Anthony Crimarco, Ph.D., is a Clinical Research Coordinator for the Gastroenterology and Hepatology Division at Stanford's Center Clinical for Research.

Previously, Dr. Crimarco completed a Postdoctoral Fellowship in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention at the Stanford Prevention Research Center and a Ph.D. in Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior at the Arnold School of Public Health at the University of South Carolina. He also completed M.S. degrees in Management at the University of Florida and Wellness Management at Ball State University.

His research focus areas include: Diet and lifestyle interventions; plant-based diets; diet and inflammation; as well as the gut microbiome and chronic disease risk.

Education & Certifications

  • Ph.D., University of South Carolina, Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior (2019)
  • M.S., University of Florida, Management (2013)
  • M.S., Ball State University, Wellness Management (2012)
  • B.S., Stetson University, Integrative Health Sciences (2009)

All Publications

  • Switching diets after 6-months does not result in renewed weight loss: a secondary analysis of a 12-month crossover randomized trial. Scientific reports Landry, M. J., Ward, C. P., Cunanan, K. M., Fielding-Singh, P., Crimarco, A., Gardner, C. D. 2024; 14 (1): 9865


    Weight change trajectory from diet and lifestyle interventions typically involves rapid weight loss followed by a weight plateau after approximately 6 months. Changing from one weight-loss diet to another at the time of the plateau could instigate renewed weight loss. Therefore, our secondary analysis aimed to assess trajectory of weight loss in a 12-month, randomized, cross-over study. Forty-two adults were randomized to eat a healthy low-fat or healthy low-carbohydrate diet for 6 months then switched to the opposite diet for an additional 6 months. Regardless of diet assignment, participants experienced rapid initial weight loss, which slowed between 3 to 6 months. After switching diets at 6 months, weight modestly decreased until 9 months, but at a rate slower than the initial 3 months and slower than the rate from 3 to 6 months. This suggests that the weight loss plateau typically seen at 6 months is physiological and cannot be overcome by simply switching to a different weight-loss diet.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-024-60547-z

    View details for PubMedID 38684815

    View details for PubMedCentralID 5839290

  • Assessing the effects of alternative plant-based meats v. animal meats on biomarkers of inflammation: a secondary analysis of the SWAP-MEAT randomized crossover trial JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE Crimarco, A., Landry, M. J., Carter, M. M., Gardner, C. D. 2022; 11
  • Effect of a Ketogenic Diet versus Mediterranean Diet on HbA1c in Individuals with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: the Interventional Keto-Med Randomized Crossover Trial. The American journal of clinical nutrition Gardner, C. D., Landry, M. J., Perelman, D., Petlura, C., Durand, L. R., Aronica, L., Crimarco, A., Cunanan, K. M., Chang, A., Dant, C. C., Robinson, J. L., Kim, S. H. 2022


    Consensus has not been reached on what constitutes an optimal diet in individuals with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), especially between low-carbohydrate options.To compare two low-carbohydrate diets with 3 key similarities (incorporate non-starchy vegetables and avoid added sugars and refined grains) and 3 key differences (incorporate vs avoid legumes, fruits, and whole intact grains), for their effects on glucose control and cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with prediabetes and T2DM.Keto-Med was a randomized, crossover, interventional trial. Forty participants aged ≥ 18 years with prediabetes or T2DM followed a Well Formulated Ketogenic Diet (WFKD) and Mediterranean-Plus diet (Med-Plus) for 12-weeks each, in random order. Diets shared 3 key similarities noted above. Med-Plus incorporated legumes, fruits, and whole intact grains while WFKD avoided them. Primary outcome was % change in HbA1c after 12-weeks on each diet. Secondary and exploratory outcomes included % change in body weight, fasting insulin, glucose, and blood lipids, glucose (continuous glucose monitor), and nutrient intake.Primary analysis had n = 33 with complete data. HbA1c did not differ between diets at 12-weeks. Triglycerides decreased more for WFKD (% change(SEM)): -16%(4%) vs -5%(6%), p = 0.02) and LDL-C was higher for WFKD (+10%(4%) vs -5%(5%), p = 0.01). Weight decreased 8%(1%) vs 7%(1%) and HDL-C increased 11%(2%) vs 7%(3%) for WFKD vs Med-Plus, respectively; however, there was a significant interaction of diet by order for both. Participants had lower intakes of fiber and 3 nutrients on WFKD vs Med-Plus. Twelve-week follow-up data suggested Med-Plus diet was more sustainable.HbA1c was not different between diet phases after 12-weeks, but improved from baseline on both diets, likely due to several shared dietary aspects. WFKD was beneficial for greater decrease in triglycerides, but also had potential untoward risks from elevated LDL-C, and lower nutrient intakes from avoiding legumes, fruits, and whole intact grains, as well as being less NCT03810378.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ajcn/nqac154

