Andrea Kussman, MD is a board-certified Family Medicine physician with a Certificate of Added Qualification (CAQ) in Sports Medicine. She is faculty in the Department of Orthopaedics, where she specializes in the non-surgical treatment of orthopedic injuries, management of medical issues in athletes, and Primary Care.
Dr. Kussman earned her MD from the University of Michigan Medical School, and completed her Family Medicine Residency at UCLA. After residency she was selected to be the Chief Resident at UCLA. Dr. Kussman then completed her Sports Medicine Fellowship at UCLA, where she served as a Team Physician for UCLA Intercollegiate Athletics and for Santa Monica High School.
Dr. Kussman cares for Stanford University athletes at the Lacob Family Sports Medicine Clinic in the Arrillaga Center for Sports and Recreation, and is the Head Team Physician for Stanford University Women's Volleyball, Men's Volleyball, Beach Volleyball, Lacrosse, Softball, Synchronized Swimming, Sailing, Men's Crew, Women's Crew, and Lightweight Crew. Dr. Kussman also enjoys caring for members of the community at her Redwood City Orthopaedic Clinic, where she sees patients of all ages. From weekend warriors to competitive athletes, Dr. Kussman enjoys helping her patients recover, return to their activities, and meet their goals.
Dr. Kussman serves as teaching faculty for the Stanford University Sports Medicine Fellowship Program. She is a member of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM), the American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM), and the Female and Male Athlete Triad Coalition.
In her spare time, Dr. Kussman enjoys camping, hiking, running, playing soccer, watching sports, trying out new sports, reading, and spending time with her husband, her two children, and her dog.
- Primary Care Sports Medicine
- Family Medicine
Clinical Assistant Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery
Honors & Awards
Harry S. Galanty Young Investigator's Award, American Medical Society of Sports Medicine (2018)
Fellow Representative, American Medical Society of Sports Medicine (2016-2016)
Chief Resident, UCLA Department of Family Medicine (2015-2016)
Resident Scholar Award, American Medical Society of Sports Medicine (2015)
Department of Family Medicine Senior Student Award, University of Michigan Department of Family Medicine (2012)
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Program Planning Committee Member, American Medical Society of Sports Medicine (2021 - Present)
Fellows Matters Subcommittee Member, American Medical Society of Sports Medicine (2016 - Present)
Fellowship Committee Member, American Medical Society of Sports Medicine (2016 - Present)
Education Committee Member, American Medical Society of Sports Medicine (2017 - Present)
Liaison to the Female and Male Athlete Triad Coalition, American Medical Society of Sports Medicine (2017 - Present)
Liaison to AMSSM, Female and Male Athlete Triad Coalition (2017 - Present)
Member, American College of Sports Medicine (2013 - Present)
Member, American Academy of Family Physicians (2012 - Present)
Board Certification: American Board of Family Medicine, Sports Medicine (2017)
Fellowship: UCLA David Geffen School Of Medicine Registrar (2017) CA
Residency: UCLA David Geffen School Of Medicine Registrar (2016) CA
Residency: UCLA David Geffen School Of Medicine Registrar (2015) CA
Board Certification: American Board of Family Medicine, Family Medicine (2015)
Medical Education: University of Michigan Medical School (2012) MI
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
Dr. Kussman conducts research on injury prevention and athlete wellness. She has particular interest in the female athlete throughout the lifespan (including care of the adolescent female athlete, collegiate female athletes, menstrual health, exercise during pregnancy, postpartum return to sport, the masters athlete, and osteoporosis). In addition, she is also interested in endurance athletes, bone health, mental health in athletes, exercise as medicine, and medical education.
Previous research has included work on bone health, distance runners, concussion, cardiac complications of COVID-19 infection, nutrition, mental health in athletes, and mononucleosis infection in athletes.
Graduate and Fellowship Programs
Sports Medicine (Fellowship Program)
Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 Test Positivity in NCAA Division I Student Athletes vs Nonathletes at 12 Institutions.
