Dr. Aroosa Zamarud is a medical doctor who completed her undergraduate education at Bannu Medical College, Khyber Medical University, Pakistan. Following her graduation and a one-year medical internship, she served as a Medical Officer at Zubaida Khaliq Memorial Hospital, Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan, a charitable institution. During her tenure, she organized medical camps in remote villages in Northern Pakistan, providing healthcare services to underprivileged populations.
In March 2022, Dr. Zamarud joined the Stanford Neurosurgery department as a Visiting Instructor. Her research primarily focused on Clinical Neurooncology, with a special emphasis on the use of Cyberknife stereotactic radiosurgery as a treatment modality for various benign and malignant brain pathologies, including Vestibular Schwannoma, Sarcoma, Spinal metastases, Meningioma, Pineal and Pituitary metastases, and Arteriovenous malformations.
Currently, Dr. Zamarud is serving as a postdoctoral fellow in neurointerventional Radiology. Her ongoing research centers on investigating the role of venous outflow in patients with acute ischemic stroke, among other stroke-related studies.
Jeremy Heit, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Predictors of mortality in chronic subdural hematoma evacuation.
2023; 46 (1): 318
Chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is one of the most common types of intracranial hemorrhages, particularly in the elderly. Despite extensive research regarding cSDH diagnosis and treatment, there is conflicting data on predictors of postoperative mortality (POM). We conducted a large retrospective review of patients who underwent a cSDH evacuation at a single urban institution between 2015 and 2022. Data were collected from the electronic medical record on prior comorbidities, anticoagulation use, mental status on presentation, preoperative labs, and preoperative/postoperative imaging parameters. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to analyze predictors of mortality. Mortality during admission for this cohort was 6.1%. Univariate analysis showed the mortality rate was higher in those presenting with a history of dialysis. In addition, those who presented with altered mental status, were intubated, and lower GCS scores had higher rates of POM. Usage of Coumadin was correlated with higher rates of POM. Examination of preoperative labs showed that patients who presented with anemia or thrombocytopenia had higher POM. Imaging data showed that cSDH volume and greatest dimension were correlated with higher rates of POM. Finally, patients that were not extubated postoperatively had higher rates of POM. Multivariate analysis showed that only altered mental status and being not being extubated postoperatively were correlated with a higher risk of mortality. In summation, we demonstrated that altered mental status and failure to extubate were independent predictors or mortality in cSDH evacuation. Interestingly, patient age was not a significant predictor of mortality.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10143-023-02213-y
View details for PubMedID 38036800
Spinal metastases of pineal region glioblastoma with primitive neuroectodermal features highlighting the importance of molecular diagnoses: illustrative case.
Journal of neurosurgery. Case lessons
2023; 6 (20)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor with poor patient prognosis. Spinal leptomeningeal metastasis has been rarely reported, with long intervals between the initial discovery of the primary tumor in the brain and eventual spine metastasis.Here, the authors present the case of a 51-year-old male presenting with 7 days of severe headache, nausea, and vomiting. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine demonstrated a contrast-enhancing mass in the pineal region, along with spinal metastases to T8, T12, and L5. Initial frozen-section diagnosis led to the treatment strategy for medulloblastoma, but further molecular analysis revealed characteristics of isocitrate dehydrogenase-wild type, grade 4 GBM.Glioblastoma has the potential to show metastatic spread at the time of diagnosis. Spinal imaging should be considered in patients with clinical suspicion of leptomeningeal spread. Furthermore, molecular analysis should be confirmed following pathological diagnosis to fine-tune treatment strategies.
View details for DOI 10.3171/CASE23536
View details for PubMedID 37956418
The outcome of central nervous system hemangioblastomas in Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease treated with belzutifan: a single-institution retrospective experience.
