Bio


Using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Sinclair studies microelectronic and magnetic thin film microstructure.

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • Yamaha Prize for Best Poster, 1st International Conference on Metallic Multilayers, Kyoto (1993)
  • Member, Stanford Society of Chicano/Latino Engineers and Scientists (1993)
  • Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching, Stanford University Society for Black Scientists and Engineers (1984)
  • Marcus E. Grossman Award, American Society for Metals (1982)
  • Fellowship, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (1979)
  • Eli Franklin Burton Award, Electron Microscopy Society of America (1977)
  • Robert Lansing Hardy Gold Medal, The Metallurgical Society of AIME (1976)
  • First Prize, Physical Science, Electron Microscopy Society of America Scientific Exhibit (1975, 1976)
  • First Prize, Modern Metallography Micrograph Competition (1972)

Professional Education


  • BA, Cambridge University, Materials Science (1968)
  • MA, Cambridge University, Materials Science (1972)
  • PhD, Cambridge University, Materials Science (1972)

2013-14 Courses


Postdoctoral Advisees


Journal Articles


  • A scanning transmission electron microscopy approach to analyzing large volumes of tissue to detect nanoparticles. Microscopy and microanalysis Kempen, P. J., Thakor, A. S., Zavaleta, C., Gambhir, S. S., Sinclair, R. 2013; 19 (5): 1290-1297

    Abstract

    The use of nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer requires the complete characterization of their toxicity, including accurately locating them within biological tissues. Owing to their size, traditional light microscopy techniques are unable to resolve them. Transmission electron microscopy provides the necessary spatial resolution to image individual nanoparticles in tissue, but is severely limited by the very small analysis volume, usually on the order of tens of cubic microns. In this work, we developed a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) approach to analyze large volumes of tissue for the presence of polyethylene glycol-coated Raman-active-silica-gold-nanoparticles (PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs). This approach utilizes the simultaneous bright and dark field imaging capabilities of STEM along with careful control of the image contrast settings to readily identify PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs in mouse liver tissue without the need for additional time-consuming analytical characterization. We utilized this technique to analyze 243,000 μm3 of mouse liver tissue for the presence of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs. Nanoparticles injected into the mice intravenously via the tail vein accumulated in the liver, whereas those injected intrarectally did not, indicating that they remain in the colon and do not pass through the colon wall into the systemic circulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S143192761300192X

    View details for PubMedID 23803218

  • Atomic Scale Verification of Oxide-Ion Vacancy Distribution near a Single Grain Boundary in YSZ. Scientific reports An, J., Park, J. S., Koh, A. L., Lee, H. B., Jung, H. J., Schoonman, J., Sinclair, R., Gür, T. M., Prinz, F. B. 2013; 3: 2680-?

    Abstract

    This study presents atomic scale characterization of grain boundary defect structure in a functional oxide with implications for a wide range of electrochemical and electronic behavior. Indeed, grain boundary engineering can alter transport and kinetic properties by several orders of magnitude. Here we report experimental observation and determination of oxide-ion vacancy concentration near the Σ13 (510)/[001] symmetric tilt grain-boundary of YSZ bicrystal using aberration-corrected TEM operated under negative spherical aberration coefficient imaging condition. We show significant oxygen deficiency due to segregation of oxide-ion vacancies near the grain-boundary core with half-width < 0.6 nm. Electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements with scanning TEM indicated increased oxide-ion vacancy concentration at the grain boundary core. Oxide-ion density distribution near a grain boundary simulated by molecular dynamics corroborated well with experimental results. Such column-by-column quantification of defect concentration in functional materials can provide new insights that may lead to engineered grain boundaries designed for specific functionalities.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep02680

    View details for PubMedID 24042150

  • Atomic layer deposition of CdO and CdxZn1-xO films MATERIALS CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS Bakke, J. R., Haegglund, C., Jung, H. J., Sinclair, R., Bent, S. F. 2013; 140 (2-3): 465-471
  • Aberration-Corrected TEM Imaging of Oxygen Occupancy in YSZ JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS An, J., Koh, A. L., Park, J. S., Sinclair, R., Guer, T. M., Prinz, F. B. 2013; 4 (7): 1156-1160

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jz4002423

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317317500017

  • Observations of Carbon Nanotube Oxidation in an Aberration-Corrected Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope ACS NANO Koh, A. L., Gidcumb, E., Zhou, O., Sinclair, R. 2013; 7 (3): 2566-2572

    Abstract

    We report the first direct study on the oxidation of carbon nanotubes at the resolution of an aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM), as we locate and identify changes in the same nanotubes as they undergo oxidation at increasing temperatures in situ in the ETEM. Contrary to earlier reports that CNT oxidation initiates at the end of the tube and proceeds along its length, our findings show that only the outside graphene layer is being removed and, on occasion, the interior inner wall is oxidized, presumably due to oxygen infiltrating into the hollow nanotube through an open end or breaks in the tube. We believe that this work provides the foundation for a greater scientific understanding of the mechanism underlying the nanotube oxidation process, as well as guidelines to manipulate the nanotubes' structure or prevent their oxidation.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn305949h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316846700075

    View details for PubMedID 23360330

  • Spatial Variation of Available Electronic Excitations within Individual Quantum Dots NANO LETTERS Jung, H. J., Dasgupta, N. P., Van Stockum, P. B., Koh, A. L., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F. B. 2013; 13 (2): 716-721

    Abstract

    Quantum dots (QDs) allow for manipulation of the position and energy levels of electrons at sub-10 nm length scales through control of material chemistry, size, and shape. It is known from optical studies that the bandgap of semiconductor QDs increases as their size decreases due to the narrowing of the quantum confinement potential. The mechanism of quantum confinement also indicates that the localized properties within individual QDs should depend on their shape in addition to their size, but direct observations of this effect have proven challenging due to the limited spatial resolution of measurement techniques at this scale and the ability to remove contributions from the surroundings. Here we present experimental evidence of spatial variations in the lowest available electron transition energy within a series of single electrically isolated QDs due to a dome-shaped geometry, measured using electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a (scanning) transmission electron microscope [(S)TEM-EELS]. We observe a consistent increase in the energy onset of electronic excitations from the lateral center of the dot toward the edges, which we attribute purely to shape. This trend is in qualitative agreement with a simple quantum simulation of the local density of states in a dome-shaped QD.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl304400c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315079500065

    View details for PubMedID 23276278

  • A Brain Tumor Molecular Imaging Strategy using a New Triple-Modality MRI-Photoacoustic-Raman Nanoparticle PHOTONS PLUS ULTRASOUND: IMAGING AND SENSING 2013 de la Zerda, A., Kircher, M. F., Jokerst, J. V., Zavaleta, C. L., Kempen, P. J., Mittra, E., Pitter, K., Huang, R., Campos, C., Habte, F., Sinclair, R., Brennan, C. W., Mellinghoff, I. K., Holland, E. C., Gambhir, S. S. 2013; 8581

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2001719

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322832800007

  • Codoping titanium dioxide nanowires with tungsten and carbon for enhanced photoelectrochemical performance. Nature communications Cho, I. S., Lee, C. H., Feng, Y., Logar, M., Rao, P. M., Cai, L., Kim, D. R., Sinclair, R., Zheng, X. 2013; 4: 1723-?

    Abstract

    Recent density-functional theory calculations suggest that codoping TiO2 with donor-acceptor pairs is more effective than monodoping for improving photoelectrochemical water-splitting performance because codoping can reduce charge recombination, improve material quality, enhance light absorption and increase solubility limits of dopants. Here we report a novel ex-situ method to codope TiO2 with tungsten and carbon (W, C) by sequentially annealing W-precursor-coated TiO2 nanowires in flame and carbon monoxide gas. The unique advantages of flame annealing are that the high temperature (>1,000 °C) and fast heating rate of flame enable rapid diffusion of W into TiO2 without damaging the nanowire morphology and crystallinity. This is the first experimental demonstration that codoped TiO2:(W, C) nanowires outperform monodoped TiO2:W and TiO2:C and double the saturation photocurrent of undoped TiO2 for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Such significant performance enhancement originates from a greatly improved electrical conductivity and activity for oxygen-evolution reaction due to the synergistic effects of codoping.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms2729

    View details for PubMedID 23591890

  • Amorphous Thin Film TaWSiC as a Diffusion Barrier for Copper Interconnects Appl. Phys. Lett. Wongpiya, R., Ouyang, J., Kim, T., R., Deal, M., Sinclair, R., Nishi, Y. 2013; 103: 22104

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4813396

  • Codoping Titanium Dioxide Nanowires with (W, C) for Enhancing Photoelectrochemical Performance Nature Communications Cho, I., S., Lee, C., H., Feng, Y., Logar, M., Rao, P., M., Cai, L., Sinclair, R. 2013; 4: 1723

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms2729

  • A Correlative Light Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy Approach to Locating Raman Active Gold Core Nanoparticles in Tissue Sections Kempen, P., J., Kircher, M., F., Jokerst, J., V., Zavaleta, C., L., Gambhir, S., S., Sinclair, R. 2013
  • In Situ High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy of Materials Reactions Mat. Res. Soc. Bull. Sinclair, R. 2013; 38: 1065-1071
  • Atomic Scale Verification of Oxide-Ion Vacancy Distribution near a Single Grain Boundary in YSZ Scientific Reports An, J., Park, J., S., Koh, A., L., Lee, H., B., Jung, H., J., Sinclair, R. 2013; 3: 2680

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep02680

  • HREM Analysis of Graphite-Encapsulated Metallic Nanoparticles for Possible Medical Applications Ultramicroscopy  Sinclair, R., Li, H., Madsen, S., Dai, H. 2013; 134: 167-174
  • A Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) Technique to Analyze ‘Large’ Volumes of Tissue to Detect Nanoparticles Microscopy and Microanalysis Kempen, P., J., Thakor, A., S., Zavaleta, C., L., Gambhir, S., S., Sinclair, R. 2013; 5 (19): 1290-1297
  • Observations of Carbon Nanotube Oxidation in an Aberration-Corrected, Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope ACS nano  Koh, A., L., Gidcumb, E., Zhou, O., Sinclair, R. 2013; 3 (7): 2566-2572

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn305949h

  • In Situ Cycle-by-Cycle Flash Annealing of Atomic Layer Deposited Materials JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Langston, M. C., Dasgupta, N. P., Jung, H. J., Logar, M., Huang, Y., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F. B. 2012; 116 (45): 24177-24183

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp308895e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311190800041

  • Nickel Silicide Nanowire Arrays for Anti-Reflective Electrodes in Photovoltaics ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS Dasgupta, N. P., Xu, S., Jung, H. J., Iancu, A., Fasching, R., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F. B. 2012; 22 (17): 3650-3657
  • Shape Matters: Intravital Microscopy Reveals Surprising Geometrical Dependence for Nanoparticles in Tumor Models of Extravasation NANO LETTERS Smith, B. R., Kempen, P., Bouley, D., Xu, A., Liu, Z., Melosh, N., Dai, H., Sinclair, R., Gambhir, S. S. 2012; 12 (7): 3369-3377

    Abstract

    Delivery is one of the most critical obstacles confronting nanoparticle use in cancer diagnosis and therapy. For most oncological applications, nanoparticles must extravasate in order to reach tumor cells and perform their designated task. However, little understanding exists regarding the effect of nanoparticle shape on extravasation. Herein we use real-time intravital microscopic imaging to meticulously examine how two different nanoparticles behave across three different murine tumor models. The study quantitatively demonstrates that high-aspect ratio single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) display extravasational behavior surprisingly different from, and counterintuitive to, spherical nanoparticles although the nanoparticles have similar surface coatings, area, and charge. This work quantitatively indicates that nanoscale extravasational competence is highly dependent on nanoparticle geometry and is heterogeneous.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl204175t

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306296200004

    View details for PubMedID 22650417

  • Smart-cut layer transfer of single-crystal SiC using spin-on-glass JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B Lee, J., Bargatin, I., Park, J., Milaninia, K. M., Theogarajan, L. S., Sinclair, R., Howe, R. T. 2012; 30 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1116/1.4734006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306750700046

  • Photoacoustic Imaging of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Living Mice via Silica-Coated Gold Nanorods ACS NANO Jokerst, J. V., Thangaraj, M., Kempen, P. J., Sinclair, R., Gambhir, S. S. 2012; 6 (7): 5920-5930

    Abstract

    Improved imaging modalities are critically needed for optimizing stem cell therapy. Techniques with real-time content to guide and quantitate cell implantation are especially important in applications such as musculoskeletal regenerative medicine. Here, we report the use of silica-coated gold nanorods as a contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging and quantitation of mesenchymal stem cells in rodent muscle tissue. The silica coating increased the uptake of gold into the cell more than 5-fold, yet no toxicity or proliferation changes were observed in cells loaded with this contrast agent. Pluripotency of the cells was retained, and secretome analysis indicated that only IL-6 was disregulated more than 2-fold from a pool of 26 cytokines. The low background of the technique allowed imaging of down to 100,000 cells in vivo. The spatial resolution is 340 ?m, and the temporal resolution is 0.2 s, which is at least an order of magnitude below existing cell imaging approaches. This approach has significant advantages over traditional cell imaging techniques like positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging including real time monitoring of stem cell therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn302042y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306673800020

    View details for PubMedID 22681633

  • A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle NATURE MEDICINE Kircher, M. F., de la Zerda, A., Jokerst, J. V., Zavaleta, C. L., Kempen, P. J., Mittra, E., Pitter, K., Huang, R., Campos, C., Habte, F., Sinclair, R., Brennan, C. W., Mellinghoff, I. K., Holland, E. C., Gambhir, S. S. 2012; 18 (5): 829-U235

    Abstract

    The difficulty in delineating brain tumor margins is a major obstacle in the path toward better outcomes for patients with brain tumors. Current imaging methods are often limited by inadequate sensitivity, specificity and spatial resolution. Here we show that a unique triple-modality magnetic resonance imaging-photoacoustic imaging-Raman imaging nanoparticle (termed here MPR nanoparticle) can accurately help delineate the margins of brain tumors in living mice both preoperatively and intraoperatively. The MPRs were detected by all three modalities with at least a picomolar sensitivity both in vitro and in living mice. Intravenous injection of MPRs into glioblastoma-bearing mice led to MPR accumulation and retention by the tumors, with no MPR accumulation in the surrounding healthy tissue, allowing for a noninvasive tumor delineation using all three modalities through the intact skull. Raman imaging allowed for guidance of intraoperative tumor resection, and a histological correlation validated that Raman imaging was accurately delineating the brain tumor margins. This new triple-modality-nanoparticle approach has promise for enabling more accurate brain tumor imaging and resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm.2721

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303763500053

    View details for PubMedID 22504484

  • Aberration-Corrected Transmission Electron Microscopy of the Intergranular Phase in Magnetic Recording Media NANO LETTERS Hossein-Babaei, F., Koh, A. L., Srinivasan, K., Bertero, G. A., Sinclair, R. 2012; 12 (5): 2595-2598

    Abstract

    In perpendicular hard disk memory media, nanometric magnetic Co-rich grains are separated by a ?1 nm thick nonmagnetic and preferably amorphous intergranular phase (IP). Attempts at observing the IP structure at high resolution using TEM have been obstructed by the superposition of lattice fringes from the crystalline grains extending into the IP region in images. Here we present the first images of a magnetic recording medium produced using a spherical aberration-corrected TEM showing the true amorphous IP structure in contrast to the crystalline grains, allowing the accurate determination of the grain-IP interface and the grain and IP dimensions. It is shown that these aberration-corrected TEM images are functionally superior for analyzing certain features of the ultrahigh capacity data recording media.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl301274x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303696400073