JAMA network open
2022; 5 (2): e2147805
Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic initially led to the abrupt shutdown of collegiate athletics until guidelines were established for a safe return to play for student athletes. Currently, no literature exists that examines the difference in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity between student athletes and nonathletes at universities across the country.Objective: To identify the difference in risk of COVID-19 infection between student athlete and nonathlete student populations and evaluate the hypothesis that student athletes may display increased SARS-CoV-2 test positivity associated with increased travel, competition, and testing compared with nonathletes at their respective universities.Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional analysis, a search of publicly available official university COVID-19 dashboards and press releases was performed for all 65 Power 5 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institutions during the 2020 to 2021 academic year. Data were analyzed at the conclusion of the academic year. Schools that released at least 4 months of testing data, including the fall 2020 football season, for student athletes and nonathlete students were included in the analysis. Power 5 NCAA Division I student athletes and their nonathlete student counterparts were included in the analysis.Exposure: Designation as a varsity student athlete.Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was SARS-CoV-2 test positivity for student athletes and nonathlete students at the included institutions for the 2020 to 2021 academic year, measured as a relative risk for student athletes.Results: Among 12 schools with sufficient data available included in the final analysis, 555 372 student athlete tests and 3 482 845 nonathlete student tests were performed. There were 9 schools with decreased test positivity in student athletes compared with nonathlete students (University of Arkansas: 0.01% vs 3.52%; University of Minnesota: 0.63% vs 5.96%; Penn State University: 0.74% vs 6.58%; Clemson University: 0.40% vs 1.88%; University of Louisville: 0.75% vs 3.05%; Purdue University: 0.79% vs 2.97%; University of Michigan: 0.40% vs 1.12%; University of Illinois: 0.17% vs 0.40%; University of Virginia: 0.64% vs 1.04%) (P<.001 for each). The median (range) test positivity in these 9 schools was 0.46% (0.01%-0.79%) for student athletes and 1.04% (0.40%-6.58%) for nonathlete students. In 1 school, test positivity was increased in the student athlete group (Stanford University: 0.20% vs 0.05%; P<.001). Overall, there were 2425 positive tests (0.44%) among student athletes and 30 567 positive tests (0.88%) among nonathlete students, for a relative risk of 0.50 (95% CI, 0.48-0.52; P<.001). There was no statistically significant difference in student athlete test positivity between included schools; however, test positivity among nonathlete students varied considerably between institutions, ranging from 133 of 271 862 tests (0.05%) at Stanford University to 2129 of 32 336 tests (6.58%) at Penn State University.Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 transmission mitigation protocols implemented by the NCAA, participation in intercollegiate athletics was not associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 test positivity. This finding suggests that collegiate athletics may be held without an associated increased risk of infection among student athletes.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.47805
View details for PubMedID 35138397
Factors Associated With a Prolonged Time to Return to Play After a Concussion.
The American journal of sports medicine
Prognosticating recovery times for individual athletes with a concussion remains a challenge for health care providers. Several preinjury and postinjury factors have been proposed to be predictive of prolonged return-to-play (RTP) times, but the data in this area are still sparse.This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with prolonged recovery times and determine which are most predictive of prolonged recovery times in a head-to-head comparison.Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.All concussions occurring between September 2017 and August 2020 at a single National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institution were reviewed and included in this study. Preinjury modifiers including age, sex, sport, concussion history, and past medical problems were collected from the electronic medical records. Postinjury modifiers analyzed included initial and follow-up Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 5th Edition scores, vestibular evaluation findings, and eye tracking results.A total of 159 athletes and 187 concussion cases were included. Preinjury factors that were correlated with prolonged RTP times included a history of concussions (P = .015), a history of migraines (P = .013), and whether an athlete participated in an individual sport (P = .009). Postinjury factors correlated with prolonged RTP times included the total number (P = .020) and severity (P = .023) of symptoms as well as abnormal Vestibular Ocular Motor Screening findings (P = .002). Overall, 6 different symptoms (balance problems, difficulty concentrating, light sensitivity, drowsiness, fatigue/low energy, and difficulty remembering) were significantly correlated with prolonged RTP times. The study also found that the number and severity of symptoms were additive in a dose-dependent fashion. On multivariable analysis of all these factors, a history of concussions was found to be the most predictive of prolonged RTP times, while participation in an individual sport had the largest effect on recovery times.Several preinjury and postinjury risk factors were identified as being correlated with prolonged recovery times. Many of these risk factors were also found to be additive in nature. This information provides clinicians with a valuable tool in prognosticating and estimating recovery times for athletes. The study also revealed that athletes participating in individual sports had longer RTP times compared with athletes in team sports, which is a novel finding that requires further research.