Journal of neuro-oncology
Belzutifan is a Hypoxia Inducible Factor 2-alpha inhibitor approved in 2021 by the FDA for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients with Von-Hippel Landau (VHL) disease. These patients can also present with central nervous system (CNS) hemangioblastomas (HBs). We aim to study the effectiveness and adverse effects of belzutifan for CNS HBs, by reporting our preliminary institutional experience.We present a series of VHL patients with CNS HBs undergoing treatment with belzutifan for RCC. All the included patients met the RECIST inclusion criteria. The clinical and radiological outcome measures included: Objective response rate (ORR), time-to-response (TTR), adverse events (AE), and patient response. Patient response was classified as partial response (PR), complete response (CR), progressive disease (PD), or stable disease (SD).Seven patients with 25 HBs were included in our study. A belzutifan dose of 120 mg/day PO was administered for a median of 13 months (range 10-17). Median follow up time was 15 months (range 10-24). An ORR of 71% was observed. The median TTR was 5 months (range: 1-10). None of the patients showed CR, while 5 patients (71.4%) showed PR and 2 (28.5%) showed SD. Among patients with SD the maximum tumor response was 20% [increase/decrease] of the lesion diameter. All the patients experienced decreased hemoglobin concentration, fatigue, and dizziness. None of the patients experienced severe anemia (grade 3-4 CTCAE).Belzutifan appears to be an effective and safe treatment for CNS hemangioblastoma in VHL patients. Further clinical trials to assess the long-term effectiveness of the medication are required.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11060-023-04496-z
View details for PubMedID 37955759
View details for PubMedCentralID 5573741
Ultrasound guided versus conventional Fluoroscopy guided epidural injection for radiculopathy. A meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
Radiculopathy, a painful condition due to the irritation of a spinal nerve root, is a common neurosurgical presentation. Apart from its conventional treatment with pain killers and surgical management, it can also be managed with epidural steroid injections (ESIs).The objective of this study is to compare ultrasound (USG) guidance with conventional fluoroscopy guidance for ESIs to treat radiculopathy.PubMed, Embase, Clinicaltrials.gov, and Cochrane were systematically searched and RCTs comparing USG with conventional fluoroscopy for ESIs in the case of radiculopathy were included. Web Revman was used for data analysis.The Literature search resulted in 640 studies, of which 7 studies were included in this meta-analysis after extensive screening. There was no statistically significant difference in pain reduction between USG and Fluoroscopy groups especially in the case of lumbosacral spinal level at 1 month [mean difference (MD)-0.12(-0.47-0.23)] and at 3 months [MD 0.73(-1.49, 2.96)]. Similarly, functional improvement after ESIs was comparable between the two groups. The Risk of inadvertent vascular puncture in USG guided ESIs was lower as compared to conventional fluoroscopy guided ESIs [Odds Ratio (OR) 0.21(0.07, 0.64)]. Furthermore, the procedure time in the USG group was also significantly lower as compared to fluoroscopy group.USG guided ESIs are not only comparable to conventional fluoroscopy guided ESIs in terms of pain control and functional improvement, particularly evident at the lumbosacral spinal level, but also have a lower risk of inadvertent vascular puncture.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.wneu.2023.09.088
View details for PubMedID 37774791
- Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Medically Refractory Trigeminal Neuralgia Secondary to Stroke: A Systematic Review and Clinical Case Presentation. World neurosurgery 2023
Navigating Glioblastoma Diagnosis and Care: Transformative Pathway of Artificial Intelligence in Integrative Oncology.
2023; 15 (8): e44214
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor with high recurrence rates and limited survival, presents a pressing need for accurate and timely diagnosis. The interpretation of MRI can be complex and subjective. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has emerged as a promising solution, leveraging its potential to revolutionize diagnostic imaging. Radiomics treats images as numerical data and extracts intricate features from images, including subtle patterns that elude human observation. By integrating radiomics with genetics through radiogenomics, AI aids in tumor classification, identifying specific mutations and genetic traits. Furthermore, AI's impact extends to treatment planning. GBM's heterogeneity and infiltrative growth complicate delineation for treatment purposes. AI-driven segmentation techniques provide accurate 2D and 3D delineations, optimizing surgical and radiotherapeutic planning. Predictive features like angiogenesis and tumor volumes enable AI models to anticipate postop complications and survival rates. It can also aid in distinguishing posttreatment radiation effects from tumor recurrence. Despite these merits, concerns linger. The quality of medical data, transparency of AI techniques, and ethical considerations require thorough addressing. Collaborative efforts between neurosurgeons, data scientists, ethicists, and regulatory bodies are imperative for AI's ethical development and implementation. Transparent communication and patient consent are vital, fostering trust and understanding in AI-augmented medical care. In conclusion, AI holds immense promise in diagnosing and managing aggressive brain tumors like GBM. Its ability to analyze complex radiological data, integrate genetics, and aid in treatment planning underscores its potential to transform patient care. However, carefully considering ethical, technical, and regulatory aspects is crucial for realizing AI's full potential in oncology.
