Immune modulation resulting from MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound in a model of murine breast cancer.
2021; 11 (1): 927
High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) rapidly and non-invasively destroys tumor tissue. Here, we sought to assess the immunomodulatory effects of MR-guided HIFU and its combination with the innate immune agonist CpG and checkpoint inhibitor anti-PD-1. Mice with multi-focal breast cancer underwent ablation with a parameter set designed to achieve mechanical disruption with minimal thermal dose or a protocol in which tumor temperature reached 65°C. Mice received either HIFU alone or were primed with the toll-like receptor 9 agonist CpG and the checkpoint modulator anti-PD-1. Both mechanical HIFU and thermal ablation induced a potent inflammatory response with increased expression of Nlrp3, Jun, Mefv, Il6 and Il1beta and alterations in macrophage polarization compared to control. Furthermore, HIFU upregulated multiple innate immune receptors and immune pathways, including Nod1, Nlrp3, Aim2, Ctsb, Tlr1/2/4/7/8/9, Oas2, and RhoA. The inflammatory response was largely sterile and consistent with wound-healing. Priming with CpG attenuated Il6 and Nlrp3 expression, further upregulated expression of Nod2, Oas2, RhoA, Pycard, Tlr1/2 and Il12, and enhanced T-cell number and activation while polarizing macrophages to an anti-tumor phenotype. The tumor-specific antigen, cytokines and cell debris liberated by HIFU enhance response to innate immune agonists.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-80135-1
View details for PubMedID 33441763
Low-frequency ultrasound-mediated cytokine transfection enhances T cell recruitment at local and distant tumor sites.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Robust cytotoxic T cell infiltration has proven to be difficult to achieve in solid tumors. We set out to develop a flexible protocol to efficiently transfect tumor and stromal cells to produce immune-activating cytokines, and thus enhance T cell infiltration while debulking tumor mass. By combining ultrasound with tumor-targeted microbubbles, membrane pores are created and facilitate a controllable and local transfection. Here, we applied a substantially lower transmission frequency (250 kHz) than applied previously. The resulting microbubble oscillation was significantly enhanced, reaching an effective expansion ratio of 35 for a peak negative pressure of 500 kPa in vitro. Combining low-frequency ultrasound with tumor-targeted microbubbles and a DNA plasmid construct, 20% of tumor cells remained viable, and ∼20% of these remaining cells were transfected with a reporter gene both in vitro and in vivo. The majority of cells transfected in vivo were mucin 1+/CD45- tumor cells. Tumor and stromal cells were then transfected with plasmid DNA encoding IFN-β, producing 150 pg/106 cells in vitro, a 150-fold increase compared to no-ultrasound or no-plasmid controls and a 50-fold increase compared to treatment with targeted microbubbles and ultrasound (without IFN-β). This enhancement in secretion exceeds previously reported fourfold to fivefold increases with other in vitro treatments. Combined with intraperitoneal administration of checkpoint inhibition, a single application of IFN-β plasmid transfection reduced tumor growth in vivo and recruited efficacious immune cells at both the local and distant tumor sites.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1914906117
View details for PubMedID 32430322