    View details for PubMedID 22519694

  • Oxygen Surface Exchange at Grain Boundaries of Oxide Ion Conductors ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS Lee, W., Jung, H. J., Lee, M. H., Kim, Y., Park, J. S., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F. B. 2012; 22 (5): 965-971
  • Interfacial Alloy Hydride Destabilization in Mg/Pd Thin Films PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Chung, C., Lee, S., Groves, J. R., Brower, E. N., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B. M. 2012; 108 (10)

    Abstract

    Recently, a large increase in the equilibrium hydrogen pressure has been reported for MG thin films capped with a Pd layer. We show that this increase is due to intermixing of Mg and Pd, as opposed to a strain effect as previously claimed. Transmission electron microscopy and depth profiling x-ray photoemission spectroscopy are used to directly measure interfacial intermixing between Mg and Pd, and we find that intermixing and equilibrium hydrogen pressure both increase with annealing. We present a thermodynamic model of the effect of alloying on equilibrium pressure, and find that the observed equilibrium pressure increase is consistent with the observed thickness of the intermixed region, which is of the order of a few nm. We also show that stress measured during hydrogenation corresponds to a negligible increase in equilibrium pressure.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.106102

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301101200008

    View details for PubMedID 22463426

  • Effects of thermal cycling on microstructure and properties in Nitinol MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING Pelton, A. R., Huang, G. H., Moine, P., Sinclair, R. 2012; 532: 130-138
  • A Brain Tumor Molecular Imaging Strategy Using a Novel Triple Modality Nanoparticle Nature Medicine Kircher, M., F., Zerda, A., De La, Jokerst, J., V., Zavaleta, C., L., Kempen, P., J., Mittra, E.S., Sinclair, R. 2012; 18: 829-834
  • Aberration Corrected Transmission Electron Microscopy of the Intergranular Phase in Magnetic Recording Media Nano Lett.  Hossein-Babaei, F., Koh, A., L., Srinivasan, K., Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R. 2012; 5 (12): 2595–2598
  • Effect of crystallinity on proton conductivity in yttrium-doped barium zirconate thin films SOLID STATE IONICS Kim, Y. B., Guer, T. M., Jung, H., Kang, S., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F. B. 2011; 198 (1): 39-46
  • Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Analysis of Grain Structure in Perpendicular Magnetic Recording Media NANO LETTERS Hossein-Babaei, F., Sinclair, R. A., Srinivasan, K., Bertero, G. A. 2011; 11 (9): 3751-3754

    Abstract

    The key component of a hard disk medium is a Co-based magnetic layer (ML) grown on a Ru seed layer. The ML nanostructure, composed of less than 10 nm grains, is believed to be controlled by this seed layer. We successfully used scanning transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive spectrometry simultaneous composition-based imaging and Moire? pattern analysis for determining the mutual structural and orientation relationship between the two layers revealing a grain-to-grain agreement. The method presented here can be utilized for observing structural correlations between consecutive polycrystalline thin film layers in general.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl201784z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294790200041

    View details for PubMedID 21806054

  • Preclinical Evaluation of Raman Nanoparticle Biodistribution for their Potential Use in Clinical Endoscopy Imaging SMALL Zavaleta, C. L., Hartman, K. B., Miao, Z., James, M. L., Kempen, P., Thakor, A. S., Nielsen, C. H., Sinclair, R., Cheng, Z., Gambhir, S. S. 2011; 7 (15): 2232-2240

    Abstract

    Raman imaging offers unsurpassed sensitivity and multiplexing capabilities. However, its limited depth of light penetration makes direct clinical translation challenging. Therefore, a more suitable way to harness its attributes in a clinical setting would be to couple Raman spectroscopy with endoscopy. The use of an accessory Raman endoscope in conjunction with topically administered tumor-targeting Raman nanoparticles during a routine colonoscopy could offer a new way to sensitively detect dysplastic lesions while circumventing Raman's limited depth of penetration and avoiding systemic toxicity. In this study, the natural biodistribution of gold surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles is evaluated by radiolabeling them with (64) Cu and imaging their localization over time using micropositron emission tomography (PET). Mice are injected either intravenously (IV) or intrarectally (IR) with approximately 100 microcuries (?Ci) (3.7 megabecquerel (MBq)) of (64) Cu-SERS nanoparticles and imaged with microPET at various time points post injection. Quantitative biodistribution data are obtained as % injected dose per gram (%ID g(-1)) from each organ, and the results correlate well with the corresponding microPET images, revealing that IV-injected mice have significantly higher uptake (p < 0.05) in the liver (5 h = 8.96% ID g(-1); 24 h = 8.27% ID g(-1)) than IR-injected mice (5 h = 0.09% ID g(-1); 24 h = 0.08% ID g(-1)). IR-injected mice show localized uptake in the large intestine (5 h = 10.37% ID g(-1); 24 h = 0.42% ID g(-1)) with minimal uptake in other organs. Raman imaging of excised tissues correlate well with biodistribution data. These results suggest that the topical application of SERS nanoparticles in the mouse colon appears to minimize their systemic distribution, thus avoiding potential toxicity and supporting the clinical translation of Raman spectroscopy as an endoscopic imaging tool.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/smll.201002317

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294361200015

    View details for PubMedID 21608124

  • Fabrication of planar, layered nanoparticles using tri-layer resist templates NANOTECHNOLOGY Hu, W., Zhang, M., Wilson, R. J., Koh, A. L., Wi, J., Tang, M., Sinclair, R., Wang, S. X. 2011; 22 (18)

    Abstract

    A simple and universal pathway to produce free multilayer synthetic nanoparticles is developed based on lithography, vapor phase deposition and a tri-layer resist lift-off and release process. The fabrication method presented in this work is ideal for production of a broad range of nanoparticles, either free in solution or still attached to an intact release layer, with unique magnetic, optical, radioactive, electronic and catalytic properties. Multi-modal capabilities are implicit in the layered architecture. As an example, directly fabricated magnetic nanoparticles are evaluated to illustrate the structural integrity of thin internal multilayers and the nanoparticle stability in aggressive biological environments, which is highly desired for biomedical applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0957-4484/22/18/185302

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288653300005

    View details for PubMedID 21415483

  • Crater patterned 3-D proton conducting ceramic fuel cell architecture with ultra thin Y:BaZrO3 electrolyte ELECTROCHEMISTRY COMMUNICATIONS Kim, Y. B., Guer, T. M., Kang, S., Jung, H., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F. B. 2011; 13 (5): 403-406
  • The Fate and Toxicity of Raman-Active Silica-Gold Nanoparticles in Mice SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Thakor, A. S., Luong, R., Paulmurugan, R., Lin, F. I., Kempen, P., Zavaleta, C., Chu, P., Massoud, T. F., Sinclair, R., Gambhir, S. S. 2011; 3 (79)

    Abstract

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical imaging method that is based on the Raman effect, the inelastic scattering of a photon when energy is absorbed from light by a surface. Although Raman spectroscopy is widely used for chemical and molecular analysis, its clinical application has been hindered by the inherently weak nature of the Raman effect. Raman-silica-gold-nanoparticles (R-Si-Au-NPs) overcome this limitation by producing larger Raman signals through surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Because we are developing these particles for use as targeted molecular imaging agents, we examined the acute toxicity and biodistribution of core polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ylated R-Si-Au-NPs after different routes of administration in mice. After intravenous administration, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs were removed from the circulation by macrophages in the liver and spleen (that is, the reticuloendothelial system). At 24 hours, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs elicited a mild inflammatory response and an increase in oxidative stress in the liver, which subsided by 2 weeks after administration. No evidence of significant toxicity was observed by measuring clinical, histological, biochemical, or cardiovascular parameters for 2 weeks. Because we are designing targeted PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs (for example, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs labeled with an affibody that binds specifically to the epidermal growth factor receptor) to detect colorectal cancer after administration into the bowel lumen, we tested the toxicity of the core nanoparticle after administration per rectum. We observed no significant bowel or systemic toxicity, and no PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs were detected systemically. Although additional studies are required to investigate the long-term effects of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs and their toxicity when carrying the targeting moiety, the results presented here support the idea that PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs can be safely used in living subjects, especially when administered rectally.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3001963

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292976700004

    View details for PubMedID 21508310

  • Thermal conductivity anisotropy and grain structure in Ge2Sb2Te5 films JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Lee, J., Li, Z., Reifenberg, J. P., Lee, S., Sinclair, R., Asheghi, M., Goodson, K. E. 2011; 109 (8)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3573505

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290047000229

  • Atomic Layer Deposition of Lead Sulfide Quantum Dots on Nanowire Surfaces NANO LETTERS Dasgupta, N. P., Jung, H. J., Trejo, O., McDowell, M. T., Hryciw, A., Brongersma, M., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F. B. 2011; 11 (3): 934-940

    Abstract

    Quantum dots provide unique advantages in the design of novel optoelectronic devices owing to the ability to tune their properties as a function of size. Here we demonstrate a new technique for fabrication of quantum dots during the nucleation stage of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of PbS. Islands with sub-10 nm diameters were observed during the initial ALD cycles by transmission electron microscopy, and in situ observations of the coalescence and sublimation behavior of these islands show the possibility of further modifying the size and density of dots by annealing. The ALD process can be used to cover high-aspect-ratio nanostructures, as demonstrated by the uniform coating of a Si nanowire array with a single layer of PbS quantum dots. Photoluminescence measurements on the quantum dot/nanowire composites show a blue shift when the number of ALD cycles is decreased, suggesting a route to fabricate unique three-dimensional nanostructured devices such as solar cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl103001h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288061500003

    View details for PubMedID 21319844

  • Oxidative Stress Mediates the Effects of Raman-Active Gold Nanoparticles in Human Cells SMALL Thakor, A. S., Paulmurugan, R., Kempen, P., Zavaleta, C., Sinclair, R., Massoud, T. F., Gambhir, S. S. 2011; 7 (1): 126-136

    Abstract

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated Raman-active gold nanoparticles (PEG-R-AuNPs) consist of an interchangeable Raman organic molecule layer held onto a gold nanocore by a silica shell. PEG-R-AuNPs have been shown preclinically to increase the sensitivity and specificity of Raman spectroscopy, with picomolar sensitivity and multiplexing capabilities. Although clinical trials are being designed to use functionalized PEG-R-AuNPs in various applications (e.g., to target dysplastic bowel lesions during colonoscopy), the effects of these nanoparticles on human cells remain unknown. The occurrence and mechanisms underlying any potential cytotoxicity induced by these nanoparticles (0-1000 PEG-R-AuNPs/cell) are investigated in immortalized human HeLa and HepG2 cell lines at several time points (0-48 h) after exposure. Using fluorometric assays, cell viability (MTT), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (dichlorofluorescein diacetate), protein oxidation (protein carbonyl content), and total cellular antioxidant concentrations the concentrations (metmyoblobin-induced oxidation of ABTS) are assessed. Analysis of lipid oxidation using an enzyme immunoassay (8-isoprostane concentrations), gene expression of antioxidant enzymes using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions, and the intracellular location of PEG-R-AuNPs using transmission electron microscopy is also undertaken. PEG-R-AuNPs cause no cytotoxicity in either HeLa or HepG2 cells in the acute setting as ROS generation is balanced by antioxidant enzyme upregulation. Following prolonged exposures (48 h) at relatively high concentrations (1000 PEG-R-AuNPs/cell), nanoparticles are found within vesicles inside cells. Under these conditions, a minimal amount of cytotoxicity is seen in both cell lines owing to increases in cellular oxidative stress, most likely due to ROS overwhelming the antioxidant defenses. Evidence of oxidative stress-induced damage includes increased lipid and protein oxidation. Although further in vivo toxicity studies are necessary, these initial encouraging results show that PEG-R-AuNPs cause minimal toxicity in human cells in the acute setting, which bodes well for potential future applications of these nanoparticles in living subjects.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/smll.201001466

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285794100015

    View details for PubMedID 21104804

  • Atomic layer deposition of CdxZn1-xS films JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY Bakke, J. R., Tanskanen, J. T., Jung, H. J., Sinclair, R., Bent, S. F. 2011; 21 (3): 743-751

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c0jm02786c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285749900021

  • Oxidative Stress Mediates the Effets of Raman Active Gold Nanoparticles in Human Cells Small Thakor, A., S., Paulmurugan, R., Kempen, P., J., Zavaleta, C., L., Sinclair, R., Massoud, T., F. 2011; 7: 126–136
  • Crater Patterned 3-D Protonic Fuel Cell with Ultra Thin Y:BaZrO3 Ceramic Membrane Electrochem. Comm. Kim, Y., B., Gur, T., M., Kang, S., Jung, H., J., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F., B. 2011; 5 (13): 403-406
  • The Fate and Toxicity of Raman Active Silica-Gold Nanoparticles in Mice Sci Transl Med Thakor, A., S., Luong, R., Murugan, R., Lin, F., Kempen, P., J., Zavaleta, C., L., Sinclair, R. 2011; 3: 79ra33
  • Effect of crystallinity on ionic conductivity of Y-doped Barium Zirconate Solid State Ionics Kim, Y., B., Gur, T., M., Jung, H., J., Kang, S., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F., B. 2011; 198 (1, 19): 39-46
  • Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of lead sulfide quantum wells fabricated by atomic layer deposition NANOTECHNOLOGY Lee, W., Dasgupta, N. P., Jung, H. J., Lee, J., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F. B. 2010; 21 (48)

    Abstract

    We report the use of scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) to investigate one-dimensional quantum confinement effects in lead sulfide (PbS) thin films. Specifically, quantum confinement effects on the band gap of PbS quantum wells were explored by controlling the PbS film thickness and potential barrier height. PbS quantum well structures with a thickness range of 1-20 nm were fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Two barrier materials were selected based on barrier height: aluminum oxide as a high barrier material and zinc oxide as a low barrier material. Band gap measurements were carried out by STS, and an effective mass theory was developed to compare the experimental results. Our results show that the band gap of PbS thin films increased as the film thickness decreased, and the barrier height increased from 0.45 to 2.19 eV.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0957-4484/21/48/485402

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284053500011

    View details for PubMedID 21063050

  • Laser-Synthesized Epitaxial Graphene ACS NANO Lee, S., Toney, M. F., Ko, W., Randel, J. C., Jung, H. J., Munakata, K., Lu, J., Geballe, T. H., Beasley, M. R., Sinclair, R., Manoharan, H. C., Salleo, A. 2010; 4 (12): 7524-7530

    Abstract

    Owing to its unique electronic properties, graphene has recently attracted wide attention in both the condensed matter physics and microelectronic device communities. Despite intense interest in this material, an industrially scalable graphene synthesis process remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate a high-throughput, low-temperature, spatially controlled and scalable epitaxial graphene (EG) synthesis technique based on laser-induced surface decomposition of the Si-rich face of a SiC single-crystal. We confirm the formation of EG on SiC as a result of excimer laser irradiation by using reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Laser fluence controls the thickness of the graphene film down to a single monolayer. Laser-synthesized graphene does not display some of the structural characteristics observed in EG grown by conventional thermal decomposition on SiC (0001), such as Bernal stacking and surface reconstruction of the underlying SiC surface.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn101796e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285449100060

    View details for PubMedID 21121692

  • Atomic Layer Deposition of CdS Films CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS Bakke, J. R., Jung, H. J., Tanskanen, J. T., Sinclair, R., Bent, S. F. 2010; 22 (16): 4669-4678

    View details for DOI 10.1021/cm100874f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280855100021

  • Atomic layer deposition of ZnS via in situ production of H2S THIN SOLID FILMS BAKKE, J. R., King, J. S., Jung, H. J., Sinclair, R., Bent, S. F. 2010; 518 (19): 5400-5408
  • Structural and Magnetic Characterization of High Moment Synthetic Antiferromagnetic Nanoparticles Fabricated Using Self-Assembled Stamps J. Appl Phys. Koh, A., L., Hu, W., Wilson, R., J., Earhart, C., M., Wang, S., X., Sinclair, R. 2010; 107: 09B522 1-3
  • A Novel Method for Detection of Phosphorylation in Single Cells by Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) using Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles (COINs) PLOS ONE Shachaf, C. M., Elchuri, S. V., Koh, A. L., Zhu, J., Nguyen, L. N., Mitchell, D. J., Zhang, J., Swartz, K. B., Sun, L., Chan, S., Sinclair, R., Nolan, G. P. 2009; 4 (4)

