Professor Saperstein received her B.A. in Sociology from the University of Washington and her Ph.D. in Sociology and Demography from the University of California-Berkeley. In 2016, she received the Early Achievement Award from the Population Association of America. She has also been a Visiting Scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation and Sciences Po (Paris).

Her research focuses on the social processes through which people come to perceive, name, and deploy seemingly immutable categorical differences —such as race and sex—and their consequences for explaining, and reinforcing, social inequality. Her current research projects explore several strands of this subject, including:

1) The implications of methodological decisions, especially the measurement of race/ethnicity and sex/gender in surveys, for studies of stratification and health disparities.
2) The relationship between individual-level category fluidity or ambiguity and the maintenance of group boundaries, racial stereotypes, and hierarchies.

This research has been published for social science audiences in the American Journal of Sociology, the Annual Review of Sociology, Demography, Ethnic & Racial Studies, and Gender & Society, among other venues, and for general science audiences in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and PLoS One. It also has been recognized with multiple article awards, and gained attention from national media outlets, including NPR and The Colbert Report.

Academic Appointments

  • Associate Professor, Sociology

Administrative Appointments

  • Director, Co-terminal Master's Program, Department of Sociology (2016 - 2021)
  • Faculty Affiliate, Center for Population Health Sciences (2015 - Present)
  • Faculty Affiliate, Program in Feminist, Gender and Sexuality Studies (2013 - Present)
  • Faculty Affiliate, Center for Comparative Studies in Race and Ethnicity (2011 - Present)
  • Assistant Professor, University of Oregon (2008 - 2011)

Honors & Awards

  • Early Career Award, Population Association of America (2016)
  • Visiting Scholar, LIEPP, Sciences Po (2016)
  • Faculty Fellow, Center for Comparative Study of Race and Ethnicity (2015-2016)
  • Editor's Choice Award, Demographic Research (2015)
  • Faculty College Fellow, Stanford University (2014 - 2015)
  • Visiting Scholar, Russell Sage Foundation (2014 - 2015)
  • Kimberle Crenshaw Best Article Award, SSSP Racial and Ethnic Minorities Division (2014)
  • Oliver Cromwell Cox Best Article Award, ASA Section on Racial and Ethnic Minorities (2014)
  • IPUMS Research Award, Minnesota Population Center (2013)
  • Roger Gould Prize, American Journal of Sociology (2013)
  • Faculty Fellow, Clayman Institute for Gender Research, Stanford University (2012 - 2013)
  • Poster Award, Population Association of America Annual Meeting (with A. Penner & J. Kizer) (2012)
  • Chancellor’s Dissertation-Year Fellowship, University of California (2007 - 2008)
  • Phi Beta Kappa, University of Washington (1999)

Program Affiliations

  • Feminist, Gender, and Sexuality Studies

Professional Education

  • B.A., University of Washington, Seattle, Sociology (1999)
  • M.A., University of California, Berkeley, Sociology (2004)
  • M.A., University of California, Berkeley, Demography (2005)
  • Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, Sociology and Demography (2008)

All Publications

  • Gender, Generation, and Multiracial Identification in the United States. Demography Xu, J., Saperstein, A., Morning, A., Iverson, S. 2021


    Multiracial self-identification is frequently portrayed as a disproportionately female tendency, but previous research has not probed the conditions under which this relationship might occur. Using the 2015 Pew Survey of Multiracial Adults, we offer a more comprehensive analysis that considers gender differences at two distinct stages: reporting multiple races in one's ancestry and selecting multiple races to describe oneself. We also examine self-identification patterns by the generational locus of multiracial ancestry. We find that females are more likely to be aware of multiracial ancestry overall, but only first-generation females are more likely than their male counterparts to self-identify as multiracial. Finally, we explore the role of racial ancestry combination, finding that multiracial awareness and self-identification are likely gendered differently for different segments of the mixed-race population. This offers a more nuanced picture of how gender interacts with other social processes to shape racial identification in the United States.

    View details for DOI 10.1215/00703370-9334366

    View details for PubMedID 34351407

  • Measuring Race and Ancestry in the Age of Genetic Testing. Demography Johfre, S. S., Saperstein, A., Hollenbach, J. A. 2021


    Will the rise of genetic ancestry tests (GATs) change how Americans respond to questions about race and ancestry on censuses and surveys? To provide an answer, we draw on a unique study of more than 100,000 U.S. adults that inquired about respondents' race, ancestry, and genealogical knowledge. We find that people in our sample who have taken a GAT, compared with those who have not, are more likely to self-identify as multiracial and are particularly likely to select three or more races. This difference in multiple-race reporting stems from three factors: (1) people who identify as multiracial are more likely to take GATs; (2) GAT takers are more likely to report multiple regions of ancestral origin; and (3) GAT takers more frequently translate reported ancestral diversity into multiracial self-identification. Our results imply that Americans will select three or more races at higher rates in future demographic data collection, with marked increases in multiple-race reporting among middle-aged adults. We also present experimental evidence that asking questions about ancestry before racial identification moderates some of these GAT-linked reporting differences. Demographers should consider how the meaning of U.S. race data may be changing as more Americans are exposed to information from GATs.

