CYP4F2 is a human-specific determinant of circulating N-acyl amino acid levels.
The Journal of biological chemistry
N-acyl amino acids are a large family of circulating lipid metabolites that modulate energy expenditure and fat mass in rodents. However, little is known about the regulation and potential cardiometabolic functions of N-acyl amino acids in humans. Here, we analyze the cardiometabolic phenotype associations and genomic associations of four plasma N-acyl amino acids (N-oleoyl-leucine, N-oleoyl-phenylalanine, N-oleoyl-serine, and N-oleoyl-glycine) in 2,351 individuals from the Jackson Heart Study. We find that plasma levels of specific N-acyl amino acids are associated with cardiometabolic disease endpoints independent of free amino acid plasma levels and in patterns according to the amino acid head group. By integrating whole genome sequencing data with N-acyl amino acid levels, we identify that the genetic determinants of N-acyl amino acid levels also cluster according to amino acid head group. Furthermore, we identify the CYP4F2 locus as a genetic determinant of plasma N-oleoyl-leucine and N-oleoyl-phenylalanine levels in human plasma. In experimental studies, we demonstrate that CYP4F2-mediated hydroxylation of N-oleoyl-leucine and N-oleoyl-phenylalanine results in metabolic diversification and production of many previously unknown lipid metabolites with varying characteristics of the fatty acid tail group, including several that structurally resemble fatty acid hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs). These studies provide a structural framework for understanding the regulation and disease-associations of N-acyl amino acids in humans and identify that the diversity of this lipid signaling family can be significantly expanded through CYP4F-mediated ω-hydroxylation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jbc.2023.104764
View details for PubMedID 37121548
Organism-wide, cell-type-specific secretome mapping of exercise training in mice.
There is a significant interest in identifying blood-borne factors that mediate tissue crosstalk and function as molecular effectors of physical activity. Although past studies have focused on an individual molecule or cell type, the organism-wide secretome response to physical activity has not been evaluated. Here, we use a cell-type-specific proteomic approach to generate a 21-cell-type, 10-tissue map of exercise training-regulated secretomes in mice. Our dataset identifies >200 exercise training-regulated cell-type-secreted protein pairs, the majority of which have not been previously reported. Pdgfra-cre-labeled secretomes were the most responsive to exercise training. Finally, we show anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, and exercise performance-enhancing activities for proteoforms of intracellular carboxylesterases whose secretion from the liver is induced by exercise training.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cmet.2023.04.011
View details for PubMedID 37141889
An exercise-inducible metabolite that suppresses feeding and obesity.
Exercise confers protection against obesity, type 2 diabetes and other cardiometabolic diseases1-5. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate the metabolic benefits of physical activity remain unclear6. Here we show that exercise stimulates the production of N-lactoyl-phenylalanine (Lac-Phe), a blood-borne signalling metabolite that suppresses feeding and obesity. The biosynthesis of Lac-Phe from lactate and phenylalanine occurs in CNDP2+ cells, including macrophages, monocytes and other immune and epithelial cells localized to diverse organs. In diet-induced obese mice, pharmacological-mediated increases in Lac-Phe reduces food intake without affecting movement or energy expenditure. Chronic administration of Lac-Phe decreases adiposity and body weight and improves glucose homeostasis. Conversely, genetic ablation of Lac-Phe biosynthesis in mice increases food intake and obesity following exercise training. Last, large activity-inducible increases in circulating Lac-Phe are also observed in humans and racehorses, establishing this metabolite as a molecular effector associated with physical activity across multiple activity modalities and mammalian species. These data define a conserved exercise-inducible metabolite that controls food intake and influences systemic energy balance.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-022-04828-5
View details for PubMedID 35705806