    Abstract

    Detection of single cell epitopes has been a mainstay of immunophenotyping for over three decades, primarily using fluorescence techniques for quantitation. Fluorescence has broad overlapping spectra, limiting multiplexing abilities.To expand upon current detection systems, we developed a novel method for multi-color immuno-detection in single cells using "Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles" (COINs) Raman nanoparticles. COINs are Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) nanoparticles, with unique Raman spectra. To measure Raman spectra in single cells, we constructed an automated, compact, low noise and sensitive Raman microscopy device (Integrated Raman BioAnalyzer). Using this technology, we detected proteins expressed on the surface in single cells that distinguish T-cells among human blood cells. Finally, we measured intracellular phosphorylation of Stat1 (Y701) and Stat6 (Y641), with results comparable to flow cytometry.Thus, we have demonstrated the practicality of applying COIN nanoparticles for measuring intracellular phosphorylation, offering new possibilities to expand on the current fluorescent technology used for immunoassays in single cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0005206

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265510400006

    View details for PubMedID 19367337

  • "NO TITAN, NO EXCUSE" (T. J. KONNO, 1 APRIL 2008) A REPORT ON AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON REMOTE ELECTRON MICROSCOPY FOR IN SITU STUDIES ACTA MICROSCOPICA Sinclair, R., Chin, R., Koh, A. L., Solorzano, G. 2009; 18 (1): 33-38
  • Particle Size, Surface Coating, and PEGylation Influence the Biodistribution of Quantum Dots in Living Mice SMALL Schipper, M. L., Iyer, G., Koh, A. L., Cheng, Z., Ebenstein, Y., Aharoni, A., Keren, S., Bentolila, L. A., Li, J., Rao, J., Chen, X., Banin, U., Wu, A. M., Sinclair, R., Weiss, S., Gambhir, S. S. 2009; 5 (1): 126-134

    Abstract

    This study evaluates the influence of particle size, PEGylation, and surface coating on the quantitative biodistribution of near-infrared-emitting quantum dots (QDs) in mice. Polymer- or peptide-coated 64Cu-labeled QDs 2 or 12 nm in diameter, with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG) of molecular weight 2000, are studied by serial micropositron emission tomography imaging and region-of-interest analysis, as well as transmission electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. PEGylation and peptide coating slow QD uptake into the organs of the reticuloendothelial system (RES), liver and spleen, by a factor of 6-9 and 2-3, respectively. Small particles are in part renally excreted. Peptide-coated particles are cleared from liver faster than physical decay alone would suggest. Renal excretion of small QDs and slowing of RES clearance by PEGylation or peptide surface coating are encouraging steps toward the use of modified QDs for imaging living subjects.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/smll.200800003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262895300019

    View details for PubMedID 19051182

  • No Titan, No Excuse’ (T.J. Konno, 1 April 2008) A Report on an International Workshop on Remote Electron Microscopy for In Situ Studies Acta Microscopica Sinclair, R., Chin, R., Koh, A., L., Solorzano, G. 2009; 1 (18): 33–38
  • Formation and properties of magnetic chains for 100 nm nanoparticles used in separations of molecules and cells J. Magn. Magn. Mat. Wilson, R.J., Hu, W., Wong, C., P.F., Koh, A., L., Gaster, R., Earhart, C., M., Sinclair, R. 2009; 321: 1452–1458
  • Electron microscopy localization and characterization of functionalized composite organic-inorganic SERS nanoparticles on leukemia cells ULTRAMICROSCOPY Koh, A. L., Shachaf, C. M., Elchuri, S., Nolan, G. P., Sinclair, R. 2008; 109 (1): 111-121

    Abstract

    We demonstrate the use of electron microscopy as a powerful characterization tool to identify and locate antibody-conjugated composite organic-inorganic nanoparticle (COINs) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles on cells. U937 leukemia cells labeled with antibody CD54-conjugated COINs were characterized in their native, hydrated state using wet scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in their dehydrated state using high-resolution SEM. In both cases, the backscattered electron (BSE) detector was used to detect and identify the silver constituents in COINs due to its high sensitivity to atomic number variations within a specimen. The imaging and analytical capabilities in the SEM were further complemented by higher resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) data to give reliable and high-resolution information about nanoparticles and their binding to cell surface antigens.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ultramic.2008.09.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261750500016

    View details for PubMedID 18995965

  • Multiplex Detection of Protease Activity with Quantum Dot Nanosensors Prepared by Intein-Mediated Specific Bioconjugation ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Xia, Z., Xing, Y., So, M., Koh, A. L., Sinclair, R., Rao, J. 2008; 80 (22): 8649-8655

    Abstract

    We report here a protease sensing nanoplatform based on semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (QD-BRET) to detect the protease activity in complex biological samples. These nanosensors consist of bioluminescent proteins as the BRET donor, quantum dots as the BRET acceptor, and protease substrates sandwiched between the two as a sensing group. An intein-mediated conjugation strategy was developed for site-specific conjugation of proteins to QDs in preparing these QD nanosensors. In this traceless ligation, the intein itself is spliced out and excluded from the final conjugation product. With this method, we have synthesized a series of QD nanosensors for highly sensitive detection of an important class of protease matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. We demonstrated that these nanosensors can detect the MMP activity in buffers and in mouse serum with the sensitivity to a few nanograms per milliliter and secreted proteases by tumor cells. The suitability of these nanosensors for a multiplex protease assay has also been shown.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ac801562f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260910900039

    View details for PubMedID 18922019

  • TEM analyses of synthetic anti-ferromagnetic (SAF) nanoparticles fabricated using different release layers ULTRAMICROSCOPY Koh, A. L., Hu, W., Wilson, R. J., Wang, S. X., Sinclair, R. 2008; 108 (11): 1490-1494

    Abstract

    This paper investigates the structural characteristics of templated synthetic anti-ferromagnetic (SAF) magnetic nanoparticles fabricated on two different release layers. When copper was used as the latter, the layered structure of the SAFs was found to be disrupted with wavy multi-layers due to the formation of copper grains from the release layer. By introducing oxygen into the copper release layer before the deposition of the film, the topography of the oxidized copper grains was effectively controlled. This led to the fabrication of SAF nanoparticles with flat multi-layers.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ultramic.2008.03.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260518200014

    View details for PubMedID 18672328

  • Real-time intravital imaging of RGD-quantum dot binding to luminal endothelium in mouse tumor neovasculature NANO LETTERS Smith, B. R., Cheng, Z., De, A., Koh, A. L., Sinclair, R., Gambhir, S. S. 2008; 8 (9): 2599-2606

    Abstract

    Nanoscale materials have increasingly become subject to intense investigation for use in cancer diagnosis and therapy. However, there is a fundamental dearth in cellular-level understanding of how nanoparticles interact within the tumor environment in living subjects. Adopting quantum dots (qdots) for their excellent brightness, photostability, monodispersity, and fluorescent yield, we link arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides to target qdots specifically to newly formed/forming blood vessels expressing alpha vbeta 3 integrins. Using this model nanoparticle system, we exploit intravital microscopy with subcellular ( approximately 0.5 microm) resolution to directly observe and record, for the first time, the binding of nanoparticle conjugates to tumor blood vessels in living subjects. This generalizable method enabled us to show that in this model qdots do not extravasate and, unexpectedly, that they only bind as aggregates rather than individually. This level of understanding is critical on the path toward ensuring regulatory approval of nanoparticles in humans for disease diagnostics and therapeutics. Equally vital, the work provides a platform by which to design and optimize molecularly targeted nanoparticles including quantum dots for applications in living subjects.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl80141f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259140200001

    View details for PubMedID 18386933

  • Improved QD-BRET conjugates for detection and imaging BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS Xing, Y., So, M., Koh, A. L., Sinclair, R., Rao, J. 2008; 372 (3): 388-394

    Abstract

    Self-illuminating quantum dots, also known as QD-BRET conjugates, are a new class of quantum dot bioconjugates which do not need external light for excitation. Instead, light emission relies on the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer from the attached Renilla luciferase enzyme, which emits light upon the oxidation of its substrate. QD-BRET combines the advantages of the QDs (such as superior brightness and photostability, tunable emission, multiplexing) as well as the high sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging, thus holding the promise for improved deep tissue in vivo imaging. Although studies have demonstrated the superior sensitivity and deep tissue imaging potential, the stability of the QD-BRET conjugates in biological environment needs to be improved for long-term imaging studies such as in vivo cell tracking. In this study, we seek to improve the stability of QD-BRET probes through polymeric encapsulation with a polyacrylamide gel. Results show that encapsulation caused some activity loss, but significantly improved both the in vitro serum stability and in vivo stability when subcutaneously injected into the animal. Stable QD-BRET probes should further facilitate their applications for both in vitro testing as well as in vivo cell tracking studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.04.159

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256941300002

    View details for PubMedID 18468518

  • Synthesis and characterization of PVP-coated large core iron oxide nanoparticles as an MRI contrast agent NANOTECHNOLOGY Lee, H., Lee, S., Xu, C., Xie, J., Lee, J., Wu, B., Koh, A. L., Wang, X., Sinclair, R., Xwang, S., Nishimura, D. G., Biswal, S., Sun, S., Cho, S. H., Chen, X. 2008; 19 (16)
  • High-moment antiferromagnetic nanoparticles with tunable magnetic properties ADVANCED MATERIALS Hu, W., Wilson, R. J., Koh, A., Fu, A., Faranesh, A. Z., Earhart, C. M., Osterfeld, S. J., Han, S., Xu, L., Guccione, S., Sinclair, R., Wang, S. X. 2008; 20 (8): 1479-?
  • Real-Time Intravital Imaging of RGD−Quantum Dot Binding to Luminal Endothelium in Mouse Tumor Neovasculature Nano Letters Smith, B., R., Cheng, Z., De, A., Koh, A., L., Sinclair, R., Gambhir, S., S. 2008; 9 (8): 2599-2606
  • Preparation, structural and magnetic characterization of synthetic anti-ferromagnetic (SAF) nanoparticles PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE Koh, A. L., Hu, W., Wilson, R. J., Wang, S. X., Sinclair, R. 2008; 88 (36): 4225-4241
  • Electron Microscopy Characterization of Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles (COINs) as Raman Labels for Extra-Cellular Analyses Microsc. Microanal. Koh, A., L., Shachaf, C., M., Elchuri, S., Nolan, G., P., Sinclair, R. 2008; 14: 670CD
  • Analytical TEM examinations of CoPt-TiO2 perpendicular magnetic recording media MICROSCOPY AND MICROANALYSIS Risner, J. D., Nolan, T. P., Bentley, J., Girt, E., Harkness, S. D., Sinclair, R. 2007; 13 (2): 70-79

    Abstract

    For this analytical TEM study, nonmagnetic oxygen-rich boundaries were introduced into Co-Pt-alloy perpendicular recording media by cosputtering Co and Pt with TiO2. Increasing the TiO2 content resulted in changes to the microstructure and elemental distribution within grains and boundaries in these films. EFTEM imaging was used to generate composition maps spanning many tens of grains, thereby giving an overall depiction of the changes in elemental distribution occurring with increasing TiO2 content. Comparing EFTEM with spectrum-imaging maps created by high-resolution STEM with EDXS and EELS enabled both corroboration of EFTEM results and quantification of the chemical composition within individual grain boundary areas. The difficulty of interpreting data from EDXS for these extremely thin films is discussed. Increasing the TiO2 content of the media was found to create more uniformly wide Ti- and O-rich grain boundaries as well as Ti- and O-rich regions within grains.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S14319276070213

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245662200001

    View details for PubMedID 17367546

  • Orientation relationship in diamond and silicon carbide composites DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS Park, J. S., Sinclair, R., Rowcliffe, D., Stern, M., Davidson, H. 2007; 16 (3): 562-565
  • Effect of magnetic recording layer thickness on media performance in CoCrPt-oxide perpendicular media IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS Kwon, U., Jung, H. S., Kuo, M., Velu, E. M., Malhotra, S. S., Jiang, W., Bertero, G., Sinclair, R. 2006; 42 (10): 2330-2332
  • Observation of the effect of grain orientation on chromium segregation in longitudinal magnetic media JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Risner, J. D., Sinclair, R., BENTLEY, J. 2006; 99 (3)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2169873

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235341000048

  • High-Resolution Analytical TEM and Energy-Filtered Imaging of CoPt-Oxide Perpendicular Magnetic Recording Media. Microscopy and microanalysis Risner, J. D., Nolan, T. P., BENTLEY, J., Wu, S. Z., Iv, S. D., Sinclair, R. 2005; 11: 1806-1807

    Abstract

    Extended abstract of a paper presented at Microscopy and Microanalysis 2005 in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, July 31--August 4, 2005.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S1431927605502186

    View details for PubMedID 24017771

  • Crystallization behaviour of ALD-Ta2O5 thin films: the application of in-situ TEM PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE Min, K. H., Sinclair, R., Park, I. S., Kim, S. T., Chung, U. I. 2005; 85 (18): 2049-2063
  • Crystallization and anisotropic dielectric properties of tantalum oxide thin films JOURNAL OF CERAMIC PROCESSING RESEARCH Min, K. H., Sinclair, R. 2005; 6 (1): 17-19
  • Application of In Situ HREM to Study Crystallization in Materials Materials Science Forum Sinclair, R., Min, K., H., Kwon, U. 2005; 494: 7-12
  • Crystallization Behavior of ALD-Ta2O5 Thin Films: An Application of In-situ TEM Philos. Mag. Min, K., H., Sinclair, R., Park, I., S., Kim, S., T., Chung, U., I. 2005; 18 (85): 2049-2063
  • Investigation of the chemical state of ultrathin Hf-Al-O films during high temperature annealing SURFACE SCIENCE Cho, M. H., Chang, H. S., Cho, Y. J., Moon, D. W., Min, K. H., Sinclair, R., Kang, S. K., Ko, D. H., Lee, J. H., Gu, J. H., Lee, N. I. 2004; 554 (1): L75-L80
  • Change in the chemical state and thermal stability of HfO2 by the incorporation of Al2O3 APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Cho, M. H., Chang, H. S., Cho, Y. J., Moon, D. W., Min, K. H., Sinclair, R., Kang, S. K., Ko, D. H., Lee, J. H., Gu, J. H., Lee, N. I. 2004; 84 (4): 571-573

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1633976

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188316500039

  • Recent developments in nano-characterization of materials JOURNAL OF CERAMIC PROCESSING RESEARCH Sinclair, R., Li, H., Risner, J., Kwon, U., Huh, J. U., Chin, R. W., Min, K. H. 2004; 5 (1): 5-9
  • Carbide evolution in temper embrittled NiCrMoV bainitic steel STEEL RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL Wittig, J. E., Sinclair, R. 2004; 75 (1): 47-54
  • Thermal stability of epitaxial Pt films on Y2O3 in a metal-oxide-Si structure APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Cho, M. H., Moon, D. W., Min, K. H., Sinclair, R., Park, S. A., Kim, Y. K., Jeong, K., Kang, S. K., Ko, D. H. 2003; 83 (23): 4758-4760

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1632541

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186970200024

  • The effects of slider material on the gasification of carbon JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME Ramirez, A. G., Sinclair, R., Harkins, C. G., Lin, A. R. 2002; 124 (4): 771-774

    View details for DOI 10.1115/1.1467613

    View details for Web of Science ID 000178565200013

  • In situ TEM studies of metal-carbon reactions MICROSCOPY AND MICROANALYSIS Sinclair, R., Itoh, T., Chin, R. 2002; 8 (4): 288-304