View details for DOI 10.1177/03635465221083646
View details for PubMedID 35316113
Splenomegaly from Recurrent Infectious Mononucleosis in an NCAA Division I Athlete
CURRENT SPORTS MEDICINE REPORTS
2021; 20 (10): 511-513
View details for Web of Science ID 000756985300005
- Splenomegaly from Recurrent Infectious Mononucleosis in an NCAA Division I Athlete. Current sports medicine reports 2021; 20 (10): 511-513
Impact of Scalene Muscle Botulinum Toxin Injection with and without Surgery in Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: E410
View details for Web of Science ID 000707158200201
Predictors Of Relief Following Botulinum Injection For Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2021: 377
View details for Web of Science ID 000693955700413
Predicting Return To Play In NCAA Division 1 Athletes With Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2021: 390
View details for Web of Science ID 000693955700448
Findings From Cardiovascular Evaluation of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Collegiate Student-Athletes After Asymptomatic or Mildly Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection.
Clinical journal of sport medicine : official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
OBJECTIVE: The risk of myocardial damage after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been controversial. The purpose of this study is to report the incidence of abnormal cardiovascular findings in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I student-athletes with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection.DESIGN: This is a case series of student-athletes with SARS-CoV-2 infection and their subsequent cardiac work-up, including troponin level, electrocardiogram, and echocardiogram. Additional testing was ordered as clinically indicated.SETTING: This study was conducted at a single NCAA Division I institution.PARTICIPANTS: Student-athletes were included if they tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR or antibody testing [immunoglobulin G (IgG)] from April 15, 2020 to October 31, 2020.INTERVENTION: Cardiac testing was conducted as part of postinfection screening.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This study was designed to quantify abnormal cardiovascular screening results and cardiac diagnoses after SARS-CoV-2 infection in Division I collegiate athletes.RESULTS: Fifty-five student-athletes tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of these, 14 (26%) had a positive IgG and 41 (74%) had a positive PCR test. Eight abnormal cardiovascular screening evaluations necessitated further testing including cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI). Two athletes received new cardiac diagnoses, one probable early cardiomyopathy and one pericarditis, whereas the remaining 6 had normal cMRIs.CONCLUSIONS: These data support recent publications which recommend the de-escalation of cardiovascular testing such as cardiac MRI or echocardiogram for athletes who have recovered from asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Continued follow-up of these athletes for sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 is critical.
View details for DOI 10.1097/JSM.0000000000000954
View details for PubMedID 34173780
The Male Athlete Triad-A Consensus Statement From the Female and Male Athlete Triad Coalition Part 1: Definition and Scientific Basis.
Clinical journal of sport medicine : official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
ABSTRACT: The Male Athlete Triad is a syndrome of 3 interrelated conditions most common in adolescent and young adult male endurance and weight-class athletes and includes the clinically relevant outcomes of (1) energy deficiency/low energy availability (EA) with or without disordered eating/eating disorders, (2) functional hypothalamic hypogonadism, and (3) osteoporosis or low bone mineral density with or without bone stress injury (BSI). The causal role of low EA in the modulation of reproductive function and skeletal health in the male athlete reinforces the notion that skeletal health and reproductive outcomes are the primary clinical concerns. At present, the specific intermediate subclinical outcomes are less clearly defined in male athletes than those in female athletes and are represented as subtle alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and increased risk for BSI. The degree of energy deficiency/low EA associated with such alterations remains unclear. However, available data suggest a more severe energy deficiency/low EA state is needed to affect reproductive and skeletal health in the Male Athlete Triad than in the Female Athlete Triad. Additional research is needed to further clarify and quantify this association. The Female and Male Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statements include evidence statements developed after a roundtable of experts held in conjunction with the American College of Sports Medicine 64th Annual Meeting in Denver, Colorado, in 2017 and are in 2 parts-Part I: Definition and Scientific Basis and Part 2: The Male Athlete Triad: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Return-to-Play. In this first article, we discuss the scientific evidence to support the Male Athlete Triad model.