    View details for PubMedID 35641199

  • Findings from Diet Comparison Difficult to Interpret in the Absence of Adherence Assessment. Comment on Trico et al. Effects of Low-Carbohydrate versus Mediterranean Diets on Weight Loss, Glucose Metabolism, Insulin Kinetics and beta-Cell Function in Morbidly Obese Individuals. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1345. Nutrients Landry, M. J., Crimarco, A., Gardner, C. D. 2021; 13 (11)


    We read, with interest, the recent publication by Trico et al. [...].

    View details for DOI 10.3390/nu13113694

    View details for PubMedID 34835950

  • Benefits of Low Carbohydrate Diets: a Settled Question or Still Controversial? Current obesity reports Landry, M. J., Crimarco, A., Gardner, C. D. 2021


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to provide an update on the available data on the benefits of low-carbohydrate (low-carb) diets for weight management and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and determine if low-carb diets were a settled question or still controversial.RECENT FINDINGS: Most of the recent published literature in this area consists of reviews of past trials, with a relatively smaller number of recent trials. Low-carb is most commonly compared to low-fat, with problematically inconsistent definitions of both. There are numerous challenges in trying to draw clear conclusions about efficacy and effectiveness. Short-term vs. long-term effects can differ, which is likely impacted by adherence. Adherence is very different between metabolic chamber or feeding studies vs. free-living. Body weight alone is a crude measure that fails to capture potentially important differences in lean-mass, fat-mass, and body water. Benefits for glycemic control need to be balanced with impacts on non-glycemic outcomes such as LDL-cholesterol, the microbiome, and inflammation. It is important to differentiate between low-carb and very-low carbohydrate diets (VLCD). To date no large-scale long-term clinical trials have been conducted testing whether low-carb diets can prevent T2DM. Many issues regarding benefits and risks of low-carb diets remain controversial or unresolved, particularly for VLCD. Some of the recent, better studies highlighted in this review suggest strategies for resolving these controversies.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s13679-021-00451-z

    View details for PubMedID 34297345

  • Sustainable Diets for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Management. Current atherosclerosis reports Mendoza-Vasconez, A. S., Landry, M. J., Crimarco, A., Bladier, C., Gardner, C. D. 2021; 23 (7): 31


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Healthy dietary patterns are recommended for prevention of cardiovascular disease, which remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. In this review, we discuss dietary patterns that are not only optimal for CVD prevention and management but also sustainable in maximizing health, environmental, and economic benefits.RECENT FINDINGS: The growing literature on sustainable diets in the context of environmental sustainability includes subtopics of climate change, land use, biodiversity loss, freshwater use, and reactive nitrogen emissions. Similarly, economic sustainability, beyond the retail cost of food, extends to healthcare costs and the economic costs of environmental destruction related to current agricultural practices and food choices. Dietary patterns that are high in plant foods and low in animal foods could maximize health, environmental, and economic benefits; however, questions remain about how to best promote these patterns to achieve wider adoption in an environmentally and economically sustainable way.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11883-021-00929-0