    Abstract

    The reactions which occur between amorphous carbon and a number of first transition metals (Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) have been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The materials are in thin-film form with the metal layer sandwiched between thicker carbon layers. In four cases, the predominant reaction is the graphitization of the amorphous carbon, at temperatures well below 800 degrees C. This is brought about by the elements themselves in the case of Co and Ni, and by metastable carbides in the case of Fe (Fe3C) and Cr (Cr3C2-x). The Ti-C and Cu-C systems do not exhibit graphitization. For the former, only TiC is produced up to 1000 degrees C, while the carbon does not react at all with copper. In situ TEM studies show the mechanism to be of the dissolution-precipitation type, which is equivalent to the metal-mediated crystallization process for amorphous silicon and germanium. The heat of graphitization is found to be 18-19 kcal/mol-C by differential scanning calorimetry.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S1431927602020226

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179056000007

    View details for PubMedID 12533226

  • A study of the failure mechanism of a titanium nitride diffusion barrier JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Lee, H. J., Sinclair, R., Li, P., Roberts, B. 1999; 86 (6): 3096-3103
  • Solid-state amorphization at tetragonal-Ta/Cu interfaces APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Kwon, K. W., Lee, H. J., Sinclair, R. 1999; 75 (7): 935-937
  • Growth and characterization of epitaxial NiMnSb/PtMnSb C1(b) Heusler alloy superlattices JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Mancoff, F. B., Bobo, J. F., Richter, O. E., Bessho, K., Johnson, P. R., Sinclair, R., Nix, W. D., White, R. L., Clemens, B. M. 1999; 14 (4): 1560-1569
  • Crystallization of amorphous carbon thin films in the presence of magnetic media JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Ramirez, A. G., Itoh, T., Sinclair, R. 1999; 85 (3): 1508-1513
  • Thermal Stability of a Cu/Ta Multilayer: an Intriguing Interfacial Reaction Acta Mater. Lee, H., J., Kwon, K., W., Ryu, C., Sinclair, R. 1999; 15/16 (47): 3965-3975
  • Growth and Characterization of Epitaxial NiMnSb/PtMnSb C1b Heusler Alloy Superlattices J. Mater. Res. Mancoff, F., B., Bobo, J., F., Richter, O., Bessho, K., Johnson, P., R., Sinclair, R. 1999; 4 (14): 1560-1569
  • Kinetic analysis of the C49-to-C54 phase transformation in TiSi2 thin films by in situ observation JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 1-REGULAR PAPERS BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS & REVIEW PAPERS Tanaka, H., Hirashita, N., Sinclair, R. 1998; 37 (8): 4284-4287
  • Interfacial reaction in the poly-Si/Ta2O5/TiN capacitor system JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Lee, H. J., Sinclair, R., Lee, M. B., Lee, H. D. 1998; 83 (1): 139-144
  • Evidence of heteroepitaxial growth of copper on beta-tantalum APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Kwon, K. V., Ryu, C., Sinclair, R., Wong, S. S. 1997; 71 (21): 3069-3071
  • Evidence of Heteroepitaxial Growth of Copper on β-Tantalum Appl. Phys. Lett. Kwon, K., W., Ryu, C., Sinclair, R., Wong, S., S. 1997; 71: 3069-3071
  • Evolution of Bicrystal Media IEEE Trans. Magn. Chang, J., K., Peng, Q., Chen, Q., Chen, G., L., Bertram, H., N., Sinclair, R. 1997; 33: 885-890
  • Wear Effects on the Microstructural Features of Amorphous Carbon Thin Film Surf. Coat. Tech. Ramirez, A., Sinclair, R. 1997; 94-95: 549-554
  • Nano-roughness Effect on Cr Growth Mechanism J. Appl. Phys. Chang, J., K., Chen, Q., Chen, G., L., Sinclair, R. 1997; 8 (81): 3943-3946
  • In situ observation of the C49-to-C54 phase transformation in TiSi2 thin films by transmission electron microscopy JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 2-LETTERS Tanaka, H., Hirashita, N., Sinclair, R. 1996; 35 (4B): L479-L481
  • Anomalous moment and anisotropy behavior in Fe3O4 films PHYSICAL REVIEW B Margulies, D. T., Parker, F. T., Spada, F. E., GOLDMAN, R. S., Li, J., Sinclair, R., Berkowitz, A. E. 1996; 53 (14): 9175-9187
  • As-deposited crystalline barium ferrite thin film media for longitudinal recording JOURNAL OF MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS Li, J. S., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S. S., Hayashi, H. 1996; 153 (1-2): 246-254
  • Thin Film Media With and Without Bicrystal Cluster Structure on Glass Ceramic Structures IEEE Trans. Magn. Chen, Q., Chang, J., K., Chen, G., L., Sinclair, R. 1996; 32: 3599-3601
  • Effects of Pt addition on the magnetic and crystallographic properties of Co-Cr-Pt thin-film media JOURNAL OF MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS Ishikawa, A., Sinclair, R. 1996; 152 (1-2): 265-273
  • In Situ Atomic Resolution Electron Microscopy of Metal-Mediated Crystallization of Semiconductors Materials Science Forum Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1996; 204-206: 749-754
  • In Situ Observation of the C49-to-C54 Phase Transformation in TiSi2 Thin Films by Transmission Electron Microscopy Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. Tanaka, H., Hirashita, N., Sinclair, R. 1996; 35: L479-481
  • Effects of Pt Addition on the Magnetic and Crystallographic Properties of Co-Cr-Pt Thin Film Media J. Magn. Magn. Mater. Ishikawa, A., Sinclair, R. 1996; 152: 265-273
  • Structural Comparisons of Ion-Beam and RF Sputter-Deposited GMR Spin Valves by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy J. Appl. Phys. Bailey, W., E., Zhu, N., C., Sinclair, R., Wang, S., X. 1996; 79: 6393-6395
  • Micromagnetic and Experimental Studies of CoPtCr Polycrystalline Thin Film Media with Bicrystal Microstructure IEEE Trans. Magn. Peng, Q., Bertram, H., N., Fussing, N., Doerner, M., F., Mirzamaani, M., Margulies, D., Sinclair, R. 1996; 31: 2821-2823
  • Microstructure-Magnetic Property Relationships in CoCrPt Magnetic Thin Films IEEE Trans. Magn. McKinlay, S., Fussing, N., Sinclair, R., Doerner, M., F. 1996; 32: 3587-3589
  • Growth of a' Nitrogen-Martensite and Fe16N2 Films Using (001) Silicon Substrates IEEE Trans. Magn. Clark, T., E., Visokay, M., R., Zhu, N., Sinclair, R. 1996; 32: 3503-3505
  • MICROSTRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF NIFE/AG MULTILAYERS STUDIED BY X-RAY-DIFFRACTION AND IN-SITU HIGH-RESOLUTION TEM JOURNAL OF MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS Snoeck, E., Sinclair, R., Parker, M. A., Hylton, T. L., Coffey, K. R., Howard, J. K., Lessmann, A., BIENENSTOCK, A. I. 1995; 151 (1-2): 24-32
  • INTERFACIAL REACTIONS IN THE ZR-SI SYSTEM STUDIED BY IN-SITU TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Tanaka, H., Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R., Hirashita, N. 1995; 78 (8): 4982-4987
  • REACTION-MEDIATED TEXTURING OF BARIUM FERRITE MAGNETIC THIN-FILMS ON ZNO UNDERLAYER JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Li, J. S., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S. S., Hayashi, H. 1995; 10 (9): 2343-2349
  • INTERFACE STRUCTURE AND PERPENDICULAR MAGNETIC-ANISOTROPY IN PT/CO MULTILAYERS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Bertero, G. A., Sinclair, R., Park, C. H., Shen, Z. X. 1995; 77 (8): 3953-3959
  • DIRECT FORMATION OF ORDERED COPT AND FEPT COMPOUND THIN-FILMS BY SPUTTERING APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Visokay, M. R., Sinclair, R. 1995; 66 (13): 1692-1694
  • METAL-MEDIATED CRYSTALLIZATION OF AMORPHOUS-GERMANIUM IN GERMANIUM SILVER LAYERED SYSTEMS PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE B-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STATISTICAL MECHANICS ELECTRONIC OPTICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. 1995; 71 (2): 179-199
  • CRYSTALLIZATION OF AMORPHOUS-CARBON IN CARBON-COBALT LAYERED THIN-FILMS ACTA METALLURGICA ET MATERIALIA Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. 1995; 43 (2): 471-484
  • METAL-MEDIATED CRYSTALLIZATION OF AMORPHOUS-SILICON IN SILICON SILVER LAYERED SYSTEMS PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE B-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STATISTICAL MECHANICS ELECTRONIC OPTICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. 1995; 71 (2): 163-178
  • Growth and characterization of FePt compound thin films MAGNETIC ULTRATHIN FILMS, MULTILAYERS AND SURFACES Visokay, M. R., Sinclair, R. 1995; 384: 91-96
  • High Density Recording Characteristics of Sputtered Barium Ferrite Thin Films IEEE Trans. Magn. Li, J., Rosenblum, S., S., Nojima, W., Hayashi, H., Sinclair, R. 1995; 31: 2749-2751
  • Direct Formation of Ordered CoPt and FePt Compound Thin Films by Sputtering Appl. Phys. Lett. Visokay, M., R., Sinclair, R. 1995; 66: 1692-1694
  • Formation of Epitaxial (001) Ordered FePd Films from Multilayer Precursors J. Mag. Soc. Jpn. Visokay, M., R., Lairson, B., M., Clemens, B., M., Sinclair, R. 1995; 19: 399-403
  • Crystallization of Amorphous Carbon in Carbon-Cobalt Layered Thin Films Acta Metall. Mater. Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1995; 43: 471-484
  • Metal-Mediated Crystallization of Amorphous Germanium in Germanium-Silver Layered Systems Philos. Mag. B Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1995; 71: 179-199
  • Microstructural Evolution of NiFe/Ag Multilayers Studied by X-ray Diffraction and In Situ TEM J. Magn. Magn. Mater. Snoeck, E., Sinclair, R., Parker, M., A., Hylton, T., L., Coffey, K., R., Howard, J., K. 1995; 151: 24-32
  • Pt/Co/Pt)/X Multilayer Thin Films for Magneto-Optic Media J. Mag. Soc. Jpn. Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R. 1995; 19: 201-204
  • Interfacial Reactions in the Zr/Si System Studied by In-Situ TEM J. Appl. Phys. Tanaka, H., Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R., Hiroshita, N. 1995; 78: 4982-4987
  • Interface Structure and Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in Pt/Co Multilayers J. Appl. Phys. Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R., Park, C., H., Shen, Z., X. 1995; 77: 3953-3959
  • Microstructural, Magnetic and Magneto-Optical Properties of (100) and (111) Oriented Thick ‘FCC’ Cobalt Single Crystal J. Mag. Soc. Jpn. Ozkan, M., Suzuki, T., Miller, D., Kellock, A., Chang, C., A., Sinclair, R. 1995; 19 (S1): 267-270
  • Reaction Mediated Texturing of Barium Ferrite Magnetic Thin Films J. Mater. Res. Li, J., Rosenblum, S., S., Hayashi, H., Sinclair, R. 1995; 10: 2343-2349
  • Metal-Mediated Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon in Silicon-Silver Layered Systems Philos. Mag. B Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1995; 71: 163-178
  • OXYGEN COULOMETRIC TITRATION STUDY OF M-BA-FERRITE SOLID STATE IONICS Li, J. S., Gur, T. M., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S. S., Hayashi, H. 1994; 73 (3-4): 185-188
  • (PT/CO/PT)/X MULTILAYER FILMS WITH HIGH KERR ROTATIONS AND LARGE PERPENDICULAR MAGNETIC ANISOTROPIES APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Bertero, G. A., Sinclair, R. 1994; 64 (24): 3337-3339
  • THERMOCHEMICAL STABILITY OF BAFE12O19 AND BAFE2O4 AND PHASE-RELATIONS IN THE BA-FE-O TERNARY-SYSTEM JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Li, J. S., Gur, T. M., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S. S., Hayashi, H. 1994; 9 (6): 1499-1512
  • STUDIES OF MATERIAL REACTIONS BY IN-SITU HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY MRS BULLETIN Sinclair, R. 1994; 19 (6): 26-31
  • IN-SITU DYNAMIC HIGH-RESOLUTION TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY - APPLICATION TO PT/GAAS INTERFACIAL REACTIONS ULTRAMICROSCOPY Ko, D. H., Sinclair, R. 1994; 54 (2-4): 166-178
  • STRUCTURE-PROPERTY CORRELATIONS IN PT/CO MULTILAYERS FOR MAGNETOOPTIC RECORDING JOURNAL OF MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS Bertero, G. A., Sinclair, R. 1994; 134 (1): 173-184
  • CRYSTALLIZATION OF CO-SPUTTERED AMORPHOUS COBALT CARBON ALLOYS ACTA METALLURGICA ET MATERIALIA Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. 1994; 42 (4): 1231-1247
  • Thermochemical Stability of BaFe12O19 and BaFe2O4 and Phase Relations in the Ba-Fe-O Ternary System J. Mater. Res. Li, J., Gur, T., M., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S., S., Hayashi, H. 1994; 9: 1499-1512
  • Roughness Control and Electrical Properties of SiO/Si (001) Interfaces First International Symposium on Control of Semiconductor Interfaces, Elsevier, New York Niwa, M., Okada, K., Kouzaki, T., Sinclair, R. 1994: 405-410
  • Reactions at Semiconductor Metal Interfaces First International Symposium on Control of Semiconductor Interfaces, Elsevier, New York Sinclair, R., Konno, T., J., Ko, D., H. 1994: 247-254
  • Studies of Material Reactions by In-Situ High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM) MRS Bull. Sinclair, R. 1994; 6 (19): 26-31
  • CORRELATION OF STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES IN THIN-FILM MAGNETIC MEDIA POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN FILMS: STRUCTURE, TEXTURE, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS Nolan, T. P., Sinclair, R., Ranjan, R., Yamashita, T., Tarnopolsky, G., Bennett, W. 1994; 343: 297-302
  • Atomic-Order Planarization of Ultra-Thin SiO2/Si (001) Interfaces Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Niwa, M., Kouzaki, T., Okada, K., Udagawa, M., Sinclair, R. 1994; 33: 388-394
  • Longitudinal Recording Performance of Doped Barium Ferrite Magnetic Thin Films IEEE Trans. Magn. Rosenblum, S., S., Li, J., Hayashi, H., Sinclair, R. 1994; 30: 4047-4049
  • Temperature and Orientation Effects on Magnetic Properties of Barium Ferrite Thin Films IEEE Trans. Magn. Li, J., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S., S., Hayashi, H. 1994; 30: 4050-4052
  • In Situ HREM: Application to Metal-Mediated Crystallization Ultramicroscopy Sinclair, R., Konno, T., J. 1994; 56: 225-232
  • Dynamic High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy: Application to Pt/GaAs Interfacial Reactions Ultramicroscopy Ko, D., H., Sinclair, R. 1994; 54: 166-178
  • Crystallization of Co-sputtered Amorphous Cobalt-Carbon Alloys: Morphology and Kinetics of Spherulitic Growth Mater. Sci. Eng. Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1994; A179/A180: 297-302
  • Structure-Property Correlations in Pt/Co Multilayers for Magneto-Optic Recording J. Magn. Magn. Mater. Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R. 1994; 134: 173-184
  • Metal-Contact Induced Crystallization of Semiconductors Mater. Sci. Eng. A Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1994; A179/A180: 426-432
  • Oxygen Coulometric Titration Study of M Ba-Ferrite Solid State Ionics Li, J., Gur, T., M., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S., S., Hayashi, H. 1994; 73: 185-188
  • Crystallization of Co-sputtered Amorphous Cobalt-Carbon Alloys Acta Metall. Mater. Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1994; 42: 1231-1247
  • CRYSTALLIZATION AND DECOMPOSITION OF CO-SPUTTERED AMORPHOUS SILICON-ALUMINUM THIN-FILMS MATERIALS CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. 1993; 35 (2): 99-113
  • ATOMIC-SCALE PLANARIZATION OF SIO2/SI(001) INTERFACES APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Niwa, M., Udagawa, M., Okada, K., KOUZAZKI, T., Sinclair, R. 1993; 63 (5): 675-677
  • EPITAXIAL TETRAGONAL PTCO (001) THIN-FILMS WITH PERPENDICULAR MAGNETIC-ANISOTROPY JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Lairson, B. M., Visokay, M. R., Marinero, E. E., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B. M. 1993; 74 (3): 1922-1928
  • CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ORIENTATION OF TEXTURED COCRTA/CR SPUTTERED THIN-FILM MEDIA FOR LONGITUDINAL RECORDING JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Nolan, T. P., Sinclair, R., Ranjan, R., Yamashita, T. 1993; 73 (10): 5117-5124
  • TEM ANALYSIS OF CO-GD AND CO-GD MULTILAYER STRUCTURES JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Bertero, G. A., Hufnagel, T. C., Clemens, B. M., Sinclair, R. 1993; 8 (4): 771-774
