Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Cells Adhering to 3D Vertical Nanostructures: Cell Membrane Reshaping without Stable Internalization NANO LETTERS Dipalo, M., McGuire, A. F., Lou, H., Caprettini, V., Melle, G., Bruno, G., Lubrano, C., Matino, L., Li, X., De Angelis, F., Cui, B., Santoro, F. 2018; 18 (9): 6100–6105


    The dynamic interface between the cellular membrane and 3D nanostructures determines biological processes and guides the design of novel biomedical devices. Despite the fact that recent advancements in the fabrication of artificial biointerfaces have yielded an enhanced understanding of this interface, there remain open questions on how the cellular membrane reacts and behaves in the presence of sharp objects on the nanoscale. Here we provide a multifaceted characterization of the cellular membrane's mechanical stability when closely interacting with high-aspect-ratio 3D vertical nanostructures, providing strong evidence that vertical nanostructures spontaneously penetrate the cellular membrane to form a steady intracellular coupling only in rare cases and under specific conditions. The cell membrane is able to conform tightly over the majority of structures with various shapes while maintaining its integrity.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b03163

    View details for Web of Science ID 000444793500104

    View details for PubMedID 30091365

  • An integrated self-healable electronic skin system fabricated via dynamic reconstruction of a nanostructured conducting network. Nature nanotechnology Son, D., Kang, J., Vardoulis, O., Kim, Y., Matsuhisa, N., Oh, J. Y., To, J. W., Mun, J., Katsumata, T., Liu, Y., McGuire, A. F., Krason, M., Molina-Lopez, F., Ham, J., Kraft, U., Lee, Y., Yun, Y., Tok, J. B., Bao, Z. 2018


    Electronic skin devices capable of monitoring physiological signals and displaying feedback information through closed-loop communication between the user and electronics are being considered for next-generation wearables and the 'Internet of Things'. Such devices need to be ultrathin to achieve seamless and conformal contact with the human body, to accommodate strains from repeated movement and to be comfortable to wear. Recently, self-healing chemistry has driven important advances in deformable and reconfigurable electronics, particularly with self-healable electrodes as the key enabler. Unlike polymer substrates with self-healable dynamic nature, the disrupted conducting network is unable to recover its stretchability after damage. Here, we report the observation of self-reconstruction of conducting nanostructures when in contact with a dynamically crosslinked polymer network. This, combined with the self-bonding property of self-healing polymer, allowed subsequent heterogeneous multi-component device integration of interconnects, sensors and light-emitting devices into a single multi-functional system. This first autonomous self-healable and stretchable multi-component electronic skin paves the way for future robust electronics.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41565-018-0244-6

    View details for PubMedID 30127474

  • Constructing Highly Uniform Onion-Ring-like Graphitic Carbon Nitride for Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution ACS NANO Cui, L., Song, J., McGuire, A. F., Kang, S., Fang, X., Wang, J., Yin, C., Li, X., Wang, Y., Cui, B. 2018; 12 (6): 5551–58


    The introduction of microstructure to the metal-free graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) photocatalyst holds promise in enhancing its catalytic performance. However, producing such microstructured g-C3N4 remains technically challenging due to a complicated synthetic process and high cost. In this study, we develop a facile and in-air chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method that produces onion-ring-like g-C3N4 microstructures in a simple, reliable, and economical manner. This method involves the use of randomly packed 350 nm SiO2 microspheres as a hard template and melamine as a CVD precursor for the deposition of a thin layer of g-C3N4 in the narrow space between the SiO2 microspheres. After dissolution of the microsphere template, the resultant g-C3N4 exhibits uniquely uniform onion-ring-like microstructures. Unlike previously reported g-C3N4 powder morphologies that show various degrees of agglomeration and irregularity, the onion-ring-like g-C3N4 is highly dispersed and uniform. The calculated band gap for onion-ring-like g-C3N4 is 2.58 eV, which is significantly narrower than that of bulk g-C3N4 at 2.70 eV. Experimental characterization and testing suggest that, in comparison with bulk g-C3N4, onion-ring-like g-C3N4 facilitates charge separation, extends the lifetime of photoinduced carriers, exhibits 5-fold higher photocatalytic hydrogen evolution, and shows great potential for photocatalytic applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsnano.8b01271

    View details for Web of Science ID 000436910200051

    View details for PubMedID 29863842

  • Application of electrochromic thin films for electrophysiology Alfonso, F., McGuire, A., Li, T., Santoro, F., Cui, B. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2018
  • Interfacing Cells with Vertical Nanoscale Devices: Applications and Characterization. Annual review of analytical chemistry (Palo Alto, Calif.) McGuire, A. F., Santoro, F., Cui, B. 2018


    Measurements of the intracellular state of mammalian cells often require probes or molecules to breach the tightly regulated cell membrane. Mammalian cells have been shown to grow well on vertical nanoscale structures in vitro, going out of their way to reach and tightly wrap the structures. A great deal of research has taken advantage of this interaction to bring probes close to the interface or deliver molecules with increased efficiency or ease. In turn, techniques have been developed to characterize this interface. Here, we endeavor to survey this research with an emphasis on the interface as driven by cellular mechanisms. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry Volume 11 is June 12, 2018. Please see for revised estimates.