    View details for PubMedID 33970349

  • Adherence to Ketogenic and Mediterranean Study Diets in a Crossover Trial: The Keto-Med Randomized Trial. Nutrients Landry, M. J., Crimarco, A. n., Perelman, D. n., Durand, L. R., Petlura, C. n., Aronica, L. n., Robinson, J. L., Kim, S. H., Gardner, C. D. 2021; 13 (3)


    Adherence is a critical factor to consider when interpreting study results from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing one diet to another, but it is frequently not reported by researchers. The purpose of this secondary analysis of the Keto-Med randomized trial was to provide a detailed examination and comparison of the adherence to the two study diets (Well Formulated Ketogenic Diet (WFKD) and Mediterranean Plus (Med-Plus)) under the two conditions: all food being provided (delivered) and all food being obtained by individual participants (self-provided). Diet was assessed at six time points including baseline (×1), week 4 of each phase when participants were receiving food deliveries (×2), week 12 of each phase when participants were preparing and providing food on their own (×2), and 12 weeks after participants completed both diet phases and were free to choose their own diet pattern (×1). The adherence scores for WFKD and Med-Plus were developed specifically for this study. Average adherence to the two diet patterns was very similar during both on-study time points of the intervention. Throughout the study, a wide range of adherence was observed among participants-for both diet types and during both the delivery phase and self-provided phase. Insight from this assessment of adherence may aid other researchers when answering the important question of how to improve behavioral adherence during dietary trials. This study is registered at NCT03810378.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/nu13030967

    View details for PubMedID 33802709

  • Nutrition Study Design Issues-Important Issues for Interpretation. American journal of health promotion : AJHP Gardner, C. D., Crimarco, A., Landry, M. J., Fielding-Singh, P. 2020; 34 (8): 951–54

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0890117120960580d

    View details for PubMedID 33076690

  • Nutrition Study Design Issues-Important Issues for Interpretation AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH PROMOTION Gardner, C. D., Crimarco, A., Landry, M. J., Fielding-Singh, P. 2020; 34 (8): 951–54
  • “They Eat What They Eat, I Eat What I Eat”: Examining the Perspectives and Experiences of African Americans Who Adopt Plant-Based Diets American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine Botchway, M., Turner-McGrievy, G., Crimarco, A., Wilson, M., Davey, M., Wilcox, S., Frongillo, E. 2020: 363-373


    Adopting a plant-rich or plant-based diet is one of the major recommendations for addressing obesity, overweight, and related health conditions in the United States. Currently, research on African Americans' food choices in the context of plant-based diets is limited. The primary aim of this study was to understand food-related experiences and perceptions of African Americans who were participating in the Nutritious Eating with Soul (NEW Soul) study, a culturally tailored dietary intervention focused on increasing the consumption of plant-based foods. The roles of gender and ethnicity were also examined to identify how eating patterns were chosen or maintained. Twenty-one African American adults in South Carolina, who were randomly assigned to either a vegan diet (n = 11) or a low-fat omnivorous diet (n = 10) in the NEW Soul study, completed one-on-one, qualitative interviews. Emerging themes included awareness, being in control, and identity. The study revealed that access to social support and coping strategies for addressing negative comments about plant-based food choices may be important components to include in future nutrition interventions focused on African Americans.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1559827620908850

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9189578

  • Outcomes of a short term dietary intervention involving vegan soul food restaurants on African American adults’ perceived barriers, benefits, and dietary acceptability of adopting a plant-based diet Food Quality and Preference Crimarco, A., Dias, C. H., Turner-McGrievy , G., Wilson, M., Adams, S. A., Macauda, M., Blake, C., Younginer, N. 2020; 79
  • A randomized crossover trial on the effect of plant-based compared with animal-based meat on trimethylamine-N-oxide and cardiovascular disease risk factors in generally healthy adults: Study With Appetizing Plantfood-Meat Eating Alternative Trial (SWAP-MEAT). The American journal of clinical nutrition Crimarco, A. n., Springfield, S. n., Petlura, C. n., Streaty, T. n., Cunanan, K. n., Lee, J. n., Fielding-Singh, P. n., Carter, M. M., Topf, M. A., Wastyk, H. C., Sonnenburg, E. D., Sonnenburg, J. L., Gardner, C. D. 2020