  • EPITAXIAL PTFE(001) THIN-FILMS ON MGO(001) WITH PERPENDICULAR MAGNETIC-ANISOTROPY APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Lairson, B. M., Visokay, M. R., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B. M. 1993; 62 (6): 639-641
  • TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY STUDY OF COPT(001) AND FEPT(001) FILMS FORMED FROM EPITAXIAL CO/PT AND FE/PT MULTILAYERS PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN THIN FILMS - THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS Visokay, M. R., Lairson, B. M., Clemens, B. M., Sinclair, R. 1993; 311: 15-20
  • Microstructural Analysis of Magnetic Fe/Pt Multilayer Thin Films by Transmission Electron Microscopy J. Magn. Magn. Mater. Visokay, M., R., Lairson, B., M., Clemens, B., M., Sinclair, R. 1993; 126: 136-140
  • Crystallization and Decomposition of Co-sputtered Amorphous Silicon-Aluminum Thin Films Mater. Chem. Phys. Konno, J., Sinclair, R. 1993; 35: 99-113
  • Transmission Electron Microscopic Analysis of Microstructural Features in Magnetic Recording Media IEEE Trans. Magn. Nolan, T., P., Sinclair, R., Ranjan, R., Yamashita, T. 1993; 29: 292-299
  • Crystallographic Orientation of Textured CoCrTa/Cr Recording Media J. Appl. Phys. Nolan, T., P., Sinclair, R., Ranjan, R., Yamashita, T. 1993; 73: 5117-5124
  • Epitaxial Tetragonal PtCo(001) Thin Films with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy J. Appl. Phys. Lairson, B., M., Visokay, M., R., Marinero, E., E., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B., M. 1993; 74: 1922-1928
  • Epitaxial PtFe and PtCo(001) Thin Films with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy J. Magn. Mag. Mater. Lairson, B., M., Visokay, M., R., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B., M. 1993; 126: 577-579
  • Annealing of Metal Multilayers Studied by In Situ High Resolution Electron Microscopy J. Magn. Magn. Mater. Sinclair, R., Konno, T., J. 1993; 126: 108-112
  • Influence of Interfacial Doping with Rare Earth Elements on the Magnetic Properties of Selected Co/Pt Multilayers J. Magn. Mag. Mater. Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R. 1993; 126: 275-278
  • TEM Analysis of Co-Gd and Cr-Gd Multilayer Structures J. Mater. Res. Bertero, A., Hufnagel, T., C., Clemens, B., M., Sinclair, R. 1993; 8: 771-774
  • Epitaxial PtFe (001) Thin Films on MgO (001) with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy Appl. Phys. Lett. Lairson, B., M., Visokay, M., R., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B., M. 1993; 62: 639-641
  • Production of c-Axis Oriented PtFe Thin Film with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy J. Magn. Soc. Jap. Lairson, B., M., Visokay, M., R., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B., M. 1993; 17 (S1): 40-43
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy of Epitaxial Fe/Pt Multilayers J. Magn. Soc. Jap. Visokay, M., R., Lairson, B., M., Clemens, B., M., Sinclair, R. 1993; 17 (S1): 113-116
  • Direct Observation of Crystallization in Silicon by In Situ High Resolution Electron Microscopy Ultramicroscopy Sinclair, R., Morgiel, J., Kirtikar, A., S., Wu, I., W., Chiang, A. 1993; 51: 41-45
  • MAGNETIC AND MAGNETOOPTIC PROPERTIES OF PTFE(001) AND PTCO(001) THIN-FILMS MAGNETIC ULTRATHIN FILMS Lairson, B. M., Visokay, M. R., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B. M. 1993; 313: 805-810
  • APPLICATION OF HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY TO THE STUDY OF MAGNETIC THIN-FILMS AND MULTILAYERS MAGNETIC ULTRATHIN FILMS Sinclair, R., Nolan, T. P., Bertero, G. A., Visokay, M. R. 1993; 313: 705-712
  • CRYSTALLIZATION OF SILICON IN ALUMINUM AMORPHOUS-SILICON MULTILAYERS PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE B-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STATISTICAL MECHANICS ELECTRONIC OPTICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. 1992; 66 (6): 749-765
  • MICROSTRUCTURE AND CRYSTALLOGRAPHY OF TEXTURED COCRTA/CR RECORDING MEDIA ULTRAMICROSCOPY Nolan, T. P., Sinclair, R., Ranjan, R., Yamashita, T. 1992; 47 (4): 437-446
  • EPITAXIAL PT(001), PT(110), AND PT(111) FILMS ON MGO(001), MGO(110), MGO(111), AND AL2O3(0001) APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Lairson, B. M., Visokay, M. R., Sinclair, R., Hagstrom, S., Clemens, B. M. 1992; 61 (12): 1390-1392
  • AMORPHOUS PHASE FORMATION AND INITIAL INTERFACIAL REACTIONS IN THE PLATINUM GAAS SYSTEM JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Ko, D. H., Sinclair, R. 1992; 72 (5): 2036-2042
  • STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION OF AMORPHOUS NI-TI THIN-FILMS USING ELECTRON-DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS ACTA METALLURGICA ET MATERIALIA Moine, P., Delage, J., Pelton, A. R., Sinclair, R. 1992; 40 (8): 1855-1863
  • SIO2/SI INTERFACES STUDIED BY SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY AND HIGH-RESOLUTION TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Niwa, M., Matsumoto, M., Iwasaki, H., Onada, M., Sinclair, R. 1992; 139 (3): 901-906
  • MODELING OF AGGLOMERATION IN POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN-FILMS - APPLICATION TO TISI2 ON A SILICON SUBSTRATE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Nolan, T. P., Sinclair, R., Beyers, R. 1992; 71 (2): 720-724
  • REACTIONS AT THE TITANIUM-SILICON INTERFACE STUDIED USING HOT-STAGE TEM ADVANCED METALLIZATION AND PROCESSING FOR SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES AND CIRCUITS - II Kirtikar, A., Sinclair, R. 1992; 260: 227-231
  • Microstructure and Crystallography of Textured CoCrTa/Cr Sputtered Thin Film Media for Longitudinal Recording Ultramicroscopy Nolan, T., P., Sinclair, R., Ranjan, R.,  Yamashita, T. 1992; 47: 437-446
  • Structural Determination of Amorphous Ni-Ti Thin Films, Using Electron Diffraction Analysis Acta Metall. Moine, P., Delage, J., Pelton, A., R., Sinclair, R. 1992; 40: 1855-1863
  • Modeling of Agglomeration in Polycrystalline Thin Films: Application to TiSi2 on a Silicon Substrate J. Appl. Phys. Nolan, T., P., Sinclair, R., Beyers, R. 1992; 71: 720-724
  • SiO2/Si Interfaces Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy J. Electrochem. Soc. Niwa, M., Onoda, M., Matsumoto, M.,  Iwasaki, H., Sinclair, R. 1992; 139: 901-906
  • Reaction and Stability at VLSI Contact Interfaces Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. Ogawa, S., Sinclair, R. 1992: 1268
  • Crystallization of Silicon in Aluminum/Amorphous-Silicon Multilayers Philos. Mag. B Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1992; 66: 749-765
  • Epitaxial Pt (001), Pt (110) and Pt (111) Films on MgO (001), MgO (110), MgO (111) and Al2O3 (0001) Appl. Phys. Lett. Lairson, B., M., Visokay, M., R., Sinclair, R., Hagstrom, S., Clemens, B., M. 1992; 61: 1390-1392
  • A Highly Reliable Sub-Half Micron Via and Interconnect Technology Using Al Alloy High-Temperature Sputter Filling VLSI Tech. Dig. Nishimura, H., Yamada, T., Sinclair, R., Ogawa, S. 1992: 74-75
  • 2-STEP MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATIONS IN TINI(10-PERCENT CU) SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS SHAPE-MEMORY MATERIALS AND PHENOMENA - FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS AND APPLICATIONS MOBERLY, W. J., Duerig, T. W., PROFT, J. L., Sinclair, R. 1992; 246: 55-60
  • STRUCTURE OF AN AMORPHOUS TI-SI ALLOY FORMED BY THERMAL-REACTION JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS Holloway, K., Moine, P., Delage, J., Sinclair, R. 1991; 134 (1-2): 133-140
  • INTERFACE MICROSTRUCTURE OF TITANIUM THIN-FILM SILICON SINGLE-CRYSTAL SUBSTRATE CORRELATED WITH ELECTRICAL BARRIER HEIGHTS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Ogawa, S., Kouzaki, T., Yoshida, T., Sinclair, R. 1991; 70 (2): 827-832
  • AMORPHOUS PHASE FORMATION IN AN AS-DEPOSITED PLATINUM-GAAS INTERFACE APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Ko, D. H., Sinclair, R. 1991; 58 (17): 1851-1853
  • THERMOMECHANICAL STRENGTHENING OF B2 INTERMETALLICS MODELING THE DEFORMATION OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS MOBERLY, W. J., PROFT, J. L., Duerig, T. W., Pelton, A. R., Sinclair, R. 1991: 387-393
  • EQUILIBRIUM DEFECT STRUCTURE OF ANNEALED II-VI/GAAS INTERFACES INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES Schwartzman, A., Sinclair, R. 1991: 523-526
  • LOW-TEMPERATURE REACTIONS AT METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS 1991 Sinclair, R., Konno, T., Ko, D. H., Ogawa, S. 1991; 117: 283-287
  • Metastable and Equilibrium Defect Structure of II/VI GaAs Interfaces J. Electron. Mater.  Schwartzman, A., F., Sinclair, R. 1991; 20: 805-814
  • Structure of an Amorphous Ti-Si Alloy Formed by Thermal Reaction J. Non-Cryst. Solids Holloway, K., Moine, P., Delage, J., Sinclair, R. 1991; 134: 133-140
  • DEFORMATION, TWINNING AND THERMOMECHANICAL STRENGTHENING OF TI50NI47FE3 ACTA METALLURGICA ET MATERIALIA MOBERLY, W. J., PROFT, J. L., Duerig, T. W., Sinclair, R. 1990; 38 (12): 2601-2612
  • A THERMODYNAMIC APPROACH FOR INTERPRETING METALLIZATION LAYER STABILITY AND THIN-FILM REACTIONS INVOLVING 4 ELEMENTS - APPLICATION TO INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT CONTACT METALLURGY JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS BHANSALI, A. S., Sinclair, R., Morgan, A. E. 1990; 68 (3): 1043-1049
  • STUDY OF INTERFACIAL REACTIONS IN METAL-SILICON AND RELATED SYSTEMS BY HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY AND THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS JIM Sinclair, R. 1990; 31 (7): 628-635
  • Deformation, Twinning and Thermo-Mechanical Strengthening of Ti50Ni47Fe3 Acta Metall. Moberly, W., J., Proft, J., L., Duerig, T., W., Sinclair, R. 1990; 38: 2601-2612
  • THICKNESS MEASUREMENTS AND GROWTH-KINETICS OF THIN SIO2 LAYERS JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Carim, A. H., Sinclair, R. 1990; 137 (1): 279-283
  • Interface Microstructure of Titanium Thin-Film / Silicon-Crystal Single Substrate, Correlated with Electrical Barrier Heights J. Appl. Phys. Ogawa, S., Yoshida, T., Kouzaki, T., Sinclair, R. 1990; 70: 827-832
  • SiO2/Si Interfaces Studied by STM and HRTEM (II) Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Niwa, M., Onoda, M.,  Matsumoto, M.,  Iwasaki, H., Sinclair, R. 1990; 29: 2665-2670
  • Study of Interfacial Reactions in Metal-Silicon and Related Interfacial Reactions by High Resolution Electron Microscopy and Thermodynamic Analysis Mater. Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met. Sinclair, R. 1990; 31: 628-635
  • A Thermodynamic Approach for Interpreting Metallization Layer Stability and Thin-Film Reactions Involving Four Elements: Application to Integrated Circuit Contact Metallurgy J. Appl. Phys. Bhansali, A., S., Sinclair, R., Morgan, A., E. 1990; 68: 1043-1049
  • Thickness Measurements and Growth Kinetics of Thin SiO2 Layers J. Electrochem. Soc. Carim, A., H., Sinclair, R. 1990; 137: 279-283
  • Metastable Phase Formation in Thin Films and Multilayers MRS Bull. Clemens, B., M., Sinclair, R. 1990; 2 (15): 19-28
  • AMORPHOUS SILICIDE FORMATION BY THERMAL-REACTION - A COMPARISON OF SEVERAL METAL-SILICON SYSTEMS JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY A Holloway, K., Sinclair, R., Nathan, M. 1989; 7 (3): 1479-1483
  • MORPHOLOGY OF THE SILICON IMPLANTED INTERFACE OF A POLYSILICON SINGLE-CRYSTAL SILICON STRUCTURE NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Okuda, S., Ogawa, S., Kouzaki, T., Yoshida, T., Toujou, F., Sinclair, R. 1989; 39 (1-4): 334-337
  • A HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY STUDY OF THE FINE-STRUCTURE IN A TRENCH CAPACITOR JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Sinclair, R., Kim, K. B., SHIPPOU, O., Iwasaki, H. 1989; 136 (2): 511-518
  • STRUCTURE AND ELECTRICAL-PROPERTIES OF INTERFACES BETWEEN SILICON FILMS AND N+ SILICON-CRYSTALS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Ogawa, S., Okuda, S., Yoshida, T., Kouzaki, T., Tsukamoto, K., Sinclair, R. 1989; 65 (2): 668-671
  • INTERFACIAL REACTIONS ON ANNEALING MOLYBDENUM-SILICON MULTILAYERS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Holloway, K., DO, K. B., Sinclair, R. 1989; 65 (2): 474-480
  • REACTION AND STRUCTURE AT METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS 1989 Sinclair, R., Holloway, K., Kim, K. B., Ko, D. H., BHANSALI, A. S., Schwartzman, A. F., Ogawa, S. 1989; 100: 599-607
  • Amorphous Silicide Formation by Thermal Reaction: A Comparison of Several Metal-Silicon Systems J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Holloway, K., Sinclair, R., Nathan, M. 1989; 7: 1479-1483
  • Morphology of the Silicon Implanted Interface of a Polysilicon/Single Crystal Silicon Structure Jpn. Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B Okuda, S., Ogawa, S., Kouzaki, T., Yoshida, T., Toujou, F., Sinclair, R. 1989; 39: 334-337
  • Structure and Electrical Properties of Interfaces Between Silicon Films and n+ Silicon Crystals J. Appl. Phys. Ogawa, S., Okuda, S., Yoshida, T., Kouzaki, T., Tsukamoto, K., Sinclair, R. 1989; 65: 668-671
  • A High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of the Fine Structure in a Trench Capacitor J. Electrochem. Soc. Sinclair, R., Kim, K., B., Shippou, O., Iwasaki, H. 1989; 136: 511-518
  • Structure and Reaction at Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys., Catalog No. AP892228 Sinclair, R., Ogawa, S. 1989: 29-33
  • COMPRESSIVE DEFORMATION AND FRACTURE IN WC MATERIALS MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING Rowcliffe, D. J., Jayaram, V., HIBBS, M. K., Sinclair, R. 1988; 106: 299-303
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSITU HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION A Sinclair, R., Yamashita, T., Parker, M. A., Kim, K. B., Holloway, K., Schwartzman, A. F. 1988; 44: 965-975
  • HIGH-RESOLUTION AND INSITU TEM STUDIES OF ANNEALING OF TI-SI MULTILAYERS JOURNAL OF THE LESS-COMMON METALS Holloway, K., Sinclair, R. 1988; 140: 139-148
  • INTERFACIAL REACTIONS IN THE TI GAAS SYSTEM JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY A Kim, K. B., KNIFFIN, M., Sinclair, R., Helms, C. R. 1988; 6 (3): 1473-1477
  • STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION OF SMALL AMORPHOUS VOLUMES BY ELECTRON-DIFFRACTION JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS Moine, P., Pelton, A. R., Sinclair, R. 1988; 101 (2-3): 213-222
  • DISORDERED INTERMIXING AT THE PLATINUM-SILICON INTERFACE DEMONSTRATED BY HIGH-RESOLUTION CROSS-SECTIONAL TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY, AUGER-ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY, AND MEV ION CHANNELING JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Abelson, J. R., Kim, K. B., Mercer, D. E., Helms, C. R., Sinclair, R., Sigmon, T. W. 1988; 63 (3): 689-692
  • Interfacial Reactions in the Ti/GaAs System J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Kim, K., B., Kniffin, M., Sinclair, R., Helms, C., R. 1988; 6: 1473-1477
  • High-resolution and In Situ TEM Studies of Annealing of Ti-Si Multilayers J. Less Common Metals Holloway, K., Sinclair, R. 1988; 140: 139-148
  • Disordered Intermixing at the Platinum-Silicon Interface Demonstrated by High-resolution Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy, Auger Electron Spectroscopy and MeV Ion Channeling J. Appl. Phys. Abelson, J., R., Kim, K., B., Mercer, D., E., Helms, C., R., Sinclair, R., Sigmon, T., W. 1988; 63: 689-692
  • Structural Determination of Small Amorphous Volumes by Electron Diffraction J. Non-Cryst. Solids Moine, P., Pelton, A., R., Sinclair, R. 1988; 101: 213-222
  • The Development of In Situ High Resolution Electron Microscopy Sinclair, R., Yamashita, T., Parker, M., A., Kim, K., B., Holloway, K., Schwartzman, A., F. 1988; 44: 965-975
  • KINETICS AND OXIDE COMPOSITION FOR THERMAL-OXIDATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Wang, F., Schwartzman, A., FAHRENBRUCH, A. L., Sinclair, R., BUBE, R. H., Stahle, C. M. 1987; 62 (4): 1469-1476
  • HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY AND SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY OF NATIVE OXIDES ON SILICON SCIENCE Carim, A. H., DOVEK, M. M., Quate, C. F., Sinclair, R., VORST, C. 1987; 237 (4815): 630-633

