Triplet fusion upconversion nanocapsules for volumetric 3D printing.
2022; 604 (7906): 474-478
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has exploded in interest as new technologies have opened up a multitude of applications1-6, with stereolithography a particularly successful approach4,7-9. However, owing to the linear absorption of light, this technique requires photopolymerization to occur at the surface of the printing volume, imparting fundamental limitations on resin choice and shape gamut. One promising way to circumvent this interfacial paradigm is to move beyond linear processes, with many groups using two-photon absorption to print in a truly volumetric fashion3,7-9. Using two-photon absorption, many groups and companies have been able to create remarkable nanoscale structures4,5, but the laser powerrequired to drive this process has limited print size and speed, preventing widespread application beyond the nanoscale. Here we use triplet fusion upconversion10-13 to print volumetrically with less than 4milliwatt continuous-wave excitation. Upconversion is introduced to the resin by means of encapsulation with a silica shell and solubilizing ligands. We further introduce an excitonic strategy to systematically control the upconversion threshold to support either monovoxel or parallelized printing schemes, printing at power densities several orders of magnitude lower than the power densities required for two-photon-based 3D printing.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-022-04485-8
View details for PubMedID 35444324
Reflections on hosting summer undergraduate researchers in the midst of a pandemic.
2021; 4 (10): 3074-3077
The COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact nearly every aspect of our lives, including academic research. In this Matter of Opinion, we reflect on hosting both in-person and virtual undergraduate students during these challenging times.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.matt.2021.09.013
View details for PubMedID 34632371