatic disease. Future research is needed to better define the oligometastatic state and identify patients most likely to benefit from local therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2022.04.050

    View details for PubMedID 35654305

  • Local control outcomes using stereotactic body radiotherapy or surgical resection for metastatic sarcoma. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Gutkin, P. M., von Eyben, R., Chin, A., Donaldson, S. S., Oh, J., Jiang, A., Ganjoo, K. N., Avedian, R. S., Bruzoni, M., Steffner, R. J., Moding, E. J., Hiniker, S. M. 2022


    Traditional management of metastatic sarcoma primarily relies on systemic therapy, with surgery often used for tumor control. We analyzed the rates of recurrence, overall survival, and treatment complications in patients undergoing either surgical resection or stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for metastatic sarcoma of the bone and/or soft tissue.The records of patients with metastatic sarcoma between 2009-2020 were reviewed. Local recurrence (LR) was defined as tumor growth or recurrence at the tumor site. Cumulative local recurrence incidence was analyzed accounting for the competing risk of death, and groups were compared using the Gray test. Overall survival (OS) was assessed using the Kaplan Meier method and log-rank test. Hazard ratios were determined using Cox proportional test.A total of 525 metastatic lesions in 217 patients were analyzed. Mean age was 57 years (range 4-88). The lung was the predominant site treated (50%), followed by intra-abdominal (13%), and soft-tissue (11%). Two-year cumulative incidences of LR for surgery and SBRT were 14.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.6-18.5) and 1.7% (95% CI, 0.1-8.2), respectively (p=0.003). LR occurred in 72/437 (16.5%) tumors treated with surgery and 2/88 (2.3%) tumors treated with SBRT. Adjusted hazard ratio for LR of lesions treated surgically was 11.5 (p=0.026) when controlled for tumor size and tumor site. Median OS was 29.8 months (95% CI, 25.6-40.9). There were 47 surgical complications of a total of 275 procedures (18%). Of 58 radiation treatment courses, radiation-related toxicity was reported during the treatment of 7 lesions (12%), and none were higher than grade 2.We observed excellent local control among patients selected for treatment with SBRT for metastatic sarcoma, with no evidence of increase in LR following SBRT when compared to surgical management. Further investigation is necessary to better define the most appropriate local control strategies for metastatic sarcoma.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2022.05.017

    View details for PubMedID 35643255

  • IMRT and SBRT Treatment Planning Study for the First Clinical Biology-Guided Radiotherapy System. Technology in cancer research & treatment Pham, D., Simiele, E., Breitkreutz, D., Capaldi, D., Han, B., Surucu, M., Oderinde, S., Vitzthum, L., Gensheimer, M., Bagshaw, H., Chin, A., Xing, L., Chang, D. T., Kovalchuk, N. 2022; 21: 15330338221100231


    Purpose: The first clinical biology-guided radiation therapy (BgRT) system-RefleXionTM X1-was installed and commissioned for clinical use at our institution. This study aimed at evaluating the treatment plan quality and delivery efficiency for IMRT/SBRT cases without PET guidance. Methods: A total of 42 patient plans across 6 cancer sites (conventionally fractionated lung, head, and neck, anus, prostate, brain, and lung SBRT) planned with the EclipseTM treatment planning system (TPS) and treated with either a TrueBeam or Trilogy were selected for this retrospective study. For each Eclipse VMAT plan, 2 corresponding plans were generated on the X1 TPS with 10mm jaws (X1-10mm) and 20mm jaws (X1-20mm) using our institutional planning constraints. All clinically relevant metrics in this study, including PTV D95%, PTV D2%, Conformity Index (CI), R50, organs-at-risk (OAR) constraints, and beam-on time were analyzed and compared between 126 VMAT and RefleXion plans using paired t-tests. Results: All but 3 planning metrics were either equivalent or superior for the X1-10mm plans as compared to the Eclipse VMAT plans across all planning sites investigated. The Eclipse VMAT and X1-10mm plans generally achieved superior plan quality and sharper dose fall-off superior/inferior to targets as compared to the X1-20mm plans, however, the X1-20mm plans were still considered acceptable for treatment. On average, the required beam-on time increased by a factor of 1.6 across all sites for X1-10mm compared to X1-20mm plans. Conclusions: Clinically acceptable IMRT/SBRT treatment plans were generated with the X1 TPS for both the 10mm and 20mm jaw settings.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/15330338221100231

    View details for PubMedID 35579876

  • Pulmonary Hemorrhage in Patients Treated With Thoracic Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy and Anti-Angiogenic Agents Lau, B., No, H. J., Wu, Y. F., Ko, R. B., Devine, M., Das, M., Neal, J. W., Ramchandran, K. J., Wakelee, H. A., Shaheen, S., Diehn, M., Chin, A. L., Loo, B. W., Vitzthum, L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2021: E423
  • Pulmonary Hemorrhage in Patients Treated with Thoracic Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy and Anti-Angiogenic Agents Lau, B., No, H., (Fred) Wu, Y., Devine, M., Ko, R., Loo, B., Diehn, M., Chin, A., Vitzthum, L. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2021: S105
  • Treatment Patterns for Isolated Nodal Recurrences in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer After Definitive Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy No, H., Devine, M., Lau, B., Loo, B., Diehn, M., Chin, A., Vitzthum, L. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2021: S109
  • Updates to the ASCO Patient-Centered Oncology Payment Model. JCO oncology practice Ward, J. C., Bourbeau, B. R., Chin, A. L., Page, R. D., Grubbs, S. S., Kamin, D. Y., Green, S. R., Rappaport, M. 2020: JOP1900776