    View details for DOI 10.1215/00703370-9142013

    View details for PubMedID 33843996

  • Dangerous data: Seeing social surveys through the sexuality prism SEXUALITIES Westbrook, L., Budnick, J., Saperstein, A. 2021
  • Gender and Health: Beyond Binary Categorical Measurement. Journal of health and social behavior Hart, C. G., Saperstein, A., Magliozzi, D., Westbrook, L. 2019: 22146519825749


    This study leverages multiple measures of gender from a US national online survey (N = 1,508) to better assess how gender is related to self-rated health. In contrast to research linking feminine behaviors with good health and masculine behaviors with poor health, we find that masculinity is associated with better self-rated health for cisgender men, whereas femininity is associated with better self-rated health for cisgender women. The patterns are similar whether we consider self-identification or how people feel others perceive their gender, though reflected appraisals are most strongly associated with health for cisgender women. We also find that people who report they are seen as gender nonconforming report worse health, but only when this perception does not match their gender identification. Our results demonstrate that multiple measures of gender allow researchers to disentangle how health is not only shaped by gender enactments but also shapes perceptions of gender and gender difference.

    View details for PubMedID 30698460

  • Ethics of inclusion: Cultivate trust in precision medicine. Science (New York, N.Y.) Lee, S. S., Fullerton, S. M., Saperstein, A. n., Shim, J. K. 2019; 364 (6444): 941–42

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aaw8299

    View details for PubMedID 31171685

  • Placing Racial Classification in Context. Socius : sociological research for a dynamic world Pickett, R. E., Saperstein, A. n., Penner, A. M. 2019; 5


    This article extends previous research on place-based patterns of racial categorization by linking it to sociological theory that posits subnational variation in cultural schemas and applying regression techniques that allow for spatial variation in model estimates. We use data from a U.S. restricted-use geocoded longitudinal survey to predict racial classification as a function of both individual and county characteristics. We first estimate national average associations, then turn to spatial-regime models and geographically weighted regression to explore how these relationships vary across the country. We find that individual characteristics matter most for classification as "Black," while contextual characteristics are important predictors of classification as "White" or "Other," but some predictors also vary across space, as expected. These results affirm the importance of place in defining racial boundaries and suggest that U.S. racial schemas operate at different spatial scales, with some being national in scope while others are more locally situated.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/2378023119851016

    View details for PubMedID 31656853

  • Consumer (dis-)interest in Genetic Ancestry Testing: The roles of race, immigration, and ancestral certainty. New genetics and society Horowitz, A. L., Saperstein, A. n., Little, J. n., Maiers, M. n., Hollenbach, J. A. 2019; 38 (2): 165–94


    Genetic ancestry testing (GAT) is marketed as a way to make up for missing knowledge about one's ancestry. Previous research questions the GAT industry's ability to fulfill this promise in terms of the validity and reliability of test results. We instead explore the demand side of GAT, evaluating who is most and least likely to express interest in GAT. Using data from an original, nationwide survey of over 100,000 American adults, we find that GAT interest is related to both self-identified race and immigrant generation, with Asian Americans and first-generation immigrants expressing the least interest. Our quantitative and qualitative evidence suggests interest is further shaped by a pre-existing sense of ancestral certainty, leading some individuals to decline GAT, even if it were free. How interest and ancestral certainty are patterned has implications for who is included in - and thus for the conclusions that can be drawn from - genetic ancestry databases.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/14636778.2018.1562327

    View details for PubMedID 31814797

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6897494

  • The Generational Locus of Multiraciality and Its Implications for Racial Self-Identification ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE Morning, A., Saperstein, A. 2018; 677 (1): 57–68
  • Making the Most of Multiple Measures: Disentangling the Effects of Different Dimensions of Race in Survey Research AMERICAN BEHAVIORAL SCIENTIST Saperstein, A., Kizer, J. M., Penner, A. M. 2016; 60 (4): 519-537
  • Still Searching for a True Race? Reply to Kramer et al. and Alba et al. American Journal of Sociology Saperstein, A., Penner, A. M. 2016; 122 (1): 263-285

    View details for DOI 10.1086/687806

  • Scaling Up: Representing Gender Diversity in Survey Research Socius Magliozzi, D., Saperstein, A., Westbrook, L. 2016; 2

