Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Injury: Evidence-Based Diagnosis, Management, and Outcomes.
The American surgeon
Traumatic thoracolumbar spine injuries are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Targeted for non-spine specialist trauma surgeons, this systematic scoping review aimed to examine literature for up-to-date evidence on presentation, management, and outcomes of thoracolumbar spine injuries in adult trauma patients.This review was reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. We searched four bibliographic databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Eligible studies included experimental, observational, and evidence-synthesis articles evaluating patients with thoracic, lumbar, or thoracolumbar spine injury, published in English between January 1, 2010 and January 31, 2021. Studies which focused on animals, cadavers, cohorts with N <30, and pediatric cohorts (age <18 years old), as well as case studies, abstracts, and commentaries were excluded.A total of 2501 studies were screened, of which 326 unique studies were fully text reviewed and twelve aspects of injury management were identified and discussed: injury patterns, determination of injury status and imaging options, considerations in management, and patient quality of life. We found: (1) imaging is a necessary diagnostic tool, (2) no consensus exists for preferred injury characterization scoring systems, (3) operative management should be considered for unstable fractures, decompression, and deformity, and (4) certain patients experience significant burden following injury.In this systematic scoping review, we present the most up-to-date information regarding the management of traumatic thoracolumbar spine injuries. This allows non-specialist trauma surgeons to become more familiar with thoracolumbar spine injuries in trauma patients and provides a framework for their management.
View details for DOI 10.1177/00031348231216479
View details for PubMedID 37983195
Variation in zygotic CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing outcomes generates novel reporter and deletion alleles at the Gdf11 locus.
2019; 9 (1): 18613
Recent advances in CRISPR/Cas gene editing technology have significantly expanded the possibilities and accelerated the pace of creating genetically engineered animal models. However, CRISPR/Cas-based strategies designed to precisely edit the genome can often yield unintended outcomes. Here, we report the use of zygotic CRISPR/Cas9 injections to generate a knock-in GFP reporter mouse at the Gdf11 locus. Phenotypic and genomic characterization of founder animals from these injections revealed a subset that contained the correct targeting event and exhibited GFP expression that, within the hematopoietic system, was restricted predominantly to lymphoid cells. Yet, in another subset of founder mice, we detected aberrant integration events at the target site that dramatically and inaccurately shifted hematopoietic GFP expression from the lymphoid to the myeloid lineage. Additionally, we recovered multiple Gdf11 deletion alleles that modified the C-terminus of the GDF11 protein. When bred to homozygosity, most of these alleles recapitulated skeletal phenotypes reported previously for Gdf11 knockout mice, suggesting that these represent null alleles. However, we also recovered one Gdf11 deletion allele that encodes a novel GDF11 variant protein ("GDF11-WE") predicted to contain two additional amino acids (tryptophan (W) and glutamic acid (E)) at the C-terminus of the mature ligand. Unlike the other Gdf11 deletion alleles recovered in this study, homozygosity for the Gdf11WE allele did not phenocopy Gdf11 knockout skeletal phenotypes. Further investigation using in vivo and in vitro approaches demonstrated that GDF11-WE retains substantial physiological function, indicating that GDF11 can tolerate at least some modifications of its C-terminus and providing unexpected insights into its biochemical activities. Altogether, our study confirms that one-step zygotic injections of CRISPR/Cas gene editing complexes provide a quick and powerful tool to generate gene-modified mouse models. Moreover, our findings underscore the critical importance of thorough characterization and validation of any modified alleles generated by CRISPR, as unintended on-target effects that fail to be detected by simple PCR screening can produce substantially altered phenotypic readouts.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-019-54766-y
View details for PubMedID 31819086
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6901511