    The past decade has seen considerable innovation in the delivery of care and payment in oncology. Key initiatives have included the development of oncology medical home care delivery standards, the Medicare Oncology Care Model, and multiple commercial payer initiatives. Looking forward, our next challenge is to reflect on lessons learned from these limited-scale demonstration projects and work toward models that are scalable and sustainable and reflect true collaboration between payers and providers sharing common objectives and methods to advance cancer care delivery. To this end, ASCO continues its work on care delivery standards, quality measurement, and alternative payment models. Over the past year, ASCO has received input from physicians, administrators, payers, and employers to update its Patient-Centered Oncology Payment (PCOP) model. PCOP incorporates current work on provider-payer collaboration, the oncology medical home, and the value of clinical pathways and recognizes the need for common quality measurement, performance methodology, and payment structure across multiple sources of payment. The following represents a summary of the entire model. The model includes chapters on PCOP communities, clinical practice transformation, payment methodology, consolidated payments for oncology care, performance methodology, and implementation considerations. In future work, ASCO will continue its support of the PCOP model, including further development of care delivery standards, quality measures, and technology solutions (eg, CancerLinQ).

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JOP.19.00776

    View details for PubMedID 32302272

  • Stereotactic Radiosurgery After Resection of Brain Metastases: Changing Patterns of Care in the United States. World neurosurgery Chin, A. L., Li, G. n., Gephart, M. H., Sandhu, N. n., Nagpal, S. n., Soltys, S. G., Pollom, E. L. 2020


    Management of symptomatic brain metastases often includes surgical resection with postoperative radiotherapy. Postoperative whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) improves intracranial control but detrimentally impacts quality of life and neurocognition. We sought to characterize the use in the United States of postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), an evolving standard-of-care associated with reduced cognitive effects.With the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database from 2007 to 2015, we identified patients aged 18-65 years treated with resection of a brain metastasis followed by SRS or WBRT within 60 days of surgery. Logistic regression estimated associations between co-variables (treatment year, age, sex, geographic region, place of service, insurance type, disease histology, comorbidity score, and median area household income and educational attainment) and SRS receipt.Of 4,007 patients included, 1,506 (37.6%) received SRS and 2,501 (62.4%) received WBRT. Postoperative SRS increased from 16.5% (2007-2008) to 56.8% (2014-2015). Patients residing in areas with a median household income or an educational attainment below 50th percentile were significantly less likely to receive SRS after controlling for treatment year and other demographic characteristics (p<0.01). Factors associated with higher odds of receiving SRS included younger age, female sex, melanoma histology, Western region location, hospital-based facility, and high-deductible health plan enrollment (p<0.05 for each).Postoperative SRS for brain metastases has increased from 2007 to 2015, with the majority of patients now receiving SRS over WBRT. Patients in areas of lower socioeconomic class were less likely to receive SRS, warranting further investigation of barriers to SRS adoption.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.wneu.2020.09.085

    View details for PubMedID 32971279

  • Long-Term Update of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Benign Spinal Tumors NEUROSURGERY Chin, A. L., Fujimoto, D., Kumar, K. A., Tupper, L., Mansour, S., Chang, S. D., Adler, J. R., Gibbs, I. C., Hancock, S. L., Dodd, R., Li, G., Gephart, M., Ratliff, J. K., Tse, V., Usoz, M., Sachdev, S., Soltys, S. G. 2019; 85 (5): 708–16
  • Application of pharmacoeconomics to formulary management in a health system setting. American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Studdert, A. L., Gong, C. L., Srinivas, S., Chin, A. L., Deresinski, S. 2019; 76 (6): 381-386


    A novel value-based approach to evaluate costly specialty drugs for formulary addition was developed.In February 2016, Stanford Health Care launched the specialty drug subcommittee (SDSC), a subcommittee of the pharmacy and therapeutics committee, responsible for the formulary review of specialty pharmaceuticals. A process was developed for value-based review that includes not only consideration of clinical trial data and institutional acquisition costs but also internal patient outcomes and a cost-effectiveness model using internal financial data. A Markov model was developed to assess the value of trabectedin, which was approved for formulary addition in April 2016, relative to the addition of dacarbazine. The economic model and internal patient outcome analysis were presented to the prescribing oncologist and the SDSC for review. Internal data revealed that fewer patients than had been estimated received trabectedin, with outcomes significantly worse than those observed in the clinical trial leading to Food and Drug Administration approval. In the cost-effectiveness model, trabectedin had higher costs and poorer outcomes compared with dacarbazine. Based on the economic model, low utilization, and real-world outcomes, trabectedin was removed from formulary and a restrictive treatment pathway for nonformulary use, developed by the primary prescriber, was implemented. This process has since been applied to 11 more specialty drugs.Internal cost-effectiveness models in combination with real-world patient outcomes data can be effective formulary management tools. Engagement and collaboration with the requesting provider are key to developing thoughtful treatment pathways.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ajhp/zxy010