    View details for DOI 10.1177/2378023116664352

  • New Categories Are Not Enough: Rethinking the Measurement of Sex and Gender in Social Surveys GENDER & SOCIETY Westbrook, L., Saperstein, A. 2015; 29 (4): 534-560
  • Disentangling the Effects of Racial Self-identification and Classification by Others: The Case of Arrest DEMOGRAPHY Penner, A. M., Saperstein, A. 2015; 52 (3): 1017-1024


    Scholars of race have stressed the importance of thinking about race as a multidimensional construct, yet research on racial inequality does not routinely take this multidimensionality into account. We draw on data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to disentangle the effects of self-identifying as black and being classified by others as black on subsequently being arrested. Results reveal that the odds of arrest are nearly three times higher for people who were classified by others as black, even if they did not identify themselves as black. By contrast, we find no effect of self-identifying as black among people who were not seen by others as black. These results suggest that racial perceptions play an important role in racial disparities in arrest rates and provide a useful analytical approach for disentangling the effects of race on other outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s13524-015-0394-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000356041100014

    View details for PubMedID 26012845

  • Race, Ethnicity and Ancestry in Unrelated Transplant Matching for the National Marrow Donor Program: A Comparison of Multiple Forms of Self-Identification with Genetics. PloS one Hollenbach, J. A., Saperstein, A., Albrecht, M., Vierra-Green, C., Parham, P., Norman, P. J., Maiers, M. 2015; 10 (8)


    We conducted a nationwide study comparing self-identification to genetic ancestry classifications in a large cohort (n = 1752) from the National Marrow Donor Program. We sought to determine how various measures of self-identification intersect with genetic ancestry, with the aim of improving matching algorithms for unrelated bone marrow transplant. Multiple dimensions of self-identification, including race/ethnicity and geographic ancestry were compared to classifications based on ancestry informative markers (AIMs), and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, which are required for transplant matching. Nearly 20% of responses were inconsistent between reporting race/ethnicity versus geographic ancestry. Despite strong concordance between AIMs and HLA, no measure of self-identification shows complete correspondence with genetic ancestry. In certain cases geographic ancestry reporting matches genetic ancestry not reflected in race/ethnicity identification, but in other cases geographic ancestries show little correspondence to genetic measures, with important differences by gender. However, when respondents assign ancestry to grandparents, we observe sub-groups of individuals with well- defined genetic ancestries, including important differences in HLA frequencies, with implications for transplant matching. While we advocate for tailored questioning to improve accuracy of ancestry ascertainment, collection of donor grandparents' information will improve the chances of finding matches for many patients, particularly for mixed-ancestry individuals.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0135960

    View details for PubMedID 26287376

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4545604

  • Race, color, and income inequality across the Americas DEMOGRAPHIC RESEARCH Bailey, S. R., Saperstein, A., Penner, A. M. 2014; 31: 735-756
  • Beyond the Looking Glass: Exploring Fluidity in Racial Self-Identification and Interviewer Classification SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES Saperstein, A., Penner, A. M. 2014; 57 (2): 186-207
  • The Criminal Justice System and the Racialization of Perceptions ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE Saperstein, A., Penner, A. M., Kizer, J. M. 2014; 651 (1): 104-121
  • The Dynamics of Racial Fluidity and Inequality in the United States Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective Saperstein, A., Penner, A. M. edited by Grusky, D. Westview Press. 2014; 4th
  • A "Mulatto Escape Hatch" in the United States? Examining Evidence of Racial and Social Mobility During the Jim Crow Era DEMOGRAPHY Saperstein, A., Gullickson, A. 2013; 50 (5): 1921-1942


    Racial distinctions in the United States have long been characterized as uniquely rigid and governed by strict rules of descent, particularly along the black-white boundary. This is often contrasted with countries, such as Brazil, that recognize "mixed" or intermediate racial categories and allow for more fluidity or ambiguity in racial classification. Recently released longitudinal data from the IPUMS Linked Representative Samples, and the brief inclusion of a "mulatto" category in the U.S. Census, allow us to subject this generally accepted wisdom to empirical test for the 1870-1920 period. We find substantial fluidity in black-mulatto classification between censuses-including notable "downward" racial mobility. Using person fixed-effects models, we also find evidence that among Southern men, the likelihood of being classified as mulatto was related to intercensal changes in occupational status. These findings have implications for studies of race and inequality in the United States, cross-national research on racial classification schemes in the Americas, and for how demographers collect and interpret racial data.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s13524-013-0210-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000325009400017

    View details for PubMedID 23606347

  • ENGENDERING RACIAL PERCEPTIONS: An Intersectional Analysis of How Social Status Shapes Race GENDER & SOCIETY Penner, A. M., Saperstein, A. 2013; 27 (3): 319-344
  • When white people report racial discrimination: The role of region, religion, and politics SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH Mayrl, D., Saperstein, A. 2013; 42 (3): 742-754