    Abstract

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy have been combined to examine the structure of the thin "native" oxide that forms on silicon surfaces at room temperature. Differences in the cleaning procedures for silicon wafers may affect the morphology of this oxide and critically influence further processing on the silicon substrates. An etch that ended with a dip in hydrofluoric acid provided a thinner oxide and a lower interface step density than did a sulfuric peroxide treatment. The availability of complementary information from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy is discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987J472200024

    View details for PubMedID 17758564

  • PHASE-EQUILIBRIA IN METAL-GALLIUM-ARSENIC SYSTEMS - THERMODYNAMIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR METALLIZATION MATERIALS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Beyers, R., Kim, K. B., Sinclair, R. 1987; 61 (6): 2195-2202
  • THE EVOLUTION OF SI/SIO2 INTERFACE ROUGHNESS JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Carim, A. H., Sinclair, R. 1987; 134 (3): 741-746
  • AMORPHOUS TI-SI ALLOY FORMED BY INTERDIFFUSION OF AMORPHOUS SI AND CRYSTALLINE TI MULTILAYERS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Holloway, K., Sinclair, R. 1987; 61 (4): 1359-1364
  • HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY OF STRUCTURAL FEATURES AT THE SI/SIO2 INTERFACE MATERIALS LETTERS Carim, A. H., Sinclair, R. 1987; 5 (3): 94-98
  • Kinetics & Oxide Composition for Thermal Oxidation of Cadmium Telluride J. Appl. Phys. Wang, F., Schwartzman, A., Fahrenbruch, A., L., Sinclair, R., Bube, R., H., Stahle, C., M. 1987; 62: 1469-1476
  • Phase Equilibria in Metal-Gallium-Arsenic Systems: Thermodynamic Considerations for Metallization Materials J. Appl. Phys. Beyers, R., Kim, K., B., Sinclair, R. 1987; 61: 2195-2202
  • In Situ HREM of Interface Reactions in Semiconductors Ultramicroscopy Sinclair, R., Parker, M., A., Kim, K., B. 1987; 23: 383-396
  • High-Resolution Electron Microscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy of Native Oxides on Silicon Science Carim, A., H., Dovek, M., M., Quate, C., F., Sinclair, R., Vorst, C. 1987; 237: 630-633
  • High-Resolution Electron Microscopy of Structural Features at the Si/SiO2 Interface MateR. Letts. Carim, A., H., Sinclair, R. 1987; 5: 94-98
  • PLASTIC-DEFORMATION OF WC-CO AT HIGH CONFINING PRESSURE SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Jayaram, V., Kronenberg, A., Kirby, S. H., Rowcliffe, D. J., Sinclair, R. 1986; 20 (5): 701-705
  • DEFORMATION ENHANCED DECARBURIZATION OF WC-CO SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Jayaram, V., Sinclair, R., Rowcliffe, D. J. 1986; 20 (1): 55-60
  • High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope Observations of Silicon Regrowth at Controlled Elevated Temperatures Nature Sinclair, R., Parker, M., A. 1986; 322: 531-533
  • Plastic Deformation of WC-Co at High Confining Pressure Scripta Met. Jayaram, V., Kronenberg, A., Kirby, S., H., Rowcliffe, D., J., Sinclair, R. 1986; 20: 701-705
  • METASTABLE PHASE FORMATION IN TITANIUM-SILICON THIN-FILMS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Beyers, R., Sinclair, R. 1985; 57 (12): 5240-5245
  • Precipitation of Phosphorus and Tin in Temper Embrittled Low Alloy Steel Scripta Met. Wittig, J., E., Sinclair, R., Viswanathan, R. 1985; 19: 111-116
  • In Situ TEM Study of Martensitic NiTi Amorphization by Ni Ion Implantation Nucl. Instrum. Methods B Moine, P., Riviere, J., P., Ruault, M., O., Chaumont, J., Pelton, A., Sinclair, R. 1985; 7/8: 20-25
  • Silicon Nitride Joining J. Am. Ceram. Soc. Mecartney, M., L., Sinclair, R., E. Loehman, R. 1985; 68: 472-478
  • Metastable Phase Formation in Titanium-Silicon Thin Films J. Appl. Phys. Beyers, R., Sinclair, R. 1985; 57: 5240-5245
  • Lattice Images of Defect Free Silicon-On-Sapphire Prepared by Ion Implantation Appl. Phys. Lett. Parker, M., A., Sinclair, R., Sigmon, T., W. 1985; 47: 626-628
  • Delineation of Emitter-Collector Shorts in Bipolar Test Structures by Voltage Contrast Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM Carim, A., H., Sinclair, R., Stacy, W., T. 1985; III: 1047-1053
  • MECHANICAL TWINNING IN TI50NI47FE3 AND TI49NI51 ALLOYS ACTA METALLURGICA Goo, E., Duerig, T., Melton, K., Sinclair, R. 1985; 33 (9): 1725-1733
  • PRECIPITATION OF PHOSPHORUS AND TIN IN TEMPER EMBRITTLED LOW-ALLOY STEEL SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Wittig, J. E., Sinclair, R., Viswanathan, R. 1985; 19 (1): 111-116
  • LATTICE IMAGES OF DEFECT-FREE SILICON ON SAPPHIRE PREPARED BY ION-IMPLANTATION APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Parker, M. A., Sinclair, R., Sigmon, T. W. 1985; 47 (6): 626-628
  • DELINEATION OF EMITTER-COLLECTOR SHORTS IN BIPOLAR TEST STRUCTURES BY VOLTAGE CONTRAST SCANNING ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY Carim, A. H., Sinclair, R., STACY, W. T. 1985: 1047-1053
  • INSITU TEM STUDY OF MARTENSITIC NITI AMORPHIZATION BY NI ION-IMPLANTATION NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Moine, P., Riviere, J. P., Ruault, M. O., Chaumont, J., Pelton, A., Sinclair, R. 1985; 7-8 (MAR): 20-25
  • DEFECT INTERACTIONS IN DEFORMED WC ACTA METALLURGICA HIBBS, M. K., Sinclair, R., Rowcliffe, D. J. 1984; 32 (6): 941-947
  • Thin Foil Artifacts Observed in Electron Diffraction on a TiNi Alloy Scripta Met. Moine, P., Goo, E., Sinclair, R. 1984; 18: 1143-1147
  • Phase Equilibria in Thin-Film Metallizations J. Vac. Sci. Technol., Beyers, R., Sinclair, R., Thomas, M., E. 1984; B2: 781-784
  • The Preparation of Cross-Section Specimens for Transmission Electron Microscopy J. Electron Microsc. Tech. Bravman, J., C., Sinclair, R. 1984; 1: 53-61
  • Cadmium Telluride Films and Solar Cells IEEE Trans. Electron Devices Bube, R., H., Fahrenbruch, A., Sinclair, R., Anthony, T., C., Fortmann, C., Huber, W. 1984; ED-31: 528-538
  • CADMIUM TELLURIDE FILMS AND SOLAR-CELLS IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES BUBE, R. H., FAHRENBRUCH, A. L., Sinclair, R., Anthony, T. C., FORTMANN, C., Huber, W., Lee, C. T., Thorpe, T., Yamashita, T. 1984; 31 (5): 528-538
  • THIN FOIL ARTIFACTS OBSERVED IN ELECTRON-DIFFRACTION ON A TI49.5NI50.5 ALLOY SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Moine, P., Goo, E., Sinclair, R. 1984; 18 (10): 1143-1147
  • PHASE-EQUILIBRIA IN THIN-FILM METALLIZATIONS JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B Beyers, R., Sinclair, R., Thomas, M. E. 1984; 2 (4): 781-784
  • INTERGRANULAR CRACKING IN WC-6-PERCENT CO - AN APPLICATION OF THE VONMISES CRITERION ACTA METALLURGICA Jayaram, V., Sinclair, R., Rowcliffe, D. J. 1983; 31 (3): 373-378
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies of the Polycrystalline Silicon – SiO2 Interface Thin Solid Films Bravman, J., C., Sinclair, R. 1983; 104: 153-161
  • Detection of Thin Intergranular Cobalt Layers in WC-Co Composites by Lattice Imaging J. Am. Ceram. Soc. Jayaram, V., Sinclair, R. 1983; 66: C137-C139
  • Intergranular Cracking in WC-6%Co: An Application of the von Mises Criterion Acta Metall. Jayaram, V., Sinclair, R., Rowcliffe, D., J. 1983; 31: 373-378
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy of Annealed ZrO2+8Mol%Sc2O3 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. Moghadam, F., K., Yamashita, T., Sinclair, R., Stevenson, D., A. 1983; 66: 213-217
  • CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LATTICE DISPLACEMENT WAVES IN PRE-MARTENSITIC TINI ACTA METALLURGICA Michal, G. M., Moine, P., Sinclair, R. 1982; 30 (1): 124-138
  • DYNAMIC OBSERVATION OF DEFECT ANNEALING IN CDTE AT LATTICE RESOLUTION NATURE Sinclair, R., Ponce, F. A., Yamashita, T., SMITH, D. J., Camps, R. A., Freeman, L. A., Erasmus, S. J., Nixon, W. C., Smith, K. C., Catto, C. J. 1982; 298 (5870): 127-131
  • High Resolution Lattice Imaging of Cadmium Telluride Philos. Mag. Yamashita, T., Ponce, F., A., Pirouz, P., Sinclair, R. 1982; A45: 693-711
  • Characterization of the Lattice Displacement Waves in Premartensitic TiNi Acta Metall. Michal, G., M., Moine, P., Sinclair, R. 1982; 30: 125-138
  • A Morphological Study of ’Premartensitic’ Effects in TiNi Acta Metall. Moine, P., Michal, G., M.,  Sinclair, R. 1982; 30: 109-123
  • Electron Irradiation Induced Crystalline Amorphous Transitions in Ni-Ti Alloys Scripta Met. Thomas, G., Mori, H., Fujita, H., Sinclair, R. 1982; 15: 589-592
  • MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATIONS IN A TINI THIN FOIL JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Moine, P., Goo, E., Sinclair, R. 1982; 43 (NC-4): 243-248
  • A MORPHOLOGICAL-STUDY OF PRE-MARTENSITIC EFFECTS IN TINI ACTA METALLURGICA Moine, P., Michal, G. M., Sinclair, R. 1982; 30 (1): 109-123
  • ROOM-TEMPERATURE DEFORMATION MECHANISMS AND THE DEFECT STRUCTURE OF TUNGSTEN CARBIDE ACTA METALLURGICA HIBBS, M. K., Sinclair, R. 1981; 29 (9): 1645-1654
  • Room Temperature Deformation Mechanisms and the Defect Structure of Tungsten Carbide Acta Metall. Hibbs, M., K., Sinclair, R. 1981; 29: 1645-1654
  • Metallurgical Applications of the 2 1/2 D TEM Technique Met. Trans. Sinclair, R., Michal, G., M., Yamashita, T. 1981; 12A: 1503-1512
  • Atomic Motion on the Surface of a Cadmium Telluride Single Crystal Nature Sinclair, R., Yamashita, T., Ponce, F., A. 1981; 290: 386-388
  • Native Tellurium Dioxide Layer on Cadmium Telluride: A High Resolution Electron Microscopy Study Appl. Phys. Lett. Ponce, F., A., Sinclair, R., Bube, R., H. 1981; 39: 951-953
  • The Effect of Orientation, Grain Size and Polymorphism on Magnetic Properties of Sputtered Co-Re Thin Film Media IEEE Trans. Magn Chen, T., Yamashita, T., Sinclair, R. 1981; MAG-17: 3187-3189
  • NATIVE TELLURIUM DIOXIDE LAYER ON CADMIUM TELLURIDE - A HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY STUDY APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Ponce, F. A., Sinclair, R., BUBE, R. H. 1981; 39 (12): 951-953
  • Comments on ’The Early Stages of the Transformation in Dilute Alloys of Titanium in Nickel Scripta Met. Laughlin, D., E., Sinclair, R., Tanner, L., E. 1980; 14: 373-376
  • A Quantitative Assessment of the Capabilities of 2 1/2 D Microscopy for Analyzing Crystalline Solids Philos. Mag. Michal, G., M., Sinclair, R. 1980; A42: 691-704
  • Determination of Local Composition by Lattice Imaging Met. Trans.  Sinclair, R., Thomas, G. 1978; 9A: 373-380
  • Lattice Imaging and Optical Microanalysis of a Cu-Ni-Cr Spinodal Alloy Met. Trans. Wu, C.,  K., Sinclair, R.,  Thomas, G. 1978; 9A: 381-387
  • Lattice Imaging Study of a Martensite-Austenite Interface Acta Metall. Sinclair, R., Mohamed, H., A. 1978; 26: 623-628
  • A Preliminary Lattice Image Investigation of Nickel-Titanium Martensite J. Phys. Sinclair, R. 1977; C7 (38): 453-456
  • Structure of Ordered Alloys J. Phys.  Sinclair, R., Thomas, G. 1977; C7 (38): 165-171
  • Lattice Image Studies of B19 Ordering and Interfacial Structures in Mg3Cd Acta Metall. Sinclair, R., Dutkiewicz, J. 1977; 25: 235-249
  • The Importance of Electron Diffraction to Transmission Electron Imaging Trans. Am. Cryst. Soc. Sinclair, R. 1977; 13: 101-126
  • Discussion of An Electron Diffraction Study of Short-Range Order in Quenched Ni4Mo Alloy Acta Metall. Thomas, G., Sinclair, R. 1977; 25: 101-126
  • Optical Diffraction from Lattice Images of Alloys Acta Metall. Sinclair, R., Gronsky, R., Thomas, G. 1976; 24: 789-795
  • Observations of B19 Order ing in Mg3Cd Thin Foils Scripta Met. Dutkiewicz, J., Sinclair, R. 1976; 10: 489-493
  • Analysis of Ordering in Cu3Au, Utilizing Lattice Imaging Techniques Acta Metall. Sinclair, R., Schneider, K.,  Thomas, G. 1975; 23: 873-883
  • Antiphase Domains and Diffraction Spot Splitting in Cu3Au J. Appl. Crystallography Sinclair, R., Thomas, G. 1975; 8: 206-211
  • On the Lattice Parameter of Non-Random Solid Solutions Philos. Mag. Krawitz, A., Sinclair, R. 1975; 31: 697-712
  • Applications of the Critical Voltage Effect for the Study of Ordering Philos. Mag. Sinclair, R., Goringe, M., J., Thomas, G. 1975; 32: 501-512
  • Spinodal Decomposition of a Nickel-Titanium Alloy Phys. Status Solidi A Sinclair, R., Leake, J., A., Ralph, B. 1974; 26: 285-298
  • Measurement of Relative Bond Energies in Some Ordered Nickel-Based Alloys by Field-Ion Microscopy Phys. Status Solidi A Taunt, R., J., Sinclair, R., Ralph, B. 1973; 16: 469-484
  • On the Determination of a Local Order Parameter in a Nickel-Titanium Alloy Philos. Mag. Sinclair, R., Ralph, B., Leake, J., A. 1973; 28: 1111-1123