View details for DOI 10.1097/JSM.0000000000000946
View details for PubMedID 34091537
The Male Athlete Triad-A Consensus Statement From the Female and Male Athlete Triad Coalition Part II: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Return-To-Play.
Clinical journal of sport medicine : official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
ABSTRACT: The Male Athlete Triad is a medical syndrome most common in adolescent and young adult male athletes in sports that emphasize a lean physique, especially endurance and weight-class athletes. The 3 interrelated conditions of the Male Athlete Triad occur on spectrums of energy deficiency/low energy availability (EA), suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and impaired bone health, ranging from optimal health to clinically relevant outcomes of energy deficiency/low EA with or without disordered eating or eating disorder, functional hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and osteoporosis or low bone mineral density with or without bone stress injury (BSI). Because of the importance of bone mass acquisition and health concerns in adolescence, screening is recommended during this time period in the at-risk male athlete. Diagnosis of the Male Athlete Triad is best accomplished by a multidisciplinary medical team. Clearance and return-to-play guidelines are recommended to optimize prevention and treatment. Evidence-based risk assessment protocols for the male athlete at risk for the Male Athlete Triad have been shown to be predictive for BSI and impaired bone health and should be encouraged. Improving energetic status through optimal fueling is the mainstay of treatment. A Roundtable on the Male Athlete Triad was convened by the Female and Male Athlete Triad Coalition in conjunction with the 64th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in Denver, Colorado, in May of 2017. In this second article, the latest clinical research to support current models of screening, diagnosis, and management for at-risk male athlete is reviewed with evidence-based recommendations.
View details for DOI 10.1097/JSM.0000000000000948
View details for PubMedID 34091538
Dietary Supplement Use According to Sex and Triad Risk Factors in Collegiate Endurance Runners.
Journal of strength and conditioning research
Barrack, MT, Fredericson, M, Dizon, F, Tenforde, AS, Kim, BY, Kraus, E, Kussman, A, Singh, S, and Nattiv, A. Dietary supplement use according to sex and Triad risk factors in collegiate endurance runners. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence in the use of dietary supplements among elite collegiate runners among 2 NCAA Division I cross-country teams. At the start of each season from 2015 to 2017, male and female endurance runners were recruited to complete baseline study measures; the final sample included 135 (male n = 65, female n = 70) runners. Runners completed a health survey, web-based nutrition survey, and Triad risk assessment. The prevalence of dietary supplement use and Triad risk factors, including disordered eating, low bone mass, amenorrhea (in women), low body mass index, and stress fracture history, was assessed. A total of 78.5% (n = 106) runners reported taking 1 or more supplements on ≥4 days per week over the past month, 48% (n = 65) reported use of ≥3 supplements. Products used with highest frequency included multivitamin/minerals 46.7% (n = 63), iron 46.7% (n = 63), vitamin D 34.1% (n = 46), and calcium 33.3% (n = 45). More women, compared with men, used iron (61.4 vs. 30.8%, p < 0.001) and calcium (41.4 vs. 24.6%, p = 0.04); men exhibited higher use of amino acids and beta-alanine (6.2 vs. 0%, p = 0.04). Runners with bone stress injury (BSI) history, vs. no previous BSI, reported more frequent use of ≥3 supplements (61.5 vs. 32.8%, p = 0.001), vitamin D (49.2 vs. 19.4%, p < 0.001), and calcium (47.7 vs. 19.4%, p = 0.001). Low bone mineral density was also associated with higher use of vitamin D and calcium. Most runners reported regular use of 1 or more supplements, with patterns of use varying based on sex, history of BSI, and bone mass.