    View details for PubMedID 31361838

  • The impact of state parity laws on copayments for and adherence to oral endocrine therapy for breast cancer CANCER Chin, A. L., Bentley, J. P., Pollom, E. L. 2019; 125 (3): 374–81

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.31910

    View details for Web of Science ID 000456686000010

  • Prognostic Significance of P16 Expression and P53 Expression in Primary Vaginal Cancer. International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists Nwachukwu, C. R., Harris, J. P., Chin, A. n., Von Eyben, R. n., Giaretta, S. n., Shaffer, J. L., Hiniker, S. M., Kapp, D. S., Folkins, A. K., Kidd, E. A. 2019; 38 (6): 588–96


    To evaluate the correlation between p16 expression and clinical outcomes in patients with primary vaginal cancer treated with definitive radiotherapy. P16 immunohistochemical was performed on 25 patient samples and recorded from pathology reports in 7 patients. P53 immunohistochemical was performed on 3 p16-negative samples. Baseline characteristics were compared using the Fisher exact test. Outcomes were compared using log-rank tests, and cox proportional hazards models. Survival and recurrence analysis was performed with the Kaplan-Meier method and cumulative incidence estimates. P16 expression was positive in 29 patients and negative in 3 patients. Two of the p16-negative tumors showed positive expression of p53. The median overall survival, progression-free survival and 2-yr cumulative incidence of recurrence were 66 mo [95% confidence interval (CI), 31-96], 34 mo (95% CI, 21-86), and 19% (95% CI, 7%-34%), respectively. P16-positive tumors had higher median overall survival and progression-free survival compared with p16-negative tumors (82 vs. 31 mo, P=0.02 and 35 vs 16 mo, P=0.04, respectively). The 2-yr cumulative incidence of recurrence was 14% for p16-positive tumors compared with 67% for p16-negative tumors (P=0.07). On univariable analysis, p16-negative status, age older than 65, and advanced stage were associated with inferior overall survival. P16 negativity is an independent predictor of inferior overall survival. P16-positive vaginal cancers have a better prognosis and decreased incidence of recurrence compared with p16-negative tumors. These prognostic findings associated with p16-negative vaginal cancers will need to be confirmed in larger patient cohorts.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PGP.0000000000000568

    View details for PubMedID 31593028

  • The impact of state parity laws on copayments for and adherence to oral endocrine therapy for breast cancer. Cancer Chin, A. L., Bentley, J. P., Pollom, E. L. 2018


    BACKGROUND: Adherence to endocrine therapy for breast cancer is often inadequate, in part because of out-of-pocket costs for medication. Numerous states have enacted parity laws to limit patient cost-sharing for oral anticancer drugs. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of these laws on patient copayments for and adherence to oral endocrine therapy for breast cancer.METHODS: Administrative health insurance claims data from 2007 to 2014 derived from a US health care database were used to identify female patients aged 18 to 64 years with invasive cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast who initiated endocrine therapy and were enrolled in fully insured health plans in states that either enacted parity legislation between 2008 and 2013 or had not yet enacted such legislation by 2015. Differences-in-differences analysis was used to compare copayments for and adherence to endocrine therapy during the 1-year period before and after each year of legislation enactment.RESULTS: In total, 6900 individuals who received 7778 unique drug therapy courses were identified. Parity legislation was associated with significant decreases in the 25th percentile of copayments for anastrozole of $4.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], -$4.52 to -$4.26; P < .001) and for exemestane of $3.08 (95% CI, -$4.80 to -$1.35; P < .001). The median copayment for exemestane decreased by $10.25 (95% CI, -$12.61 to -$7.89; P < .001). A higher median monthly copayment was significantly associated with a greater risk of medication nonadherence (adjusted risk ratio, 1.006 per dollar increase; P < .001).CONCLUSIONS: Parity laws had a modest effect on lowering the cost of anastrozole and exemestane, but more focused efforts to limit out-of-pocket costs for endocrine therapy may have a greater impact on medication adherence.

    View details for PubMedID 30566762

  • Rising rates of bilateral mastectomy with reconstruction following neoadjuvant chemotherapy INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER Pollom, E. L., Qian, Y., Chin, A. L., Dirbas, F. M., Asch, S. M., Kurian, A. W., Horst, K. C., Tsai, C. 2018; 143 (12): 3262–72

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ijc.31747

    View details for Web of Science ID 000451115900020

  • Prognostic Significance of P16 Expression and P53 Expression in Primary Vaginal Cancer. International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists Nwachukwu, C. R., Harris, J. P., Chin, A., Von Eyben, R., Giaretta, S., Shaffer, J. L., Hiniker, S. M., Kapp, D. S., Folkins, A. K., Kidd, E. A. 2018