    View details for DOI 10.1146/annurev-anchem-061417-125705

    View details for PubMedID 29570360

  • Biocompatible and totally disintegrable semiconducting polymer for ultrathin and ultralightweight transient electronics PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Lei, T., Guan, M., Liu, J., Lin, H., Pfattner, R., Shaw, L., McGuire, A. F., Huang, T., Shao, L., Cheng, K., Tok, J. B., Bao, Z. 2017; 114 (20): 5107-5112


    Increasing performance demands and shorter use lifetimes of consumer electronics have resulted in the rapid growth of electronic waste. Currently, consumer electronics are typically made with nondecomposable, nonbiocompatible, and sometimes even toxic materials, leading to serious ecological challenges worldwide. Here, we report an example of totally disintegrable and biocompatible semiconducting polymers for thin-film transistors. The polymer consists of reversible imine bonds and building blocks that can be easily decomposed under mild acidic conditions. In addition, an ultrathin (800-nm) biodegradable cellulose substrate with high chemical and thermal stability is developed. Coupled with iron electrodes, we have successfully fabricated fully disintegrable and biocompatible polymer transistors. Furthermore, disintegrable and biocompatible pseudo-complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) flexible circuits are demonstrated. These flexible circuits are ultrathin (<1 μm) and ultralightweight (∼2 g/m(2)) with low operating voltage (4 V), yielding potential applications of these disintegrable semiconducting polymers in low-cost, biocompatible, and ultralightweight transient electronics.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1701478114

    View details for Web of Science ID 000401314700044

    View details for PubMedID 28461459

  • Accurate nanoelectrode recording of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for assaying drugs and modeling disease MICROSYSTEMS & NANOENGINEERING Lin, Z., McGuire, A. F., Burridge, P. W., Matsa, E., Lou, H., Wu, J. C., Cui, B. 2017; 3: 1–7
  • Imaging electric field dynamics with graphene optoelectronics NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Horng, J., Balch, H. B., McGuire, A. F., Tsai, H., Forrester, P. R., Crommie, M. F., Cui, B., Wang, F. 2016; 7


    The use of electric fields for signalling and control in liquids is widespread, spanning bioelectric activity in cells to electrical manipulation of microstructures in lab-on-a-chip devices. However, an appropriate tool to resolve the spatio-temporal distribution of electric fields over a large dynamic range has yet to be developed. Here we present a label-free method to image local electric fields in real time and under ambient conditions. Our technique combines the unique gate-variable optical transitions of graphene with a critically coupled planar waveguide platform that enables highly sensitive detection of local electric fields with a voltage sensitivity of a few microvolts, a spatial resolution of tens of micrometres and a frequency response over tens of kilohertz. Our imaging platform enables parallel detection of electric fields over a large field of view and can be tailored to broad applications spanning lab-on-a-chip device engineering to analysis of bioelectric phenomena.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms13704

    View details for Web of Science ID 000389853500001

    View details for PubMedID 27982125

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5172231

  • A skin-inspired organic digital mechanoreceptor SCIENCE Tee, B. C., Chortos, A., Berndt, A., Nguyen, A. K., Tom, A., McGuire, A., Lin, Z. C., Tien, K., Bae, W., Wang, H., Mei, P., Chou, H., Cui, B., Deisseroth, K., Ng, T. N., Bao, Z. 2015; 350 (6258): 313-?

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aaa9306

    View details for Web of Science ID 000362838700039

    View details for PubMedID 26472906

  • Impact of branching on the supramolecular assembly of thioethers on Au(111) JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Murphy, C. J., Shi, X., Jewell, A. D., McGuire, A. F., Bellisario, D. O., Baber, A. E., Tierney, H. L., Lewis, E. A., Sholl, D. S., Sykes, E. C. 2015; 142 (10)


    Alkanethiolate monolayers are one of the most comprehensively studied self-assembled systems due to their ease of preparation, their ability to be functionalized, and the opportunity to control their thickness perpendicular to the surface. However, these systems suffer from degradation due to oxidation and defects caused by surface etching and adsorbate rotational boundaries. Thioethers offer a potential alternative to thiols that overcome some of these issues and allow dimensional control of self-assembly parallel to the surface. Thioethers have found uses in surface modification of nanoparticles, and chiral thioethers tethered to catalytically active surfaces have been shown to enable enantioselective hydrogenation. However, the effect of structural, chemical, and chiral modifications of the alkyl chains of thioethers on their self-assembly has remained largely unstudied. To elucidate how molecular structure, particularly alkyl branching and chirality, affects molecular self-assembly, we compare four related thioethers, including two pairs of structural isomers. The self-assembly of structural isomers N-butyl methyl sulfide and tert-butyl methyl sulfide was studied with high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM); our results indicate that both molecules form highly ordered arrays despite the bulky tert-butyl group. We also investigated the effect of intrinsic chirality in the alkyl tails on the adsorption and self-assembly of butyl sec-butyl sulfide (BSBS) with STM and density functional theory and contrast our results to its structural isomer, dibutyl sulfide. Calculations provide the relative stability of the four stereoisomers of BSBS and STM imaging reveals two prominent monomer forms. Interestingly, the racemic mixture of BSBS is the only thioether we have examined to date that does not form highly ordered arrays; we postulate that this is due to weak enantiospecific intermolecular interactions that lead to the formation of energetically similar but structurally different assemblies. Furthermore, we studied all of the molecules in their monomeric molecular rotor form, and the surface-adsorbed chirality of the three asymmetric thioethers is distinguishable in STM images.

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4907270

    View details for Web of Science ID 000350978000016

    View details for PubMedID 25770504

  • Hydrogen Bonding and Chirality in Functionalized Thioether Self-Assembly JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C McGuire, A. F., Jewell, A. D., Lawton, T. J., Murphy, C. J., Lewis, E. A., Sykes, E. C. 2012; 116 (28): 14992-14997

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp3042507

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306503200031