    Despite the rising popularity of plant-based alternative meats, there is limited evidence of the health effects of these products.We aimed to compare the effect of consuming plant-based alternative meat (Plant) as opposed to animal meat (Animal) on health factors. The primary outcome was fasting serum trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Secondary outcomes included fasting insulin-like growth factor 1, lipids, glucose, insulin, blood pressure, and weight.SWAP-MEAT (The Study With Appetizing Plantfood-Meat Eating Alternatives Trial) was a single-site, randomized crossover trial with no washout period. Participants received Plant and Animal products, dietary counseling, lab assessments, microbiome assessments (16S), and anthropometric measurements. Participants were instructed to consume ≥2 servings/d of Plant compared with Animal for 8 wk each, while keeping all other foods and beverages as similar as possible between the 2 phases.The 36 participants who provided complete data for both crossover phases included 67% women, were 69% Caucasian, had a mean ± SD age 50 ± 14 y, and BMI 28 ± 5 kg/m2. Mean ± SD servings per day were not different by intervention sequence: 2.5 ± 0.6 compared with 2.6 ± 0.7 for Plant and Animal, respectively (P = 0.76). Mean ± SEM TMAO concentrations were significantly lower overall for Plant (2.7 ± 0.3) than for Animal (4.7 ± 0.9) (P = 0.012), but a significant order effect was observed (P = 0.023). TMAO concentrations were significantly lower for Plant among the n = 18 who received Plant second (2.9 ± 0.4 compared with 6.4 ± 1.5, Plant compared with Animal, P = 0.007), but not for the n = 18 who received Plant first (2.5 ± 0.4 compared with 3.0 ± 0.6, Plant compared with Animal, P = 0.23). Exploratory analyses of the microbiome failed to reveal possible responder compared with nonresponder factors. Mean ± SEM LDL-cholesterol concentrations (109.9 ± 4.5 compared with 120.7 ± 4.5 mg/dL, P = 0.002) and weight (78.7 ± 3.0 compared with 79.6 ± 3.0 kg, P < 0.001) were lower during the Plant phase.Among generally healthy adults, contrasting Plant with Animal intake, while keeping all other dietary components similar, the Plant products improved several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including TMAO; there were no adverse effects on risk factors from the Plant products.This trial was registered at as NCT03718988.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa203

    View details for PubMedID 32780794

  • Examining demographic characteristics and food access indicators from the location of vegan soul food restaurants in the south. Ethnicity & health Crimarco, A., Turner-McGrievy, G. M., Adams, S., Macauda, M., Blake, C., Younginer, N. 2019: 1–16


    Objective: There have been a number of soul food restaurants serving exclusively vegan meals opening up across the country to appeal to African Americans and others interested in eating healthier soul foods. This study determined the number of restaurants serving vegan soul foods in the South and identified the locations of these restaurants in order to understand the characteristics of the surrounding communities that they serve. Design: Two reviewers identified restaurants using standardized search criteria for menu items in the 16 states (and the District of Columbia) that are categorized as being in the South from the Census Bureau. Mean percentage of African Americans, poverty rates, and obesity rates by county where restaurants were located were collected via census data. Restaurants were classified as being in or out of a food desert zone using the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) food atlas map (0.5- and 1.0-mile radius). T-tests were conducted to test for differences in the census data between the restaurants that were considered to be in and out of a food desert zone. Results: Overall, 45 restaurants met the inclusion criteria. Counties where restaurants were located had a mean African American population of 36.5±18.5%, mean poverty rate of 15.5±3.85% and mean obesity rate of 26.8±4.8%. More than one third (n=18, 40.0%) of the restaurants were considered to be in a food desert zone. There were no significant differences in the mean population, obesity, and poverty rates between restaurants classified in a food desert zone and restaurants not located in a food desert zone. Conclusion: A significant number of restaurants were classified in food desert zones, implying their potential to provide healthier meals by serving vegan soul foods to residents in the surrounding neighborhoods. Future work should assess how these restaurants might influence healthier eating habits in their communities.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/13557858.2019.1682525