View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.44214
View details for PubMedID 37645667
Stereotactic radiosurgery for distant brain metastases secondary to esthesioneuroblastoma: a single-institution series.
2023; 55 (2): E6
Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), also known as olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare, malignant tumor of neuroectodermal origin that arises from the olfactory neuroepithelium. In this study the authors present the first series in the literature on distant brain metastases (BMs) secondary to ENB that were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of SRS for this indication.A retrospective analysis of clinical and radiological outcomes of patients with ENB who underwent CyberKnife (CK) SRS at a single center was conducted. The clinical and radiological outcomes of patients, including progression-free survival, overall survival, and local tumor control (LTC) were reported.Between 2003 and 2022, 32 distant BMs in 8 patients were treated with CK SRS at Stanford University. The median patient age at BM diagnosis was 62 years (range 47-75 years). Among 32 lesions, 2 (6%) had previously been treated with surgery, whereas for all other lesions (30 [94%]), CK SRS was used as their primary treatment modality. The median target volume was 1.5 cm3 (range 0.09-21.54 cm3). CK SRS was delivered by a median marginal dose of 23 Gy (range 15-30 Gy) and a median of 3 fractions (range 1-5 fractions) to a median isodose line of 77% (range 70%-88%). The median biologically effective dose was 48 Gy (range 21-99.9 Gy) and the median follow-up was 30 months (range 3-95 months). The LTC at 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-up was 86%, 65%, and 50%, respectively. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 29 months (range 11-79 months) and 51 months (range 15-79 months), respectively. None of the patients presented adverse radiation effects.In the authors' experience, SRS provided excellent LTC without any adverse radiation effects for BMs secondary to ENB.
View details for DOI 10.3171/2023.5.FOCUS23216
View details for PubMedID 37527675
Stereotactic radiosurgery for sarcoma metastases to the brain: a single-institution experience.
2023; 55 (2): E7
Brain metastases (BMs) secondary to sarcoma are rare, and their incidence ranges from 1% to 8% of all bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Although stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is widely used for BMs, only a few papers have reported on SRS for sarcoma metastasizing to the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of SRS for sarcoma BM.The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological outcomes of patients with BM secondary to histopathologically confirmed sarcoma treated with SRS, either as primary treatment or as adjuvant therapy after surgery, at their institution between January 2005 and September 2022. They also compared the outcomes of patients with hemorrhagic lesions and of those without.Twenty-three patients (9 females) with 150 BMs secondary to sarcoma were treated with CyberKnife SRS. Median age at the time of treatment was 48.22 years (range 4-76 years). The most common primary tumor sites were the heart, lungs, uterus, upper extremities, chest wall, and head and neck. The median Karnofsky Performance Status on presentation was 73.28 (range 40-100). Eight patients underwent SRS as a primary treatment and 15 as adjuvant therapy to the resection cavity. The median tumor volume was 24.1 cm3 (range 0.1-150.3 cm3), the median marginal dose was 24 Gy (range 18-30 Gy) delivered in a median of 1 fraction (range 1-5) to a median isodose line of 76%. The median follow-up was 8 months (range 2-40 months). Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 5.3 months (range 0.4-32 months) and 8.2 months (range 0.1-40), respectively. The 3-, 6-, and 12-month local tumor control (LTC) rates for all lesions were respectively 78%, 52%, and 30%. There were no radiation-induced adverse effects. LTC at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups was better in patients without hemorrhagic lesions (100%, 70%, and 40%, respectively) than in those with hemorrhagic lesions (68%, 38%, and 23%, respectively).SRS, both as a primary treatment and as adjuvant therapy to the resection cavity after surgery, is a safe and relatively effective treatment modality for sarcoma BMs. Nonhemorrhagic lesions show better LTC than hemorrhagic lesions. Larger studies aiming to validate these results are encouraged.
View details for DOI 10.3171/2023.5.FOCUS23168
View details for PubMedID 37527671
CyberKnife Radiosurgery for Spinal Leptomeningeal Metastases Secondary to Esthesioneuroblastoma: A Clinical Case Report.