View details for DOI 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003848
View details for PubMedID 33278271
Food Accessibility And Eating Patterns In Elite Collegiate Endurance Runners
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2020: 757
View details for Web of Science ID 000590026302610
Dietary Intake Patterns And Risk Of Energy Deficiency In Ncaa Endurance Athletes
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2020: 753
View details for Web of Science ID 000590026303111
- Bone stress injuries in male distance runners: higher modified Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment scores predict increased rates of injury BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE 2019; 53 (4): 237–42
Bone stress injuries in male distance runners: higher modified Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment scores predict increased rates of injury.
British journal of sports medicine
OBJECTIVES: Bone stress injuries (BSI) are common in runners of both sexes. The purpose of this study was to determine if a modified Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment tool would predict BSI in male distance runners.METHODS: 156 male runners at two collegiate programmes were studied using mixed retrospective and prospective design for a total of 7years. Point values were assigned using risk assessment categories including low energy availability, low body mass index (BMI), low bone mineral density (BMD) and prior BSI. The outcome was subsequent development of BSI. Statistical models used a mixed effects Poisson regression model with p<0.05 as threshold for significance. Two regression analyses were performed: (1) baseline risk factors as the independent variable; and (2) annual change in risk factors (longitudinal data) as the independent variable.RESULTS: 42/156 runners (27%) sustained 61 BSIs over an average 1.9 years of follow-up. In the baseline risk factor model, each 1 point increase in prior BSI score was associated with a 57% increased risk for prospective BSI (p=0.0042) and each 1 point increase in cumulative risk score was associated with a 37% increase in prospective BSI risk (p=0.0079). In the longitudinal model, each 1 point increase in cumulative risk score was associated with a 27% increase in prospective BSI risk (p=0.05). BMI (rate ratio (RR)=1.91, p=0.11) and BMD (RR=1.58, p=0.19) risk scores were not associated with BSI.CONCLUSION: A modified cumulative risk assessment tool may help identify male runners at elevated risk for BSI. Identifying risk factors may guide treatment and prevention strategies.
View details for PubMedID 30580252
Youth Multi-sport Participation Is Associated With Higher Bone Mineral Density In Female Collegiate Distance Runners
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2018: 490
View details for Web of Science ID 000456870502137
- Nutrition Goals Prioritized By Elite Endurance Runners Undergoing A Nutrition Education Intervention LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2017: 852
- Preliminary Results from a Prospective Study Using the Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2017: 1098
- Poster 155 Higher Cumulative Risk Assessment Scores Are Associated with Delayed Return to Play in Division I Collegiate Distance Runners. PM & R : the journal of injury, function, and rehabilitation 2016; 8 (9S): S212-S213
2016 update on eating disorders in athletes: A comprehensive narrative review with a focus on clinical assessment and management
BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE
2016; 50 (3): 154-?
Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, can have devastating effects on both the health and performance of athletes. Compared to non-athletes, both female and male athletes are at higher risk of developing an eating disorder. This is especially true for athletes participating in sports where low body weight or leanness confers a competitive advantage. Screening for disordered eating behaviours, eating disorders and for related health consequences should be a standard component of preparticipation examinations, and team physicians should be knowledgeable of the updated diagnostic criteria for eating disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-V. Athletes with eating disorders should undergo thorough evaluation and treatment by an experienced multidisciplinary team. Team physicians play a critical role in decision-making on clearance for participation and return to play. Using evidence-based guidelines for clearance and return to play encourages transparency and accountability between the sports medicine care team and the athlete. Efforts to prevent eating disorders should be aimed at athletes, coaches, parents and athletic administrators, and focused on expanding knowledge of healthy nutrition in support of sport performance and health.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bjsports-2015-095735
View details for Web of Science ID 000369998100010
View details for PubMedID 26782763
- Distribution of Bone Stress Injuries in Elite Male and Female Collegiate Runners LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2015: 905