    View details for PubMedID 31635482

  • The effects of meal-timing on self-rated hunger and dietary inflammatory potential among a sample of college students JOURNAL OF AMERICAN COLLEGE HEALTH Crimarco, A., Turner-McGrievy, G. M., Wirth, M. D. 2019; 67 (4): 328–37


    College is an important time for young adults to establish healthy eating habits since students are at risk for gaining weight during the college years. An emerging area of research is examining the effect of meal-timing, which involves the timing of food intake throughout the day, in an effort to improve satiety and bodyweight. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of meal-timing among a sample of college students and to assess what aspects from an intervention could help them to adhere to meal-timing long term. Participants were randomly assigned to either a daytime group (≤30% total kcals after 5 pm) or a nighttime group (≥50% total kcals after 5 pm). After completing the intervention, almost half of participants (49%) reported they could adhere to meal-timing long-term. Having more resources that support meal-timing are needed to help students potentially achieve a healthy weight and prevent chronic diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/07448481.2018.1481074

    View details for Web of Science ID 000469245200003

    View details for PubMedID 29979952

  • Using Commercial Physical Activity Trackers for Health Promotion Research: Four Case Studies. Health promotion practice Turner-McGrievy, G., Jake-Schoffman, D. E., Singletary, C., Wright, M., Crimarco, A., Wirth, M. D., Shivappa, N., Mandes, T., West, D. S., Wilcox, S., Drenowatz, C., Hester, A., McGrievy, M. J. 2019; 20 (3): 381-389


    Wearable physical activity (PA) trackers are becoming increasingly popular for intervention and assessment in health promotion research and practice. The purpose of this article is to present lessons learned from four studies that used commercial PA tracking devices for PA intervention or assessment, present issues encountered with their use, and provide guidelines for determining which tools to use.Four case studies are presented that used PA tracking devices (iBitz, Zamzee, FitBit Flex and Zip, Omron Digital Pedometer, Sensewear Armband, and MisFit Flash) in the field-two used the tools for intervention and two used the tools as assessment methods.The four studies presented had varying levels of success with using PA devices and experienced several issues that impacted their studies, such as companies that went out of business, missing data, and lost devices. Percentage ranges for devices that were lost were 0% to 29% and was 0% to 87% for those devices that malfunctioned or lost data.There is a need for low-cost, easy-to-use, accurate PA tracking devices to use as both intervention and assessment tools in health promotion research related to PA.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1524839918769559

    View details for PubMedID 29618233

  • Impact of a 12-month Inflammation Management Intervention on the Dietary Inflammatory Index, inflammation, and lipids CLINICAL NUTRITION ESPEN Turner-McGrievy, G. M., Wirth, M. D., Shivappa, N., Dunn, C. G., Crimarco, A., Hurley, T. G., West, D. F., Hussey, J. R., Hebert, J. R. 2019; 30: 42–51


    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility (ability to recruit participants and develop the 12-month intervention), acceptability (retention of participants in the intervention), and impact on systemic inflammation and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) scores over a 12-month DII-based intervention.Adults were recruited to participate in a self-selection trial (intervention: n = 61, in-person classes; control: n = 34, newsletters). Classes included participatory cooking and dietary recommendations focused on consuming a plant-based diet rich in anti-inflammatory foods (spices, vegetables, etc.). Changes in markers of inflammation, lipids, and DII were analyzed using general linear models with repeated measurements.At 3 months, intervention participants had significantly lower DII scores (-2.66 ± 2.44) compared to controls (-0.38 ± 2.56) (p < 0.01); but not at 12 months (P = 0.10). The only biomarker to approach a significant group effect or group-by-time interaction was CRP (P = 0.11 for the group-by-time interaction). CRP decreased by -0.65 mg/L (95%CI = 0.10-1.20, P = 0.02) at 12 months in the intervention group; no significant decrease was seen for the control group. With both groups combined at 3 months, those with the greatest decrease/improvement in DII score (tertile 1) compared with those whose scores increased (tertile 3) had greater reductions in CRP (-1.09 vs. +0.52 mg/L, P = 0.04), total cholesterol (-9.38 vs. +12.02 mg/dL, P = 0.01), and LDL cholesterol (-11.99 vs. +7.16 mg/dL, P = 0.01).Although the intervention group had reductions in DII and CRP, main inflammation and lipid outcomes did not differ between groups. Overall, those participants with the largest reduction in DII scores had the largest reductions in CRP and LDL and total cholesterol. Future interventions may need to have more components in place to support maintenance and continued reductions in the DII. CLINICALTRIALS.NCT02382458.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clnesp.2019.02.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000461813500006

