Examining Sex Differences in the Human Placental Transcriptome During the First Fetal Androgen Peak.
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)
Sex differences in human placenta exist from early pregnancy to term, however, it is unclear whether these differences are driven solely by sex chromosome complement or are subject to differential sex hormonal regulation. Here, we survey the human chorionic villus (CV) transcriptome for sex-linked signatures from 11 to 16 gestational weeks, corresponding to the first window of increasing testis-derived androgen production in male fetuses. Illumina HiSeq RNA sequencing was performed on Lexogen Quantseq 3' libraries derived from CV biopsies (n=11 females, n=12 males). Differential expression (DE) was performed to identify sex-linked transcriptional signatures, followed by chromosome mapping, pathway analysis, predicted protein interaction, and post-hoc linear regressions to identify transcripts that trend over time. We observe 322 transcripts DE between male and female CV from 11 to 16weeks, with 22 transcripts logFC >1. Contrary to our predictions, the difference between male and female expression of DE autosomal genes was more pronounced at the earlier gestational ages. In females, we found selective upregulation of extracellular matrix components, along with a number of X-linked genes. In males, DE transcripts centered on chromosome 19, with mitochondrial, immune, and pregnancy maintenance-related transcripts upregulated. Among the highest differentially expressed autosomal genes were CCRL2, LGALS13, and LGALS14, which are known to regulate immune cell interactions. Our results provide insight into sex-linked gene expression in late first and early second trimester developing human placentaand lay the groundwork to understand the mechanistic origins of sex differencesin prenataldevelopment.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s43032-020-00355-8
View details for PubMedID 33150487