Books and Book Chapters


  • Thermochemical Properties and Phase Diagrams in Properties of Metal Silicides Sinclair, R., Madar, R., Setton, M. edited by Maex, K., van Rossum, M. Inst. Elec. Eng’rs, London. 1995: 95 - 152
  • Electron Microscope in 1987 Yearbook of Science and Technology Sinclair, R. McGraw-Hill, New York. 1986: 173-176
  • High Resolution Electron Microscopy in Quantitative Electron Microscopy Sinclair, R. edited by Chapman, J., N., Craven, A., J. SUSSP Publications, Edinburgh. 1984: 341-350
  • Recent Developments in Lattice Imaging of Materials in Annual Reviews of Materials Science Sinclair, R. edited by Huggins, R., A. Annual Reviews, Inc., Palo Alto, California. 1981: 427-439
  • Microanalysis by Lattice Imaging in Analytical Electron Microscopy Sinclair, R. edited by Hren, J., J., Goldstein, J., I., Joy, D., C. Plenum Press, New York. 1979: 507-534
  • Direct Observation and Characterization of Lattice Defects in Materials in Treatise on Materials Science and Technology Sinclair, R. edited by McCrone, R., K. Academic Press, New York. 1977: 1-45
  • Applications of High Resolution Electron Microscopy in Materials Science Report of Workshop on High Resolution Electron Microscopy edited by Thomas, G., Glaeser, R., M., Cowley, J., M. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Special Publication. 1976: 71-79

Conference Proceedings


  • Locating and Characterizing Self-Assembled Gadolinium Chelate Nanoparticles in Stem Cells Using TEM Kempen, P., J., Nejadnik, H., Ye, D., Rutt, B., K., Rao, J., Daldrup-Link, H., E., Sinclair, R. 2013
  • Oxidation Studies of Carbon Nanotubes for Applications as X-Ray Field Emitters Using an Aberration-Corrected, Environmental TEM Sinclair, R. 2013
  • Advanced Characterization Techniques for Nanoparticles for Cancer Research: Applications of SEM and NanoSIMS for Locating Au Nanoparticles in Cells Kempen, P., J., Hitzman, C., Sasportas, L., S., Gambhir, S., S., Sinclair, R. 2013
  • Chracterization of E-Beam Fabricated Gold Nanoparticles Madsen, S., Kempen, P., J., Sinclair, R. 2013
  • NorTEMnet 2013 Workshop on Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy Olsson, E., Sinclair, R., Jaeger, W. 2013
  • Proton Conduction in Epitaxial and Polycrystalline Yttrium-doped Barium Zirconate Thin Films Kim, Y., B., Gür, T., M., Jung, H., J., Kang, S., Prinz, F., B. 2011
  • Scanning Electron Microscopy and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Correlation Studies of Functionalized Composite Organic-Inorganic SERS Nanoparticles on Cancer Cells Koh, A., L., Sinclair, R. 2011

    View details for DOI 10.1557/opi.2011.664.

  • Correlative Microscopy of Tumor Vasculature Kempen, P., J., Smith, B., R., Kircher, M., F., Gambhir, S., S., Sinclair, R. 2011
  • Structural and magnetic characterizations of high moment synthetic antiferromagnetic nanoparticles fabricated using self-assembled stamps Koh, A. L., Hu, W., Wilson, R. J., Earhart, C. M., Wang, S. X., Sinclair, R. AMER INST PHYSICS. 2010

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3358067

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277834300225

  • Utilizing Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy to Locate and Image Raman Active Gold Core Nanoparticles in Mouse Tissue Kempen, P., J., Thakor, A., S., Zavaleta, C., L., Gambhir, S., S., Sinclair, R. 2010
  • TEM Study on PbS Quantum Dots Made by Atomic Layer Deposition and Their Behavior Under E-beam Irradiation Jung, H., J., Dasgupta, N., P., Prinz, F., B., Sinclair, R. 2010
  • Utilizing Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy to Locate and Image Raman Active Gold Core Nanoparticles in Mouse Tissue Kempen, P., J., Thakor, A., S., Zavaleta, C., L., Gambhir, S., S., Sinclair, R. 2010
  • Nanostructural correlation between Co magnetic layer and its Ru seed layer in a PMR medium Hossein-Babaei (Jr.), F., Sinclair, R., Bertero, G., Srinivasan, K. 2010
  • Organic-Inorganic Particles as Labels to Trace Biological Signaling Pathways Koh, A., L., Sinclair, R. 2010
  • Developing Remote Microscopy at a University User Facility Chin, R., Sinclair, R. 2010
  • Electron Energy-Loss Spectrometry (EELS) and Energy-Filtered TEM (EFTEM) Analyses of Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles Koh, A. L., Watanabe, M., Sinclair, R. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. 2009: 432-433
  • In Situ and High Resolution TEM Studies of Nano-scale Materials Sinclair, R., Koh, A. L., Kempen, P. J., Jung, H. J. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. 2009: 1200-1201
  • Formation and properties of magnetic chains for 100nm nanoparticles used in separations of molecules and cells Wilson, R. J., Hu, W., Fu, C. W., Koh, A. L., Gaster, R. S., Earhart, C. M., Fu, A., Heilshorn, S. C., Sinclair, R., Wang, S. X. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2009: 1452-1458

    Abstract

    Optical observations of 100 nm metallic magnetic nanoparticles are used to study their magnetic field induced self assembly. Chains with lengths of tens of microns are observed to form within minutes at nanoparticle concentrations of 10(10) per mL. Chain rotation and magnetophoresis are readily observed, and SEM reveals that long chains are not simple single particle filaments. Similar chains are detected for several 100 nm commercial bio-separation nanoparticles. We demonstrate the staged magnetic condensation of different types of nanoparticles into composite structures and show that magnetic chains bind to immunomagnetically labeled cells, serving as temporary handles which allow novel magnetic cell manipulations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jmmm.2009.02.066

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265278000028

    View details for PubMedID 20161001

  • Synthetic antiferromagnetic nanoparticles with tunable susceptibilities Hu, W., Wilson, R. J., Earhart, C. M., Koh, A. L., Sinclair, R., Wang, S. X. AMER INST PHYSICS. 2009

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3072028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266633500313