2023; 15 (5): e39791
Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), also known as olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant tumor of neuroectodermal origin that arises from the olfactory epithelium. We present a case of ENB metastasizing through the leptomeningeal route to the spinal dura, which was treated with CyberKnife (CK) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and aim to assess the safety and effectiveness of SRS in such cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature that discusses ENB spinal leptomeningeal metastases treated with CK radiosurgery. We retrospectively reviewthe clinical and radiological outcomes in a 70-year-old female with ENB metastasis to the spine. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and local tumor control (LTC) are investigated. In our patient, ENB had been diagnosedat the age of 58 yearsand spinal metastases had been first noted at the age of 65 years. A total of six spinal lesions received CK SRS. Lesions were present at the level of C1, C2, C3, C6-C7, T5, and T10-11.The median target volume was 0.72 cc (range: 0.32-2.54). A median marginal dose of 24 Gy was delivered to the tumors with a median of three fractions to a median isodose line of 80% (range: 78-81). LTC at the 24-monthfollow-up was 100%. PFS and OS were 27 months and 40 months, respectively. No adverse radiation effects were reported. Even though the treated spinal lesions remained stable, the number of new metastatic lesions had increased with progressive osseous and dural metastatic lesions within the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine at the last follow-up. SRS provides relatively good LTC for patients with ENB metastasizing to the spine, with no radiation-induced adverse events.
View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.39791
View details for PubMedID 37398775
Cyberknife Radiosurgery for Synovial Sarcoma Metastasizing to the Spine: Illustrative Case Reports.
2023; 15 (4): e37087
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare and aggressive type of soft tissue sarcoma that commonly affects young adults. Metastasis in the spine is a rare complication, and the management of these lesions is challenging. Radiosurgery is an increasingly popular treatment option for spinal metastasis due to its ability to deliver high doses of radiation to the target volume with minimal exposure to surrounding healthy tissues. In this paper, we present two cases of SS with spinal metastasis that were treated with CyberKnife radiosurgery (CKRS). The first case was a 52-year-old female with a history of multiple thoracotomies and lobectomies for lung metastases, who was diagnosed with T6-T8 and T4 spinal metastasis. The second case was a 53-year-old female with Down syndrome, who was diagnosed with T12-L1 spinal metastasis. Both patients experienced an improvement in their symptoms following CKRS treatment and showed stable or decreasing lesion sizes on follow-up imaging. The progression-free survival (PFS) in the first case was 37 months and overall survival (OS) was 79 months. In the second case, the PFS was 12 months and OS was 18 months. These cases highlight the potential benefits of CKRS as a treatment option for SS with spinal metastasis and support its use in the management of this challenging condition.
View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.37087
View details for PubMedID 37168194
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10166278
Treatment Outcomes of Leiomyosarcoma Metastasis Affecting the Brachial Plexus: A Comparative Case Report Using Chat Generative Pre-trained Transformer (ChatGPT).
2023; 15 (3): e36715
Sarcomas are a rare type of cancer that can develop in various parts of the body, including the brachial plexus. Leiomyosarcomas (LMs) are a subtype of sarcoma that develops in smooth muscle tissue and can metastasize to different parts of the body. In this case report, we present two patients with LM metastasized to the brachial plexus, one treated with CyberKnife (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA) stereotactic radiosurgery (CK SRS) and the other with surgical resection. The aim of this case report is to present the treatment outcomes and adverse effects of CK SRS and surgical resection in brachial plexus LM metastasis. Patient 1 was a 39-year-old female who received CK SRS, and at three months of follow-up, the lesion was smaller, and she reported symptomatic improvement. At 15 months, the lesion was stable in size, and there was no evidence of local invasion of the adjacent vascular structures or nerves. Patient 2 was a 52-year-old male who underwent surgical resection, and at one-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic with no recurrence of his symptoms. The size of the residual axillary tumor was stable at three months and showed a slight interval decrease in size at five months of follow-up. He was followed for over 12 months, with no recurrence of his symptoms. Both treatments appear to have been effective in controlling LM growth and relieving symptoms. CK SRS provides a non-invasive option. However, more research is needed to fully understand the effectiveness and safety of these treatments for brachial plexus sarcoma. This case report highlights the importance of considering different treatment options for brachial plexus sarcoma and the need for further studies to understand the best approach for these rare cases.
View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.36715
View details for PubMedID 37113342
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10129366
648 Machine Learning Predicts Cavernous Sinus Invasion of Pituitary Adenomas
2023; 69 (69): 24-25
View details for DOI 10.1227/neu.0000000000002375_648
Cyberknife Radiosurgery for Synovial Sarcoma Metastasizing to the Spine
2023; 15 (4)
View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.37087