    Scholarly interest in the correlates and consequences of perceived discrimination has grown exponentially in recent years, yet, despite increased legal and media attention to claims of "anti-white bias," empirical studies predicting reports of racial discrimination by white Americans remain limited. Using data from the 2006 Portraits of American Life Study, we find that evangelical Protestantism increases the odds that whites will report experiencing racial discrimination, even after controlling for racial context and an array of social and psychological characteristics. However, this effect is limited to the South. Outside the South, political affiliation trumps religion, yielding distinct regional profiles of discrimination reporters. These findings suggest that institutions may function as regional "carriers" for whites inclined to report racial discrimination.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.12.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317318600012

    View details for PubMedID 23521992

  • Capturing Complexity in the United States: Which Aspects of Race Matter and When? Accounting for Ethnic and Racial Diversity: The Challenge of Enumeration Saperstein, A. R. edited by Simon, P., Piché, V. New York: Routledge. 2013
  • Representing the Multidimensionality of Race in Survey Research Mapping ‘Race’: Critical Approaches to Health Disparities Research Saperstein, A. edited by Gomez, L. E., Lopez, N. Rutgers University Press. 2013
  • Racial Formation in Perspective: Connecting Individuals, Institutions, and Power Relations ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY, VOL 39 Saperstein, A., Penner, A. M., Light, R. 2013; 39: 359-378
  • Racial Fluidity and Inequality in the United States AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY Saperstein, A., Penner, A. M. 2012; 118 (3): 676-727

    View details for DOI 10.1086/667722

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313721800004

  • Capturing complexity in the United States: which aspects of race matter and when? ETHNIC AND RACIAL STUDIES Saperstein, A. 2012; 35 (8): 1484-1502
  • Looking the Part: Social Status Cues Shape Race Perception PLOS ONE Freeman, J. B., Penner, A. M., Saperstein, A., Scheutz, M., Ambady, N. 2011; 6 (9)


    It is commonly believed that race is perceived through another's facial features, such as skin color. In the present research, we demonstrate that cues to social status that often surround a face systematically change the perception of its race. Participants categorized the race of faces that varied along White-Black morph continua and that were presented with high-status or low-status attire. Low-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as Black, whereas high-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as White; and this influence grew stronger as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 1). When faces with high-status attire were categorized as Black or faces with low-status attire were categorized as White, participants' hand movements nevertheless revealed a simultaneous attraction to select the other race-category response (stereotypically tied to the status cue) before arriving at a final categorization. Further, this attraction effect grew as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 2). Computational simulations then demonstrated that these effects may be accounted for by a neurally plausible person categorization system, in which contextual cues come to trigger stereotypes that in turn influence race perception. Together, the findings show how stereotypes interact with physical cues to shape person categorization, and suggest that social and contextual factors guide the perception of race.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0025107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295932100018

    View details for PubMedID 21977227

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3180382

  • Cause of Death Affects Racial Classification on Death Certificates PLoS One Noymer, A., Penner, A. M., Saperstein, A. 2011; 6 (1): e15812
  • The Race of a Criminal Record: How Incarceration Colors Racial Perceptions SOCIAL PROBLEMS Saperstein, A., Penner, A. M. 2010; 57 (1): 92-113
  • Different Measures, Different Mechanisms: A New Perspective on Racial Disparities in Health Care Research in the Sociology of Health Care Saperstein, A. 2009; 27: 21-45
  • How social status shapes race PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Penner, A. M., Saperstein, A. 2008; 105 (50): 19628-19630


    We show that racial perceptions are fluid; how individuals perceive their own race and how they are perceived by others depends in part on their social position. Using longitudinal data from a representative sample of Americans, we find that individuals who are unemployed, incarcerated, or impoverished are more likely to be seen and identify as black and less likely to be seen and identify as white, regardless of how they were classified or identified previously. This is consistent with the view that race is not a fixed individual attribute, but rather a changeable marker of status.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0805762105

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261802300013

    View details for PubMedID 19064936

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2604956

  • (Re)Modeling Race: Moving From Intrinsic Characteristic to Multidimensional Marker of Status Racism in Post-Race America: New Theories, New Directions Saperstein, A. edited by Gallagher, C. Social Forces Publishing. 2008: 335–50
  • Double-checking the race box: Examining inconsistency between survey measures of observed and self-reported race Annual Meeting of the Population-Association-of-America Saperstein, A. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2006: 57–74
  • Where Americans Came From: Race, Immigration and Ancestry Century of Difference: How America Changed in the Last One Hundred Years Fischer, C. S., Hout, M., Saperstein, A. edited by Fischer, C. S., Hout, M. Russell Sage. 2006: 23–56