    To evaluate the correlation between p16 expression and clinical outcomes in patients with primary vaginal cancer treated with definitive radiotherapy. P16 immunohistochemical was performed on 25 patient samples and recorded from pathology reports in 7 patients. P53 immunohistochemical was performed on 3 p16-negative samples. Baseline characteristics were compared using the Fisher exact test. Outcomes were compared using log-rank tests, and cox proportional hazards models. Survival and recurrence analysis was performed with the Kaplan-Meier method and cumulative incidence estimates. P16 expression was positive in 29 patients and negative in 3 patients. Two of the p16-negative tumors showed positive expression of p53. The median overall survival, progression-free survival and 2-yr cumulative incidence of recurrence were 66mo [95% confidence interval (CI), 31-96], 34mo (95% CI, 21-86), and 19% (95% CI, 7%-34%), respectively. P16-positive tumors had higher median overall survival and progression-free survival compared with p16-negative tumors (82 vs. 31mo, P=0.02 and 35 vs 16mo, P=0.04, respectively). The 2-yr cumulative incidence of recurrence was 14% for p16-positive tumors compared with 67% for p16-negative tumors (P=0.07). On univariable analysis, p16-negative status, age older than 65, and advanced stage were associated with inferior overall survival. P16 negativity is an independent predictor of inferior overall survival. P16-positive vaginal cancers have a better prognosis and decreased incidence of recurrence compared with p16-negative tumors. These prognostic findings associated with p16-negative vaginal cancers will need to be confirmed in larger patient cohorts.

    View details for PubMedID 30516621

  • Prognostic Value of Pretreatment FDG-PET Parameters in High-dose Image-guided Radiotherapy for Oligometastatic Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer CLINICAL LUNG CANCER Chin, A. L., Kumar, K. A., Guo, H. H., Maxim, P. G., Wakelee, H., Neal, J. W., Diehn, M., Loo, B. W., Gensheimer, M. F. 2018; 19 (5): E581–E588
  • Survival impact of postoperative radiotherapy timing in pediatric and adolescent medulloblastoma NEURO-ONCOLOGY Chin, A. L., Moding, E. J., Donaldson, S. S., Gibbs, I. C., Soltys, S. G., Hiniker, S. M., Pollom, E. L. 2018; 20 (8): 1133–41
  • The role of bone marrow and spleen irradiation in the development of acute hematologic toxicity during chemoradiation for esophageal cancer. Advances in radiation oncology Chin, A. L., Aggarwal, S., Pradhan, P., Bush, K., von Eyben, R., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2018; 3 (3): 297–304


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of splenic and thoracic bone marrow irradiation on hematologic toxicity in the setting of chemoradiation therapy for esophageal cancer.Methods and materials: We analyzed 60 patients with carcinoma of the distal esophagus or gastroesophageal junction who received concurrent chemoradiation in the preoperative or definitive setting. Dosimetric and volumetric parameters were calculated for the spleen, thoracic spine, and posterior ribs. The primary endpoint was grade ≥3 hematologic toxicity (HT3+). Associations were assessed using logistic and linear regression models.Results: Twenty-one patients (35%) experienced HT3+, including 18 patients with leukopenia and 5 with thrombocytopenia. Higher spleen V5-V20 was correlated with a lower risk of HT3+ on multivariable analysis (odds ratio: 0.83 per 10cm3 increase in V10; P=.013). A dose-dependent decrease in spleen volume was observed after radiation therapy, and a greater decrease was independently associated with a lower risk of HT3+ (odds ratio: 0.93 per 1% volume decrease; P=.014). Dosimetric parameters of the thoracic spine were not significantly associated with HT3+.Conclusions: A greater decrease in spleen size after radiation therapy and a higher spleen V5-V20 were independently associated with a lower risk of severe hematologic toxicity. Splenic irradiation may mitigate leukopenia associated with chemoradiation therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.adro.2018.02.005

    View details for PubMedID 30202799

  • Cost Effectiveness of Radiation and Chemotherapy for High-Risk Low Grade Glioma Qian, Y., Maruyama, S., Kim, H., Pollom, E. L., Kumar, K. A., Harris, J. P., Chin, A. L., Pitt, A., Bendavid, E., Owens, D. K., Durkee, B. Y., Soltys, S. G. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: E26
  • Prognostic Value of Pretreatment FDG-PET Parameters in High-dose Image-guided Radiotherapy for Oligometastatic Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer. Clinical lung cancer Chin, A. L., Kumar, K. A., Guo, H. H., Maxim, P. G., Wakelee, H. n., Neal, J. W., Diehn, M. n., Loo, B. W., Gensheimer, M. F. 2018


    Emerging data support aggressive local treatment of oligometastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We sought to determine whether the metabolic burden of disease found by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography at the time of high-dose radiotherapy (RT) for oligometastatic NSCLC can serve as a prognostic biomarker.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 67 RT treatment courses in 55 patients with oligometastatic NSCLC who had undergone high-dose RT to all sites of active disease at our institution. The metabolic tumor volume, total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum standardized uptake value of all lesions were measured on the pretreatment fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the influence of imaging and clinical factors on overall survival (OS).On univariate analysis, a greater metabolic tumor volume and TLG were predictive of shorter OS (hazard ratio of death, 2.42 and 2.14, respectively; P = .009 and P = .004, respectively). The effects remained significant on multivariate analysis. Neither the maximum standardized uptake value nor the number of lesions was significantly associated with OS. Patients within the highest quartile of TLG values (> 86.8 units) had a shorter median OS than those within the lower 3 quartiles (12.4 vs. 30.1 months; log-rank P = .014).The metabolic tumor burden was prognostic of OS and might help to better select oligometastatic NSCLC patients for locally ablative therapy.

