Clinical Focus


  • Emergency Medicine
  • Pediatric Emergency Medicine

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Associate Program Director, Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellowship (2018 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Medical School, University of California, San Francisco (2009)
  • Residency, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Emergency Medicine (2013)
  • Fellowship, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Pediatric Emergency Medicine (2015)
  • Board Certification: Emergency Medicine, American Board of Emergency Medicine (2014)
  • Board Certification: Pediatric Emergency Medicine, American Board of Emergency Medicine (2017)

All Publications


  • Approach to Pediatric Eye Discharge and Periorbital Swelling Pediatric Emergency Medicine Reports Nik-Ahd, M., Cooper, K., Wang, N. E., Fang, A. 2017; 22 (12): 153-168
  • Regional "Call 911" Emergency Department Protocol to Reduce Interfacility Transfer Delay for Patients With ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction. Journal of the American Heart Association Bosson, N., Baruch, T., French, W. J., Fang, A., Kaji, A. H., Gausche-Hill, M., Rock, A., Shavelle, D., Thomas, J. L., Niemann, J. T. 2017; 6 (12)

    Abstract

    We evaluated the first-medical-contact-to-balloon (FMC2B) time after implementation of a "Call 911" protocol for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) interfacility transfers in a regional system.This is a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with STEMI requiring interfacility transfer from a STEMI referring hospital, to one of 35 percutaneous coronary intervention-capable STEMI receiving centers (SRCs). The Call 911 protocol allows the referring physician to activate 911 to transport a patient with STEMI to the nearest SRC for primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients with interfacility transfers were identified over a 4-year period (2011-2014) from a registry to which SRCs report treatment and outcomes for all patients with STEMI transported via 911. The primary outcomes were median FMC2B time and the proportion of patients achieving the 120-minute goal. FMC2B for primary 911 transports were calculated to serve as a system reference. There were 2471 patients with STEMI transferred to SRCs by 911 transport during the study period, of whom 1942 (79%) had emergent coronary angiography and 1410 (73%) received percutaneous coronary intervention. The median age was 61 years (interquartile range [IQR] 52-71) and 73% were men. The median FMC2B time was 111 minutes (IQR 88-153) with 56% of patients meeting the 120-minute goal. The median STEMI referring hospital door-in-door-out time was 53 minutes (IQR 37-89), emergency medical services transport time was 9 minutes (IQR 7-12), and SRC door-to-balloon time was 44 minutes (IQR 32-60). For primary 911 patients (N=4827), the median FMC2B time was 81 minutes (IQR 67-97).Using a Call 911 protocol in this regional cardiac care system, patients with STEMI requiring interfacility transfers had a median FMC2B time of 111 minutes, with 56% meeting the 120-minute goal.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.117.006898

    View details for PubMedID 29275369

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5779010

  • Sex Differences in Survival From Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in the Era of Regionalized Systems and Advanced Post-Resuscitation Care JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION Bosson, N., Kaji, A. H., Fang, A., Thomas, J. L., French, W. J., Shavelle, D., Niemann, J. T. 2016; 5 (9)

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) characteristics, interventions, and outcomes.This is a retrospective analysis from a regionalized cardiac arrest system. Data on patients treated for OHCA are reported to a single registry, from which all adult patients were identified from 2011 through 2014. Characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were evaluated with stratification by sex. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for survival with good neurological outcome (cerebral performance category 1 or 2) was calculated for women compared to men. There were 5174 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs; 3080 males and 2094 females). Women were older, median 71 (interquartile range [IQR], 59-82) versus 66 years (IQR, 55-78). Despite similar frequency of witnessed arrest, women were less likely to present with a shockable rhythm (22% vs 35%; risk difference [RD], 13%; 95% CI, 11-15), have ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (23% vs 32%; RD, 13%; 95% CI, 7-11), or receive coronary angiography (11% vs 25%; RD, 14%; 95% CI, 12-16), percutaneous coronary intervention (5% vs 14%; RD, 9%; 95% CI, 7-11), or targeted temperature management (33% vs 40%; RD, 7%; 95% CI, 4-10). Women had decreased survival to discharge (33% vs 40%; RD, 7%; 95% CI, 4-10) and a lower proportion of good neurological outcome (16% vs 24%; RD, 8%; 95% CI, 6-10). In multivariable modeling, female sex was not associated with decreased survival with good neurological outcome (OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.8-1.1).Sex-related differences in OHCA characteristics and treatment are predictors of survival outcome disparities. With adjustment for these factors, sex was not associated with survival or neurological outcome after OHCA.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.116.004131

    View details for Web of Science ID 000386716900053

    View details for PubMedID 27633392

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5079051

  • Pediatric Acute Bacterial Sinusitis Diagnostic and Treatment Dilemmas PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY CARE Fang, A., England, J., Gausche-Hill, M. 2015; 31 (11): 789-794

    Abstract

    Acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) is a common complication of a simple upper respiratory infection. Acute bacterial sinusitis and an upper respiratory infection, however, have different management plans. This article will help clinicians establish when a diagnosis of ABS can be made based on the latest guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Also covered will be the pathophysiology of ABS, the role of diagnostic imaging, the recognition of complications of ABS, and treatment options.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PEC.0000000000000599

