Phys Sci Res Assoc, Chemistry
Evaluation of the efficacy of the hypocretin/orexin receptor agonists TAK-925 and ARN-776 in narcoleptic orexin/tTA; TetO-DTA mice.
Journal of sleep research
The sleep disorder narcolepsy, a hypocretin deficiency disorder thought to be due to degeneration of hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin neurons, is currently treated symptomatically. We evaluated the efficacy of two small molecule hypocretin/orexin receptor-2 (HCRTR2) agonists in narcoleptic male orexin/tTA; TetO-DTA mice. TAK-925 (1-10mg/kg, s.c.) and ARN-776 (1-10mg/kg, i.p.) were injected 15min before dark onset in a repeated measures design. EEG, EMG, subcutaneous temperature (Tsc ) and activity were recorded by telemetry; recordings for the first 6 h of the dark period were scored for sleep/wake and cataplexy. At all doses tested, TAK-925 and ARN-776 caused continuous wakefulness and eliminated sleep for the first hour. Both TAK-925 and ARN-776 caused dose-related delays in NREM sleep onset. All doses of TAK-925 and all but the lowest dose of ARN-776 eliminated cataplexy during the first hour after treatment; the anti-cataplectic effect of TAK-925 persisted into the second hour for the highest dose. TAK-925 and ARN-776 also reduced the cumulative amount of cataplexy during the 6 h post-dosing period. The acute increase in wakefulness produced by both HCRTR2 agonists was characterised by increased spectral power in the gamma EEG band. Although neither compound provoked a NREM sleep rebound, both compounds affected NREM EEG during the second hour post-dosing. TAK-925 and ARN-776 also increased gross motor activity, running wheel activity, and Tsc , suggesting that the wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing activities of these compounds could be a consequence of hyperactivity. Nonetheless, the anti-cataplectic activity of TAK-925 and ARN-776 is encouraging for the development of HCRTR2 agonists.
View details for DOI 10.1111/jsr.13839
View details for PubMedID 36808670
Secreted factors induced by PKC modulators do not indirectly cause HIV latency reversal.
2023; 581: 8-14
HIV can establish a long-lived latent infection in cells harboring integrated non-expressing proviruses. Latency reversing agents (LRAs), including protein kinase C (PKC) modulators, can induce expression of latent HIV, thereby reducing the latent reservoir in animal models. However, PKC modulators such as bryostatin-1 also cause cytokine upregulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), including cytokines that might independently reverse HIV latency. To determine whether cytokines induced by PKC modulators contribute to latency reversal, primary human PBMCs were treated with bryostatin-1 or the bryostatin analog SUW133, a superior LRA, and supernatant was collected. As anticipated, LRA-treated cell supernatant contained increased levels of cytokines compared to untreated cell supernatant. However, exposure of latently-infected cells with this supernatant did not result in latency reactivation. These results indicate that PKC modulators do not have significant indirect effects on HIV latency reversal in vitro and thus are targeted in their latency reversing ability.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.virol.2023.02.009
View details for PubMedID 36842270
Trimethylene Methane Dianion Equivalent for the Asymmetric Consecutive Allylation of Aldehydes: Applications to Prins-Driven Macrocyclizations for the Synthesis of Bryostatin 1 and Analogues.
The Journal of organic chemistry
We report a one-step (one-flask) generation and reaction of a bifunctional allylating reagent, a trimethylene methane dianion equivalent, that provides a route for the asymmetric 2-(trimethylsilylmethyl) allylation of aldehydes. The product of the first aldehyde allylation process is then set to engage in a second separate aldehyde allylation, providing an improved Prins macrocyclization strategy both for the scalable synthesis of bryostatin 1 and for the total synthesis of a new potent bryostatin analogue.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.joc.2c02047
View details for PubMedID 36378802