    View details for PubMedID 29759331

  • Rising rates of bilateral mastectomy with reconstruction following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. International journal of cancer Pollom, E. L., Qian, Y. n., Chin, A. L., Dirbas, F. M., Asch, S. M., Kurian, A. W., Horst, K. C., Tsai, C. J. 2018


    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is used to allow more limited breast surgery without compromising local control. We sought to evaluate nationwide surgical trends in patients with operable breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and factors associated with surgical type. We used the National Cancer Database to identify 235,339 women with unilateral T1-3N0-3M0 breast cancer diagnosed between 2010 and 2014, and treated with surgery and chemotherapy. Of these, 59,568 patients (25.3%) were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Rates of pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy increased from 33.3% at the start of the study period in 2010 to 46.3% at the end of the period in 2014 (p=0.02). Rates of breast-conserving surgery changed little, from 37.0% to 40.8% (p=0.22). While rates of unilateral mastectomy decreased from 43.3% to 34.7% (p=0.02) and rates of bilateral mastectomy without immediate reconstruction remained similar (11.7% to 11.5%, p=0.82), rates of bilateral mastectomy with immediate reconstruction rose from 8.0% to 13.1% (p=0.02). Patients who were younger, with private/managed care insurance, and diagnosed in more recent years were more likely to achieve pathologic complete response; however, these same characteristics were associated with receipt of bilateral mastectomy (versus breast-conserving surgery). Additionally, non-Hispanic white race and higher area education attainment were both associated with bilateral mastectomy. These findings did not differ by age or molecular subtype. Further study of non-clinical factors that influence selection of more extensive surgery despite excellent response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is warranted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for PubMedID 29992582

  • Survival Impact of Postoperative Radiotherapy Timing in Pediatric and Adolescent Medulloblastoma. Neuro-oncology Chin, A. L., Moding, E. J., Donaldson, S. S., Gibbs, I. C., Soltys, S. G., Hiniker, S. M., Pollom, E. L. 2018


    Radiation therapy (RT) remains a critical component of multimodality treatment for medulloblastoma. Traditionally, clinicians strive to start RT within 4-5 weeks of surgery, but the optimal timing after surgery remains unclear.Using the National Cancer Database, we identified pediatric and adolescent patients with medulloblastoma treated with curative-intent surgery, RT, and chemotherapy. Factors associated with early or delayed RT were identified using Pearson chi-squared tests. Overall survival (OS) differences based on RT timing were compared using the Kaplan-Meier estimator with log-rank tests. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics associated with OS were analyzed with univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models.Among the 1338 patients analyzed, early RT (defined as initiation ≤3 weeks after surgery) was associated with younger age, M1-3 disease, and subtotal resection. Patients who initiated RT early had decreased five-year OS compared with patients who initiated RT 3.1-4, 4.1-5, or >5 weeks after surgery (72.5%, 80.5%, 79.4%, and 77.8%, respectively; p=0.019), but there was no significant difference in OS among the latter three groups (p=0.788). On multivariate analysis, early RT versus the 3.1-4-week interval was significantly associated with poorer OS (adjusted HR 1.72; 95% CI 1.19-2.48; p=0.004), while time to RT of >5 weeks but within 90 days of surgery did not adversely impact OS (p=0.563).In this large national database analysis, delaying RT within 90 days of surgery was not associated with inferior outcomes. Although clinical judgment remains paramount, postoperative RT timing should allow for healing and the development of an optimal treatment plan.

    View details for PubMedID 29309676

  • Long-Term Update of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Benign Spinal Tumors. Neurosurgery Chin, A. L., Fujimoto, D. n., Kumar, K. A., Tupper, L. n., Mansour, S. n., Chang, S. D., Adler, J. R., Gibbs, I. C., Hancock, S. L., Dodd, R. n., Li, G. n., Gephart, M. H., Ratliff, J. K., Tse, V. n., Usoz, M. n., Sachdev, S. n., Soltys, S. G. 2018


    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for benign intracranial tumors is an established standard of care. The widespread implementation of SRS for benign spinal tumors has been limited by lack of long-term data.To update our institutional experience of safety and efficacy outcomes after SRS for benign spinal tumors.We performed a retrospective cohort study of 120 patients with 149 benign spinal tumors (39 meningiomas, 26 neurofibromas, and 84 schwannomas) treated with SRS between 1999 and 2016, with follow-up magnetic resonance imaging available for review. The primary endpoint was the cumulative incidence of local failure (LF), with death as a competing risk. Secondary endpoints included tumor shrinkage, symptom response, toxicity, and secondary malignancy.Median follow-up was 49 mo (interquartile range: 25-103 mo, range: 3-216 mo), including 61 courses with >5 yr and 24 courses with >10 yr of follow-up. We observed 9 LF for a cumulative incidence of LF of 2%, 5%, and 12% at 3, 5, and 10 yr, respectively. Excluding 10 tumors that were previously irradiated or that arose within a previously irradiated field, the 3-, 5-, and 10-yr cumulative incidence rates of LF were 1%, 2%, and 8%, respectively. At last follow-up, 35% of all lesions had decreased in size. With a total of 776 patient-years of follow-up, no SRS-related secondary malignancies were observed.Comparable to SRS for benign intracranial tumors, SRS provides longer term local control of benign spinal tumors and is a standard-of-care alternative to surgical resection.