    View details for PubMedID 30904228

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6435295

  • Baseline markers of inflammation, lipids, glucose, and Dietary Inflammatory Index scores do not differ between adults willing to participate in an intensive inflammation reduction intervention and those who do not. Nutrition and health Crimarco, A., Turner-McGrievy, G. M., Wirth, M. D., Shivappa, N., Dunn, C., Vyas, S., Mandes, T., Hurley, T. G., West, D., Hébert, J. R. 2019; 25 (1): 9-19


    Chronic inflammation is associated with numerous chronic diseases and can be managed with diet.The purpose of this study was to examine differences in baseline characteristics and plasma inflammation levels between two groups of participants that participated in an intensive, lifestyle intervention or a remotely delivered intervention. This work also assessed the association between Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII)® scores and participants' inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers at baseline.Ninety-five participants (61 intervention, 34 control) chose to enroll in either a 12-month intervention consisting of a face-to-face nutrition, physical activity, and stress management intervention or a remotely-delivered intervention (control group) focusing on general cancer prevention. The intervention group met at the University of South Carolina for classes and the control group had materials emailed to them. A quantile regression was used to compare participants' high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the association between DII scores and biomarkers.There were significant differences in age, body mass index, body fat percentage, and blood pressure between groups, but there were no differences in levels of inflammatory biomarkers. Values of interleukin-6 at the 90th percentile of its distribution were 8.31 pg/ml higher among those in DII quartile 4 compared with quartile 1 ( p = 0.02). All other outcomes were not significant.Given similar levels of inflammatory biomarkers, participants opting for the control group would also have benefited from a more intensive lifestyle intervention focusing on reducing inflammation.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0260106018800645

    View details for PubMedID 30229691

  • “We’re Not Meat Shamers. We’re Plant Pushers.”: How Owners of Local Vegan Soul Food Restaurants Promote Healthy Eating in the African American Community Journal of Black Studies Crimarco, A. E., Turner-McGrievy, ., Botchway, M., Macauda, M., Adams, S. A., Blake, C., Younginer, N. 2019

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0021934719895575

  • The Nutritious Eating with Soul (NEW Soul) Study: Study design and methods of a two-year randomized trial comparing culturally adapted soul food vegan vs. omnivorous diets among African American adults at risk for heart disease Contemporary Clinical Trials Turner-McGrievy , G., Wilcox , S., Frongillo, E., Murphy, A., Hutto, B., Williams, K., Crimarco, A., Wilson, M., Davey, M. 2019
  • Determinants of Attendance at a Physical Activity Focused Afterschool Program in Elementary School Children. International journal of exercise science Crimarco, A., Mayfield, C., Mitchell, N., Beets, M. W., Yin, Z., Moore, J. B. 2018; 11 (5): 137-151