    View details for Web of Science ID 000364544400012

    View details for PubMedID 26535501

  • Risk Factors for Apnea in Pediatric Patients Transported by Paramedics for Out-of-Hospital Seizure ANNALS OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE Bosson, N., Santillanes, G., Kaji, A. H., Fang, A., Fernando, T., Huang, M., Lee, J., Gausche-Hill, M. 2014; 63 (3): 302-308

    Abstract

    Apnea is a known complication of pediatric seizures, but patient factors that predispose children are unclear. We seek to quantify the risk of apnea attributable to midazolam and identify additional risk factors for apnea in children transported by paramedics for out-of-hospital seizure.This is a 2-year retrospective study of pediatric patients transported by paramedics to 2 tertiary care centers. Patients were younger than 15 years and transported by paramedics to the pediatric emergency department (ED) for seizure. Patients with trauma and those with another pediatric ED diagnosis were excluded. Investigators abstracted charts for patient characteristics and predefined risk factors: developmental delay, treatment with antiepileptic medications, and seizure on pediatric ED arrival. Primary outcome was apnea defined as bag-mask ventilation or intubation for apnea by paramedics or by pediatric ED staff within 30 minutes of arrival.There were 1,584 patients who met inclusion criteria, with a median age of 2.3 years (Interquartile range 1.4 to 5.2 years). Paramedics treated 214 patients (13%) with midazolam. Seventy-one patients had apnea (4.5%): 44 patients were treated with midazolam and 27 patients were not treated with midazolam. After simultaneous evaluation of midazolam administration, age, fever, developmental delay, antiepileptic medication use, and seizure on pediatric ED arrival, 2 independent risk factors for apnea were identified: persistent seizure on arrival (odds ratio [OR]=15; 95% confidence interval [CI] 8 to 27) and administration of field midazolam (OR=4; 95% CI 2 to 7).We identified 2 risk factors for apnea in children transported for seizure: seizure on arrival to the pediatric ED and out-of-hospital administration of midazolam.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2013.09.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332751500009

    View details for PubMedID 24120630

  • CONSTIPATION IN A 7-YEAR-OLD BOY: CONGENITAL BAND CAUSING A STRANGULATED SMALL BOWEL AND PULSELESS ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE Fang, A. C., Carnell, J., Stein, J. C. 2012; 42 (3): 283-287

    Abstract

    Constipation in pediatric patients is a common diagnosis in the emergency department (ED) and may occasionally arise from a significant underlying illness.To discuss a rare cause of constipation that led to a strangulated small bowel and cardiac arrest.A 7-year-old boy presented in pulseless electrical activity. The patient had been seen in the ED 2 days prior with the complaint of abdominal pain, which was diagnosed as constipation. The boy had emigrated from Mexico 18 months earlier. The patient was resuscitated in the ED and taken emergently to the operating room. During surgery he was discovered to have a congenital abdominal adhesive band that led to a strangulated small bowel. He suffered subsequent multi-organ failure, including hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, and was hospitalized for 5 months. One month after discharge he was improving and being followed by multiple providers.Congenital adhesive bands, although rare, may be life-threatening anomalies. We present this case to increase awareness of this condition among emergency physicians.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jemermed.2010.05.092

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302272500008

    View details for PubMedID 20832966

  • Effect of a Minimum Lymph Node Policy In Radical Cystectomy and Pelvic Lymphadenectomy on Lymph Node Yields, Lymph Node Positivity Rates, Lymph Node Density, and Survivorship in Patients With Bladder Cancer CANCER Fang, A. C., Ahmad, A. E., Whitson, J. M., Ferrell, L. D., Carroll, P. R., Konety, B. R. 2010; 116 (8): 1901-1908

    Abstract

    Extended pelvic lymphadenectomy (PLND) during radical cystectomy (RC) reportedly improves bladder cancer-specific survival. Lymph node counts are often a proxy for the extensiveness of a dissection. In the current study, the impact of an institutional policy requiring a minimum number of lymph nodes was assessed.Patients undergoing RC and PLND for invasive bladder cancer between March 2000 and February 2008 were retrospectively reviewed at the study institution. Beginning March 1, 2004, a policy was established that at least 16 lymph nodes had to be examined. Specimens with <16 lymph nodes were resubmitted (including any fat) to detect additional lymph nodes. Lymph node yields, lymph node positivity, lymph node density (LND), and survivorship before and after policy implementation were compared.A total of 147 patients underwent surgery 4 years before policy implementation and 202 underwent surgery 4 years after. The median number of lymph nodes increased from 15 to 20. Percentage of cases with >or=16 lymph nodes increased from 42.9% to 69.3% (P <.01). The lymph node positivity rates did not change significantly, but the proportion of patients with LND <20% increased from 43.9% to 65.5% (P = .04). Overall survival increased from 41.5% to 72.3% (P <.01). Univariate and multivariate regression demonstrated that policy implementation, and subsequent increase in median lymph node yield, decreased mortality risk by 30% (hazards ratio [HR], 0.70; P = .04) and 48% (HR, 0.52; P = .01), respectively.Thorough evaluation of PLND specimens obtained at RC can be influenced by an institutional policy mandating a minimum number of lymph nodes. This could lead to greater confidence in pathologic staging and reliability of LND as a predictor of prognosis. Survival can improve due to increased awareness to perform a more thorough PLND.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.25011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276584700009

    View details for PubMedID 20186823