    View details for PubMedID 30445557

  • Normal Tissue Constraints for Abdominal and Thoracic Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy. Seminars in radiation oncology Pollom, E. L., Chin, A. L., Diehn, M., Loo, B. W., Chang, D. T. 2017; 27 (3): 197-208


    Although stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) or stereotactic ablative radiotherapy has become an established standard of care for the treatment of a variety of malignancies, our understanding of normal tissue dose tolerance with extreme hypofractionation remains immature. Since Timmerman initially proposed normal tissue dose constraints for SBRT in the 2008 issue of Seminars of Radiation Oncology, experience with SBRT has grown, and more long-term clinical outcome data have been reported. This article reviews the modern toxicity literature and provides updated clinically practical and useful recommendations of SBRT dose constraints for extracranial sites. We focus on the major organs of the thoracic and upper abdomen, specifically the liver and the lung.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.semradonc.2017.02.001

    View details for PubMedID 28577827

  • Sinoatrial node dysfunction after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy in the chest Qian, Y., Dudley, S., Kumar, K., Chaudhuri, A., Chin, A., Harris, J., Prionas, N., Nwachukwu, C., Bagshaw, H., Pollom, E. L., Ben Durkee, Shultz, D., Gensheimer, M. F., Diehn, M., Loo, B. W. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2017
  • Patterns of Care in Adjuvant Therapy for Resected Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Cancer in Elderly Patients. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Pollom, E. L., Chin, A. L., Lee, N. Y., Tsai, C. J. 2017


    To characterize the patterns of care and potential barriers to access to care for elderly patients with oral cavity cancer in the adjuvant setting.We performed a retrospective cohort study using the National Cancer Data Base and identified patients with resected oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed between 2004 and 2012, who survived for ≥3 months after surgery. We used logistic regression models to assess the association between age (<70, 70-79, and ≥80 years) and the receipt of adjuvant therapy within 3 months of surgery. We additionally assessed the association between patient and tumor characteristics and the receipt of adjuvant therapy among those aged ≥70 years.A total of 25,829 patients were included in the study. Compared with those aged <70 years, older patients were more likely to have no neck dissection or have fewer lymph nodes dissected and were less likely to receive adjuvant therapy than younger patients. Among our cohort, 11,361 patients (44%) had pathologic T3-T4 disease or N2-N3 disease, and 4185 patients (16%) had extracapsular nodal extension or positive surgical margins. In multivariate analyses controlling for comorbidity and demographic characteristics, older age was independently associated with lower odds of receiving adjuvant radiation therapy in the subgroup with T3 or T4 disease or N2 or N3 disease and adjuvant chemoradiation therapy in the positive extracapsular nodal extension or positive surgical margin subgroup. Among elderly patients, both greater patient distance from reporting facility and older age were associated with lower odds of receiving both adjuvant radiation therapy (odds ratio 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.81) and chemoradiation therapy (odds ratio 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.79).In a national hospital-based cohort of patients with oral cavity cancer, elderly patients were less likely to receive adjuvant radiation or chemoradiation therapy. Greater patient distance from reporting facility, in addition to older age, was associated with lower odds of receiving both adjuvant radiation therapy and adjuvant chemoradiation therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.01.224

    View details for PubMedID 28366574

  • Nonoperative Management of Rectal Cancer: A Modern Perspective. Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) Qian, Y. n., Chin, A. L., Toesca, D. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2017; 31 (10): e13–e22


    Nonoperative management of rectal cancer is an emerging treatment approach that aims to enable carefully selected patients to avoid the morbidity of radical surgical resection, while benefiting from the same excellent rates of tumor control achieved with radical surgery-based combined-modality therapy. The success of nonoperative management in this setting is based on the accurate assessment of tumor eradication after chemoradiotherapy, without pathologic verification. Therefore, clinical evidence of complete response-based on physical examination, endoscopic procedures, and imaging-must be utilized as a marker to predict for pathologic complete response and thus help select the patients who are most appropriate for nonoperative management. Initial evidence from retrospective and prospective single-arm and cohort studies has demonstrated high rates of local control and disease-free survival with nonoperative management of rectal cancer, compared with historical results of combined-modality therapy. Several trials and registries are prospectively investigating nonoperative management vs standard treatment of rectal cancer. At this time, combined-modality therapy with total mesorectal excision remains the standard of care for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer; nonoperative management should not be routinely offered outside of clinical trials.