    Afterschool youth physical activity (PA) programs provide opportunities for increasing children's time engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). However, low program attendance reduces the benefits of participating in these programs. The purpose of this study was to determine if enjoyment, athletic competence and motivation for PA predict youth attendance at a free afterschool PA program from 3rd to 5th grade. Data were collected from a larger randomized community trial examining the effectiveness of an afterschool program for increasing opportunities to engage in MVPA. Data were collected twice annually (fall/spring) over 3 school years (3rd - 5th grade) in 9 schools. Analyses were stratified by grade and sex, and a series of multi-level linear regression models were utilized to determine if baseline levels of the psychosocial determinants predicted annual attendance as a percentage of afterschool sessions attended. Amotivation for PA was negatively associated with attendance in boys and non-self-determined extrinsic motivation was positively associated with attendance in girls in the 5th grade. Age was associated with a 13.72% reduction in attendance in the 3rd grade, a 12.87% attendance reduction in the 4th grade, and a 7.93% attendance in reduction in the 5th grade. Race was also associated with attendance. Non-White youth attended the program 13.56% less in the 3rd grade, 17.35% less in the 4th grade, and 21.53% less in the 5th grade than White youth. The findings suggest that attendance to PA afterschool programming may be associated with children's motivational characteristics, but that other variables should be identified for further research.

    View details for PubMedID 29795736

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5955309

  • Use of Mobile Wearable Devices to Compare Eating, Physical Activity, and Sleep Between Individuals Following Vegetarian and Omnivorous Diets Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science Crimarco, A., Turner-McGrievy, G., Wright, M. 2018; 3 (4): 259-267
  • Mobilizing mHealth for Moms: a Review of Mobile Apps for Tracking Gestational Weight Gain Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science Dahl, A., Dunn, C., Crimarco, A., Turner-McGrievy, G. 2018; 3 (1): 32-40
  • Partnerships for active elementary schools: Physical education outcomes after 4 months of a 2-year pilot study HEALTH EDUCATION JOURNAL Weaver, R., Webster, C., Egan, C., Campos, C., Michael, R. D., Crimarco, A. 2017; 76 (7): 763–74
  • Byte by Bite: Use of a mobile Bite Counter and weekly behavioral challenges to promote weight loss. Smart health (Amsterdam, Netherlands) Turner-McGrievy, G. M., Boutté, A., Crimarco, A., Wilcox, S., Hutto, B. E., Hoover, A., Muth, E. R. 2017; 3-4: 20-26


    The goal of this study was to examine the usability and feasibility of the mobile Bite Counter (a watch-like device that detects when a user consumes food or beverage) and the impact of weekly behavioral challenges on diet and physical activity outcomes. Overweight (mean BMI 31.1±4.9 kg/m2) adults (n=12) were recruited to participate in a four-week study to test both the usability and feasibility of using the device as part of a behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants were instructed to self-monitor number of bites/day using the Bite Counter, attend weekly group sessions, and listen to weekly podcasts. Participants were given weekly challenges: use a daily bite limit goal (wk1), turn off Bite Counter when fruits/vegetables are consumed (wk2), self-monitor kilocalories vs. bites (wk3), and receive a 10 bites/day bonus for every 30 minutes of exercise (wk4). Participants lost a mean of -1.2±1.3 kg. Only the wk3 challenge produced significant differences in kcal change (wk3 1302±120 kcal/day vs. baseline 2042±302 kcal/d, P<0.05). Bite Counter use was significantly correlated with weight loss (r= -0.58, P<0.05). Future studies should examine the use of the Bite Counter and impact of behavioral challenges over a longer period of time in a controlled study.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.smhl.2017.03.004

    View details for PubMedID 29104905

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5663239

  • A plant-based diet for overweight and obesity prevention and treatment. Journal of geriatric cardiology : JGC Turner-McGrievy, G., Mandes, T., Crimarco, A. 2017; 14 (5): 369-374


    The goal of this paper is to review the evidence related to the effect of plant-based dietary patterns on obesity and weight loss, including both observational and intervention trials. Literature from plant-based diets (PBDs) epidemiological and clinical trial research was used to inform this review. In addition, data on dietary quality, adherence, and acceptability were evaluated and are presented. Both clinical trials and observational research indicate an advantage to adoption of PBDs for preventing overweight and obesity and promoting weight loss. PBDs may also confer higher levels of diet quality than are observed with other therapeutic diet approaches, with similar levels of adherence and acceptability. Future studies should utilize health behavior theory to inform intervention development and delivery of PBDs studies and new technologies to bring interventions to scale for greater public health impact. Research examining PBDs and weight loss is also needed with more diverse populations, including older adults. Based on the available evidence, PBDs should be considered a viable option for the treatment and prevention of overweight and obesity.

