All Publications

  • Air-liquid intestinal cell culture allows in situ rheological characterization of intestinal mucus. APL bioengineering Cai, P. C., Braunreuther, M., Shih, A., Spakowitz, A. J., Fuller, G. G., Heilshorn, S. C. 2024; 8 (2): 026112


    Intestinal health heavily depends on establishing a mucus layer within the gut with physical properties that strike a balance between being sufficiently elastic to keep out harmful pathogens yet viscous enough to flow and turnover the contents being digested. Studies investigating dysfunction of the mucus layer in the intestines are largely confined to animal models, which require invasive procedures to collect the mucus fluid. In this work, we develop a nondestructive method to study intestinal mucus. We use an air-liquid interface culture of primary human intestinal epithelial cells that exposes their apical surface to allow in situ analysis of the mucus layer. Mucus collection is not only invasive but also disrupts the mucus microstructure, which plays a crucial role in the interaction between mucus and the gut microbiome. Therefore, we leverage a noninvasive rheology technique that probes the mechanical properties of the mucus without removal from the culture. Finally, to demonstrate biomedical uses for this cell culture system, we characterize the biochemical and biophysical properties of intestinal mucus due to addition of the cytokine IL-13 to recapitulate the gut environment of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection.

    View details for DOI 10.1063/5.0187974

    View details for PubMedID 38721267

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC11078553

  • Single-digit-micrometer-resolution continuous liquid interface production. Science advances Hsiao, K., Lee, B. J., Samuelsen, T., Lipkowitz, G., Kronenfeld, J. M., Ilyn, D., Shih, A., Dulay, M. T., Tate, L., Shaqfeh, E. S., DeSimone, J. M. 2022; 8 (46): eabq2846


    To date, a compromise between resolution and print speed has rendered most high-resolution additive manufacturing technologies unscalable with limited applications. By combining a reduction lens optics system for single-digit-micrometer resolution, an in-line camera system for contrast-based sharpness optimization, and continuous liquid interface production (CLIP) technology for high scalability, we introduce a single-digit-micrometer-resolution CLIP-based 3D printer that can create millimeter-scale 3D prints with single-digit-micrometer-resolution features in just a few minutes. A simulation model is developed in parallel to probe the fundamental governing principles in optics, chemical kinetics, and mass transport in the 3D printing process. A print strategy with tunable parameters informed by the simulation model is adopted to achieve both the optimal resolution and the maximum print speed. Together, the high-resolution 3D CLIP printer has opened the door to various applications including, but not limited to, biomedical, MEMS, and microelectronics.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/sciadv.abq2846

    View details for PubMedID 36383664