    View details for PubMedID 29083469

  • Cost-Effectiveness of Radiation and Chemotherapy for High-Risk Low-Grade Glioma. Neuro-oncology Qian, Y. n., Maruyama, S. n., Kim, H. n., Pollom, E. L., Kumar, K. A., Chin, A. L., Harris, J. P., Chang, D. T., Pitt, A. n., Bendavid, E. n., Owens, D. K., Durkee, B. Y., Soltys, S. G. 2017


    The addition of PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine) chemotherapy to radiotherapy (RT) for patients with high-risk (≥ 40 years old or sub-totally resected) low-grade glioma (LGG) results in an absolute median survival benefit of over 5 years. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this treatment strategy.A decision tree with an integrated three-state Markov model was created to follow patients with high risk LGG after surgery treated with RT vs. RT+PCV. Patients existed in one of 3 health states: stable, progressive, and dead. Survival and freedom from progression were modeled to reflect the results of RTOG 9802 using time-dependent transition probabilities. Health utility values and costs of care were derived from the literature and national registry databases. Analysis was conducted from the healthcare perspective. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis explored uncertainty in model parameters.Modeled outcomes demonstrated agreement with clinical data in expected benefit of addition of PCV to RT. The addition of PCV to RT yielded an incremental benefit of 4.77 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (9.94 for RT+PCV vs. 5.17 for RT alone) at an incremental cost of $48,635 ($188,234 for RT+PCV vs. $139,598 for RT alone), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $10,186 per QALY gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrates that within modeled distributions of parameters, RT+PCV has 99.96% probability of being cost-effectiveness at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per QALY.The addition of PCV to RT is a cost-effective treatment strategy for patients with high-risk LGG.

    View details for PubMedID 28666368

  • Impact of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy on Health Care Costs of Patients With Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Journal of oncology practice Chin, A. L., Pollom, E. L., Qian, Y. n., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2017: JOP2017024810


    Drivers of variation in the cost of care after chemoradiotherapy for the management of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have not been fully elucidated. We sought to characterize the direct and indirect impact of radiotherapy modality on health care costs among patients with anal SCC.A retrospective cohort study was performed using the 2014 linkage of the SEER-Medicare database. We identified 1,025 patients with anal SCC diagnosed between 2001 and 2011 and treated with chemoradiotherapy. Propensity score matching was used to balance baseline differences between patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and those treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Differences in total, cancer-attributable, and procedure-specific costs between groups were measured.Radiation-related, patient out-of-pocket, and total costs in the 1-year period after radiotherapy start were all higher for the IMRT group than the 3D-CRT group (median total cost, $35,890 v $27,262, respectively; P < .001). Patients who received IMRT had lower cumulative costs associated with urgent hospitalizations and emergency department visits at both 9 months and 1 year after treatment start compared with a matched cohort of patients who received 3D-CRT (median, $711 v $4,957 at 1 year, respectively; P = .021).Although total costs of care were higher for IMRT compared with 3D-CRT, primarily as a result of higher radiotherapy-specific costs, IMRT was associated with decreased unplanned health care utilization costs starting at 9 months after treatment start. Radiotherapy-centered episodes of care may need to encompass a longer time horizon to capture the full cost savings associated with more advanced radiation modalities.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JOP.2017.024810

    View details for PubMedID 29035618

  • Feasibility and limitations of bulk density assignment in MRI for head and neck IMRT treatment planning. Journal of applied clinical medical physics Chin, A. L., Lin, A., Anamalayil, S., Teo, B. K. 2014; 15 (5): 4851-?


    Head and neck cancers centered at the base of skull are better visualized on MRI than on CT. The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the accuracy of bulk density assignment in head and neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plan optimization. Our study investigates dose calculation differences between density-assigned MRI and CT, and identifies potential limitations related to dental implants and MRI geometrical distortion in the framework of MRI-only-based treatment planning. Bulk density assignment was performed and applied onto MRI to generate three MRI image sets with increasing levels of heterogeneity for seven patients: 1) MRIW: all water-equivalent; 2) MRIW+B: included bone with density of 1.53 g/cm3; and 3) MRIW+B+A: included bone and air. Using identical planning and optimization parameters, MRI-based IMRT plans were generated and compared to corresponding, forward-calculated, CT-based plans on the basis of target coverage, isodose distributions, and dose-volume histograms (DVHs). Phantom studies were performed to assess the magnitude and spatial dependence of MRI geometrical distortion. MRIW-based dose calculations overestimated target coverage by 16.1%. Segmentation of bone reduced differences to within 2% of the coverage area on the CT-based plan. Further segmentation of air improved conformity near air-tissue interfaces. Dental artifacts caused substantial target coverage overestimation even on MRIW+B+A. Geometrical distortion was less than 1 mm in an imaging volume 20 × 20 × 20 cm3 around scanner isocenter, but up to 4 mm at 17 cm lateral to isocenter. Bulk density assignment in the framework of MRI-only IMRT head and neck treatment planning is a feasible method with certain limitations. Bone and teeth account for the majority of density heterogeneity effects. While soft tissue is well visualized on MRI compared to CT, dental implants may not be visible on MRI and must be identified by other means and assigned appropriate density for accurate dose calculation. Far off-center geometrical distortion of the body contour near the shoulder region is a potential source of dose calculation inaccuracy.