    View details for DOI 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.002

    View details for PubMedID 28630616

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5466943

  • Accelerometry-Derived Physical Activity of First Through Third Grade Children During the Segmented School Day. The Journal of school health Weaver, R. G., Crimarco, A., Brusseau, T. A., Webster, C. A., Burns, R. D., Hannon, J. C. 2016; 86 (10): 726-33


    Schools should provide children 30 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity (MVPA). Determining school day segments that contribute to children's MVPA can inform school-based activity promotion. The purpose of this paper was to identify the proportion of children accumulating 30 minutes/day of school-based MVPA, and to identify school day segments' contribution to children's MVPA.First-third graders (N = 323 [173 girls and 150 boys]) accelerometer-derived sedentary behaviors, light activity, and MVPA were measured for 1 to 5 school days. Children's activity was estimated during class time, lunch, physical education (PE), and recess. To explore disparities in MVPA, children were stratified into high/low-active groups.Girls and boys accumulated 30.4 and 34.4 minutes/day of MVPA on PE days and 23.5 and 27.3 minutes/day of MVPA on non-PE days. This translated to 36.5 and 44.1% of girls and boys accumulating 30 minutes of MVPA on PE days and 16.3 and 36.5% on non-PE days. On PE days, PE contributed the most MVPA for girls and boys (11.8 and 13.0 minutes/day), followed by class time (11.4 and 12.5 minutes/day), recess (5.2 and 6.5 minutes/day), and lunch (2.0 and 2.4 minutes/day). Disparities between high/low children were greatest during PE and class time.Most children were not accumulating 30 minutes/day of MVPA. PE and class time are promising school day segments for promoting MVPA.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/josh.12426

    View details for PubMedID 27619763

  • The Fast-Casual Conundrum: Fast-Casual Restaurant Entrées Are Higher in Calories than Fast Food. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Schoffman, D. E., Davidson, C. R., Hales, S. B., Crimarco, A. E., Dahl, A. A., Turner-McGrievy, G. M. 2016; 116 (10): 1606-12


    Frequently eating fast food has been associated with consuming a diet high in calories, and there is a public perception that fast-casual restaurants (eg, Chipotle) are healthier than traditional fast food (eg, McDonald's). However, research has not examined whether fast-food entrées and fast-casual entrées differ in calorie content.The purpose of this study was to determine whether the caloric content of entrées at fast-food restaurants differed from that found at fast-casual restaurants.This study was a cross-sectional analysis of secondary data. Calorie information from 2014 for lunch and dinner entrées for fast-food and fast-casual restaurants was downloaded from the MenuStat database.Mean calories per entrée between fast-food restaurants and fast-casual restaurants and the proportion of restaurant entrées that fell into different calorie ranges were assessed.A t test was conducted to test the hypothesis that there was no difference between the average calories per entrée at fast-food and fast-casual restaurants. To examine the difference in distribution of entrées in different calorie ranges between fast-food and fast-casual restaurants, χ(2) tests were used.There were 34 fast-food and 28 fast-casual restaurants included in the analysis (n=3,193 entrées). Fast-casual entrées had significantly more calories per entrée (760±301 kcal) than fast-food entrées (561±268; P<0.0001). A greater proportion of fast-casual entrées compared with fast-food entrées exceeded the median of 640 kcal per entrée (P<0.0001).Although fast-casual entrées contained more calories than fast-food entrées in the study sample, future studies should compare actual purchasing patterns from these restaurants to determine whether the energy content or nutrient density of full meals (ie, entrées with sides and drinks) differs between fast-casual restaurants and fast-food restaurants. Calorie-conscious consumers should consider the calorie content of entrée items before purchase, regardless of restaurant type.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jand.2016.03.020

    View details for PubMedID 27179672