    View details for DOI 10.1120/jacmp.v15i5.4851

    View details for PubMedID 25207571

  • Quality, and not Just Quantity, of Education Accounts for Differences in Psychometric Performance between African Americans and White Non-Hispanics with Alzheimer's Disease JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY Chin, A. L., Negash, S., Xie, S., Arnold, S. E., Hamilton, R. 2012; 18 (2): 277-285


    The effect of race on cognitive test performance in the evaluation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains controversial. One factor that may contribute substantially to differences in cognitive test performance in diverse populations is education. The current study examined the extent to which quality of education, even after controlling for formal years of education, accounts for differences in cognitive performance between African Americans and White Non-Hispanics (WNHs). The retrospective cohort included 244 patients diagnosed with AD who self-identified as African Americans (n = 51) or WNHs (n = 193). The Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR) was used as an estimate of quality of education. In an analysis that controlled for traditional demographics, including age, sex, and years of formal education, African Americans scored significantly lower than WNHs on the Mini-Mental State Examination, as well as on neuropsychological tests of memory, attention, and language. However, after also adjusting for reading level, all previously observed differences were significantly attenuated. The attenuating effect remained even after controlling for disease severity, indicating that reading scores are not confounded by severity of dementia. These findings suggest that quality, and not just quantity, of education needs to be taken into account when assessing cognitive performance in African Americans with AD.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S1355617711001688

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300794600011

    View details for PubMedID 22300593

  • The role of mechanical forces and adenosine in the regulation of intestinal enterochromaffin cell serotonin secretion AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-GASTROINTESTINAL AND LIVER PHYSIOLOGY Chin, A., Svejda, B., Gustafsson, B. I., Granlund, A. B., Sandvik, A. K., TIMBERLAKE, A., Sumpio, B., Pfragner, R., Modlin, I. M., Kidd, M. 2012; 302 (3): G397-G405


    Enterochromaffin (EC) cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine cell system secrete serotonin (5-HT) with activation of gut motility, secretion, and pain. These cells express adenosine (ADORA) receptors and are considered to function as mechanosensors. Physiological pathways mediating mechanosensitivity and adenosine responsiveness remain to be fully elucidated, as do their roles in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and neoplasia. Pure (98-99%) FACS-sorted normal and IBD human EC cells and neoplastic EC cells (KRJ-I) were studied. IBD-EC cells and KRJ-I overexpressed ADORA2B. NECA, a general ADORA receptor agonist, stimulated, whereas the A2B receptor antagonist MRS1754 inhibited, 5-HT release (EC50 = 1.8 × 10-6 M; IC50 = 3.7 × 10-8 M), which was associated with corresponding alterations in intracellular cAMP levels and pCREB (Ser133). Mechanical stimulation using a rhythmic flex model induced transcription and activation of Tph1 (tryptophan hydroxylase) and VMAT₁ (vesicular monoamine transporter 1) and the release of 5-HT, which could be inhibited by MRS1754 and amplified by NECA. Secretion was also inhibited by H-89 (PKA inhibitor) while Tph1 and VMAT₁ transcription was regulated by PKA/MAPK and PI₃K-mediated signaling. Normal and IBD-EC cells also responded to NECA and mechanical stimulation with PKA activation, cAMP production, and 5-HT release, effects reversible by MRS1754. EC cells express stimulatory ADORA2B, and rhythmic stretch induces A2B activation, PKA/MAPK/IP3-dependent transcription, and PKA-dependent secretion of 5-HT synthesis and secretion. Receptor expression is amplified in IBD and neoplasia, and 5-HT release is increased. Determination of factors that regulate EC cell function are necessary for understanding its role as a mechanosensory cell and to facilitate the development of agents that can selectively target cell function in EC cell-associated disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpgi.00087.2011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300055300014

    View details for PubMedID 22038827

  • Diversity and Disparity in Dementia: The Impact of Ethnoracial Differences in Alzheimer Disease ALZHEIMER DISEASE & ASSOCIATED DISORDERS Chin, A. L., Negash, S., Hamilton, R. 2011; 25 (3): 187-195


    Debate exists regarding differences in the prevalence of Alzheimer disease (AD) in African Americans and Hispanics in the United States, with some evidence suggesting that the prevalence of AD may be considerably higher in these groups than in non-Hispanic whites. Despite this possible disparity, patients of minority ethnoracial groups often receive delayed diagnosis or inadequate treatment for dementia. This review investigates these disparities by conceptualizing the dementia disease process as a product of both biological and cultural factors. Ethnoracial differences in biological risk factors, such as genetics and cardiovascular disease, may help to explain disparities in the incidence and prevalence of AD, whereas race-specific cultural factors may impact diagnosis and treatment. Cultural factors include differences in perceptions about what is normal aging and what is not, lack of adequate access to medical care, and issues of trust between minority groups and the medical establishment. The diagnosis of AD in diverse populations may also be complicated by racial biases inherent in cognitive screening tools widely used by clinicians, but controlling for literacy level or using savings scores in psychometric analyses has the potential to mitigate these biases. We also suggest that emerging biomarker-based diagnostic tools may be useful in further characterizing diverse populations with AD. Recognizing the gap in communication that exists between minority communities and the medical research community, we propose that education and outreach are a critical next step in the effort to understand AD as it relates to diverse populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/WAD.0b013e318211c6c9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294206600001

    View details for PubMedID 21399486