  • Direct Microscale Visualization of Targeted Quantum Dot Binding in Multiple Tumor Models of Living Mice using Intravital Microscopy Smith, B., Cheng, Z., Zerda, A., de la, Koh, A., L., Sinclair, R. 2009
  • Electron Microscopy Characterization of Gold-Silica Core-Shell Nanoparticle Raman Labels (Nanoplex™ Biotags) and their Conjugation to Cells Kempen, P., J., Koh, A., L., Zavaleta, C., Hartman, K., Gambhir, S., Sinclair, R. 2009
  • Electron Microscopy Characterization of Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles (COINs) as Raman Labels for Extra-Cellular Analyses Koh, A., L., Shachaf, C., M., Elchuri, S., Nolan, G., P., Sinclair, R. 2008
  • Microstructure and exchange coupling of segregated oxide perpendicular recording media Nolan, T. P., Risner, J. D., Harkness, S. D., Girt, E., Wu, S. Z., Ju, G., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 2007: 639-644
  • TEM Studies of Synthetic Anti-ferromagnetic (SAF) Nanoparticles Koh, A., L., Hu, W., Wilson, R., Wang, S., X., Sinclair, R. 2007
  • Characterization of magnetic nano-particles by high resolution TEM methods Sinclair, R., Li, H., Koh, A. L. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. 2007: 66-67
  • Composition mapping of Co-Pt-Ti-O perpendicular magnetic recording media by simultaneous EDS and EELS spectrum imaging BENTLEY, J., Risner, J. D., Sinclair, R. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. 2007: 158-159
  • TEM Studies of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Cell Labeling and Magnetic Separation Koh, A., L., Sinclair, R. 2007
  • Characterization of Magnetic Nanoparticles by High Resolution TEM Methods Sinclair, R., Li, H., Koh, A., L. 2007
  • Grain Size Distribution in CoCrPtO-based Perpendicular Magnetic Recording Media Hossein-Babaei, F., Kwon, U., Sinclair, R. 2007
  • TEM Observations of Bio-conjugated Streptavidin-Gold Particles Koh, A., L., Sinclair, R. 2007
  • FIB and TEM studies of interface structure in diamond-SiC composites Park, J. S., Sinclair, R., Rowcliffe, D., Stern, M., Davidson, H. SPRINGER. 2006: 4611-4616
  • Information Storage Technology: The Role of the TEM Sinclair, R., Risner, J., Kwon, U. 2006
  • FIB and TEM Studies of Interface Structure in Diamond-SiC Composites Park, J., S., Sinclair, R., Rowcliffe, D., Stern, M., Davidson, H. 2006
  • TEM Studies of Reactions in Thin Films and their Interfaces Sinclair, R. 2006
  • Characterization of AuFe-C Core-shell Nanoparticles Li, H., Dai, H., Xing, L., Sinclair, R. 2006
  • Ru/Ru-oxide interlayers for CoCrPtO perpendicular recording media Kwon, U., Sinclair, R., Velu, E. M., Malhotra, S., Bertero, G. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 2005: 3193-3195
  • Synthesis and Characterization of Fe-C Core-shell Nanoparticles Li, H., Dai, H., Sinclair, R. 2005
  • HRTEM and Nano-probe EDS Studies on the Microstructure of CoCrPtO Perpendicular Recording Media with Ru/Ru-oxide Interlayers Kwon, U., Sinclair, R. 2005
  • High-Resolution Analytical TEM and Energy-Filtered Imaging of CoPt-Oxide Perpendicular Magnetic Recording Media Risner, J., D., Nolan, T., P., Bentley, J., Wu, S., Z., Harkness, S., D., Sinclair, R. 2005
  • High Resolution and Analytical TEM of Cr Grain Boundary Segregation in Co-alloy Longitudinal Hard Disk Magnetic Recording Media Risner, J., Sinclair, R., Bentley, J. 2004
  • Transmission electron microscopy analysis of computer hard disc, magnetic thin films Risner, J., Kwon, U., Park, D. W., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2003: 241-243
  • Characterization for crystallization of SrBi2Nb2O9 thin films on Si substrates Yoo, D. C., Lee, J. Y., Sinclair, R., Kim, I. S., Kim, Y. T. KOREAN PHYSICAL SOC. 2003: S450-S453
  • In Situ HREM of Crystallization Reactions Sinclair, R., Min, K., H. 2002
  • In-Situ Heating Study of Materials Sinclair, R., Min, K., H. 2002
  • Failure Analysis of Ferroelectric RAM Device by Transmission Electron Microscopy Baik, H., S., Park, G., S., Song, S., A., Lee, J., K., Sinclair, R. 2002
  • Reactions in Metal-Carbon Systems Sinclair, R., Itoh, T., Chin, R. 2002
  • TEM Microstructure Studies of Thin Film Magnetic Recording Media Sinclair, R., Kwon, U., Risner, J., D. 2002
  • Grain Size Relationship Between the Magnetic Layer and the Underlayer in CoCrPtTa Recording Media Ma, K., Sinclair, R., Bertero, G., Cao, W. 2001
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy of Computer Hard Disc, Magnetic Thin Films Sinclair, R. edited by Kawaii, T. 2001
  • Quantitative EFTEM of Cr Grain Boundary Segregation in CoCrTa Wittig, J., E., Al-Sharab, J., F., Bentley, J., Evans, N., D., Nolan, T., P., Sinclair, R. 2001
  • Microstructural Characterization of Longitudinal Magnetic Recording Media Sinclair, R., Park, D., W., Habermeier, C., Ma, K. 2001
  • In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of Materials Sinclair, R., Min, K., H. edited by Chen, L., J. 2001
  • Grain size analysis of longitudinal thin film media Park, D. W., Sinclair, R., Lal, B. B., Malhotra, S. S., Russak, M. A. AMER INST PHYSICS. 2000: 5687-5689
  • In Situ HREM of Interface Reactions Sinclair, R. edited by Yoshihara, K. 2000
  • Thermal stability of a Cu/Ta multilayer: An intriguing interfacial reaction Lee, H. J., Kwon, K. W., Ryu, C., Sinclair, R. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 1999: 3965-3975
  • Study of DC plasma oxidized Al2O3 barriers in spin dependent tunneling junctions using high resolution transmission electron microscopy Clark, T. E., Mancoff, F. B., Wang, S. X., Clemens, B. M., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1999: 2922-2924
  • Case study of media noise mechanisms in longitudinal recording Yen, E. T., Wu, S. Z., Thomson, T., Ristau, R., Ranjan, R., Rauch, G. C., Habermeier, C., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1999: 2730-2732
  • Wear-induced modifications of amorphous carbon in the presence of magnetic media Ramirez, A. G., Sinclair, R. AMER INST PHYSICS. 1999: 5597-5599
  • Thermal Stability of the Copper/Tantalum Interfaces in Advanced Microelectronic Metallization Kwon, K., W., Lee, H., J., Sinclair, R. 1999
  • Magnetic Imaging of Recording Media Sinclair, R., Tang, K. 1999
  • Effects of ultra-high vacuum on crystallographic, recording and magnetic properties of thin film media Gao, C., Wu, S., Chen, J. P., Malmhall, R., Habermeier, C., Sinclair, R., Laidler, H., O'Grady, K. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1998: 1576-1578
  • Chromium segregation in CoCrTa/Cr and CoCrPt/Cr thin films for longitudinal recording media Wittig, J. E., Nolan, T. P., Ross, C. A., Schabes, M. E., Tang, K., Sinclair, R., BENTLEY, J. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1998: 1564-1566
  • Chromium Distrubution in CoCrTa/Cr Longitudinal Recording Media Wittig, J., E., Nolan, T., P., Sinclair, R., Bentley, J. 1998
  • Roughness Measurements of Thin SiO2 and poly-Si Interfaces Using High Resolution Cross-Sectional TEM Yamaguchi, M., Sinclair, R., Niwa, M. 1998
  • Wear effects on microstructural features of amorphous-carbon thin films Ramirez, A. G., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 1997: 549-554
  • Magnetic clusters, intergranular exchange interaction and their microstructural basis in thin film longitudinal media Tang, K., Schabes, M. E., Ross, C. A., He, L., Ranjan, R., Yamashita, T., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1997: 4074-4076
  • Nanoroughness effect on Cr growth mechanism Chang, J. J., Chen, Q. X., Chen, G. L., Sinclair, R. AMER INST PHYSICS. 1997: 3943-3945
  • Characterization of Ta as an underlayer for Cu Interconnects Kwon, K., W., Lee, H., J., Ryu, C., Sinclair, R., Wong, S., S. 1997
  • Evolution of bicrystal media development Chang, J. J., Peng, Q. Z., Chen, Q. X., Lin, Z. H., Yen, E., Chen, G. L., Bertram, H. N., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1997: 885-890
  • Applications of TEM for Analysis of Local Failures Occurring During Si Metallization Process Lee, H., J., Sinclair, R. 1997
  • Micromagnetic and Microstructure-Property Relationships in Magnetic Recording Media Sinclair, R., Tang, K., McKinlay, S., E. 1997
  • Structure-Property Relationships in Sputtered Magneto-optic Multilayers Sinclair, R., Bertero, G., A., Visokay, M., R. 1997
  • Diffusion Barrier Stability in ULSI Applications Sinclair, R., Lee, H., J., Kwon, K., W. 1997
  • In Situ HREM of Reactions at Interfaces Sinclair, R., Itoh, T., Lee, H., J., Kwon, K., W. 1997
  • Growth of alpha' nitrogen martensite and Fe16N2 films using (001)silicon substrates Clark, T. E., Visokay, M. R., Zhu, N. C., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1996: 3503-3505
  • Analyses of stacking fault density in Co-alloy thin films by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy Ishikawa, A., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1996: 3605-3607
  • Measurements of crystalline anisotropy on longitudinal media Chang, J. J., Peng, Q. Z., Bertram, H. N., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1996: 4902-4904
  • Microstructure/magnetic property relationships in CoCrPt magnetic thin films McKinlay, S. E., FUSSING, N., Sinclair, R., Doerner, M. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1996: 3587-3589
  • Thin film media with and without bicrystal cluster structure on glass ceramic substrates Chen, Q. X., Chang, J. J., Chen, G. L., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1996: 3599-3601
  • Lorentz transmission electron microscopy study of micromagnetic structures in real computer hard disks Tang, K., Visokay, M. R., Ross, C. A., Ranjan, R., Yamashita, T., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1996: 4130-4132
  • Atomically flat, ultra thin-SiO2/Si(001) interface formation by UHV healing Niwa, M., Okada, K., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1996: 425-430
  • Structural comparisons of ion beam and de magnetron sputtered spin valves by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy Bailey, W. E., Zhu, N. C., Sinclair, R., Wang, S. X. AMER INST PHYSICS. 1996: 6393-6395
  • Magnetic and structural characteristics of sputtered barium ferrite thin films Li, J. S., Rosenbluem, S. S., Hayashi, H., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1996: 157-160
  • Physical characterization of two-dimensional doping profiles for process modeling Alvis, R., Luning, S., Thompson, L., Sinclair, R., Griffin, P. A V S AMER INST PHYSICS. 1996: 231-235
  • Strategies and Opportunities for In-Situ Electron Microscopy Sinclair, R. edited by Munoz, E., M. Rivera 1996
  • A Failure Mechanism of MOCVD TiN Diffusion Barriers at High Temperatures Lee, H., J., Li, P., Roberts, B., Sinclair, R. 1996
  • In Situ Electron and Tunneling Microscopy of Dynamic Processes edited by Sharma, R., Gai, P., L., Gajdardziska-Josifovska, M. 1996
  • KERR ROTATIONS AND ANISOTROPY IN (PT/CO/PT)/X MULTILAYERS Bertero, G. A., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1995: 3337-3342
  • MICROMAGNETIC AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF COPTCR POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN-FILM MEDIA WITH BICRYSTAL MICROSTRUCTURE Peng, Q. S., Bertram, H. N., FUSSING, N., Doerner, M., Mirzamaani, M., Margulies, D., Sinclair, R., Lambert, S. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1995: 2821-2823
  • HIGH-DENSITY RECORDING CHARACTERISTICS OF SPUTTERED BARIUM FERRITE THIN-FILMS Li, J. S., Rosenblum, S. S., NOJIMA, W., Hayashi, H., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1995: 2749-2751
  • STRUCTURE AND CORROSION PROPERTIES OF AL/SI AND FE/ZR MULTILAYERS Nakayama, T., Yamamoto, K., Satoh, H., Konno, T. J., Clemens, B. M., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 1995: 19-24
  • HREM of Ultra-thin Oxides Sinclair, R., Niwa, M., Kouzaki, T. 1995
  • In Situ TEM Study of Reactions in Iron/Amorphous Carbon Layered Thin Films Itoh, T., Sinclair, R. 1995
  • (Pt/Co/Pt)/X Multilayer Thin Films for Magneto-Optic Media Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R. 1995
  • Study of Diffusion Barrier Performance of MOCVD-TiN Lee, H., J., Sinclair, R., Roberts, B., E., Jackson, R. 1995
  • TEM study of Crystallization of a-SiC in Contact with Silver Zhu, N., C., Sinclair, R. 1995
  • In Situ Electron Microscopy and its Application to Semiconductor Reactions at High Resolution Sinclair, R. 1995
  • Interface Reaction Enhanced Epitaxial Growth of Barium Ferrite Magnetic Thin Films Li, J., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S., S., Hayashi, H. 1995
  • Formation of Epitaxial (001) Ordered FePd Films from Multilayer Precursors Visokay, M., R., Lairson, B., M., Clemens, B., M., Sinclair, R. 1995
  • Crystallization in metal-metalloid multilayers Sinclair, R., Konno, T. J., Itoh, T., Zhu, N. C. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1995: 3-8
  • Microstructural, Magnetic and Magneto-Optical Properties of (100) and (111) Oriented Thick ‘FCC’ Cobalt Single Crystal Ozkan, M., Suzuki, T., Miller, D., Kellock, A., Chang, C., A., Sinclair, R. 1995
  • IN-SITU HREM - APPLICATION TO METAL-MEDIATED CRYSTALLIZATION Sinclair, R., Konno, T. J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1994: 225-232
  • TEMPERATURE AND ORIENTATION EFFECTS ON THE MAGNETIC-PROPERTIES OF DOPED BARIUM FERRITE THIN-FILMS Li, J. S., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S. S., Hayashi, H. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1994: 4050-4052
  • LONGITUDINAL RECORDING PERFORMANCE OF SPUTTERED BARIUM FERRITE MEDIA ON A CARBON RIGID DISK SUBSTRATE Rosenblum, S. S., Hayashi, H., Li, J. S., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1994: 4047-4049
  • FORMATION OF EPITAXIAL FERROMAGNETIC INTERMETALLICS BY SOLID-STATE REACTION OF EPITAXIAL MULTILAYERS Clemens, B. M., Lairson, B. M., VISOKAY, M., Artymowicz, D., Sinclair, R. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 1994: 518-INOR
  • NOISE PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF ORIENTED COCRTA/CR MEDIA Ranjan, R., BENNETT, W. R., Tarnopolsky, G. J., Yamashita, T., Nolan, T., Sinclair, R. AMER INST PHYSICS. 1994: 6144-6146
  • METAL-CONTACT-INDUCED CRYSTALLIZATION OF SEMICONDUCTORS Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 1994: 426-432
  • CRYSTALLIZATION OF CO-SPUTTERED AMORPHOUS COBALT-CARBON ALLOYS - MORPHOLOGY AND KINETICS OF SPHERULITIC GROWTH Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 1994: 297-302
  • ATOMIC-ORDER PLANARIZATION OF ULTRATHIN SIO2/SI(001) INTERFACES Niwa, M., Kouzaki, T., Okada, K., Udagawa, M., Sinclair, R. JAPAN SOC APPLIED PHYSICS. 1994: 388-394
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy of MOCVD Titanium Nitride Films Itoh, T., Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R., M. Raaijmakers, I., J.M., Roberts, B., E. 1994
  • Polycrystalline Thin Films-Structure, Texture, Properties and Applications edited by Barmak, K., Parker, M., A., Floro, J., F. 1994
  • Effect of Interlayers Upon Texture and Magnetic Properties in Co Alloy Multilayers for Longitudinal Magnetic Recording Visokay, M., R., Kuwabara, M., Saffari, H., Hayashi, H., Sinclair, R., Onishi, Y. 1994
  • Nickel Mediated Transformation of Amorphous Carbon to Graphite Itoh, T., Sinclair, R. 1994
  • In-Situ TEM Observation of Interfacial Reactions in the Zr/Si System Tanaka, H., Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1994
  • Microscopic Interfacial Phenomena During Solid Phase Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon Thin Films: In-Situ CTEM and HREM Studies Guillemet, J., P., de Mauduit, B., Peiraggi, B., Sinclair, R., Konno, T., J. 1994
  • TEM and In Situ HREM for Studying Metal-Semiconductor Interfacial Reactions Sinclair, R., Konno, T., J., Ko, D., H. edited by Limoge, Y., Bocquet, J., L. 1994
  • Correlation of Micro-structural, Micro-chemical and Micro-magnetic Properties of Longitudinal Recording Media Using CM20 FEG Lorentz TEM Nolan, T., P., Sinclair, R., Yamashita, T., Ranjan, R. 1994
  • Effects of Substrate Temperature on Magnetic and Crystallographic Properties of Co-Cr-Pt/Cr Films Deposited by Laser Ablation Method Ishikawa, A., Shiroishi, Y., Sinclair, R. 1994
  • Atomically Layered Structures for Magnetic Information Storage Lairson, B., M., Visokay, M., R., Sinclair, R., Brennan, S., N., Clemens, B., M. 1994
  • Characterization of Sputtered Magnetic Barium-Ferrite Thin Films on Silicon Nitride Coated High Density Amorphous Carbon Substrates Li, J., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S., S., Hayashi, H. 1994
  • In Situ HREM of Phase Reactions Sinclair, R., Konno, T., J., Ko, D., H. 1994
  • Reactions at Semiconductor Metal Interfaces Sinclair, R., Konno, T., J., Ko, D., H. 1994
  • On The Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy of Co/Pt Multilayers: Structure-Property Relationships Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R. 1994
  • Observation of Ferroelectric Domain Walls in KTP by HREM Snoeck, E., Sinclair, R. 1994
  • ³Roughness Control and Electrical Properties of SiO/Si (001) Interfaces Niwa, M., Okada, K., Kouzaki, T., Sinclair, R. 1994
  • EPITAXIAL PTFE AND PTCO(001) THIN-FILMS WITH PERPENDICULAR MAGNETIC-ANISOTROPY Lairson, B. M., Visokay, M. R., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B. M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1993: 577-579
  • ANNEALING EFFECT ON STRUCTURE OF FE/ZR MULTILAYERS Yamamoto, K., Nakayama, T., Satoh, H., Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1993: 128-130
  • STRUCTURE AND CORROSION PROPERTIES OF AL/SI MULTILAYERS Nakayama, T., Konno, T. J., Satoh, H., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1993: 167-169
  • INFLUENCE OF INTERFACIAL DOPING WITH RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS ON THE MAGNETIC-PROPERTIES OF SELECTED CO/PT MULTILAYERS Bertero, G. A., Sinclair, R., White, R. L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1993: 275-278
  • MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MAGNETIC FE/PT MULTILAYER THIN-FILMS BY TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY Visokay, M. R., Lairson, B. M., Clemens, B. M., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1993: 136-140
  • STRUCTURE AND CORROSION PROPERTIES OF FE/ZR MULTILAYERS Nakayama, T., Satoh, H., Konno, T. J., Clemens, B. M., Stevenson, D. A., Sinclair, R., HAGSTROM, S. B. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1993: 105-107
  • ANNEALING OF METAL METALLOID MULTILAYERS STUDIED BY IN-SITU ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY Sinclair, R., Konno, T. J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1993: 108-112
  • DIRECT OBSERVATION OF CRYSTALLIZATION IN SILICON BY IN-SITU HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY Sinclair, R., Morgiel, J., KIRTIKAR, A. S., Wu, I. W., Chiang, A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1993: 41-45
  • EFFECT OF MICROSTRUCTURAL FEATURES ON MEDIA NOISE IN LONGITUDINAL RECORDING MEDIA Nolan, T. P., Sinclair, R., Ranjan, R., Yamashita, T. AMER INST PHYSICS. 1993: 5566-5568
  • TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF MICROSTRUCTURAL FEATURES IN MAGNETIC RECORDING MEDIA Nolan, T. P., Sinclair, R., Ranjan, R., Yamashita, T. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1993: 292-299
  • Atomic-Order Planarization of Ultra-Thin SiO2/Si (001) Interfaces Niwa, M., Kouzaki, T., Okada, K., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • Application of High Resolution Electron Microscopy to the Study of Magnetic Thin Films and Multilayers Sinclair, R., Nolan, T., P., Bertero, G., A., Visokay, M., R. 1993
  • Deposition of Barium Ferrite Thin Films by RF Off-Axis Magnetron Sputtering Li, J., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S., S., Hayashi, H. 1993
  • Reactions at the Ti-Si Interface Studied Using Hot Stage TEM Kirtikar, A., S., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy of Epitaxial Fe/Pt Multilayers Visokay, M., R., Lairson, B., M., Clemens, B., M., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • Real Time Lattice Imaging of Crystallization in Amorphous Silicon Morgiel, J., Wu, I., W., Chiang, A., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • Reactions in Metal-Metalloid Multilayers Sinclair, R., Konna, T., J. 1993
  • Magnetic Properties and Crystallography of Selected Co/Pt Multilayers with Rare-Earth Doped Interface Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • Magnetic and Magneto-Optic Properties of PtFe(001) and PtCo(001) Thin Films Lairson, B., M., Visokay, M., R., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B., M. 1993
  • Structural Properties of Uniaxial Tetragonal PtCo(001) and PtFe(001) Thin Films on MgO(001) Lairson, B., M., Visokay, M., R., Sinclair, R., Brennan, S., M., Clemens, B., M. 1993
  • Evolution of Gd Thin Film Structure Due to Amorphization by Co-Deposition Hufnagel, T., C., Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B., M. 1993
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of PtCo(001) and PtFe(001) Films Formed from Epitaxial Pt/Co and Pt/Fe Multilayers Visokay, M., R., Lairson, B., M., Clemens, B., M., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • Grain Separation Enhanced Magnetic Coercivity in Pt/Co Multilayers Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • A Solid State Electrochemical Technique to Study Barium Ferrite Thermodynamic Stability Li, J., Gur, T., M., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S., S., Hayashi, H. 1993
  • Crystallization of Amorphous Germanium in Silver-Germanium Layered Systems Konno, J., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • In-Situ High Resolution Electron Microscopy of Metal-Contact Induced Crystallization of Semiconductors Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • Direct Solid State Phase Transformation from Co to Epitaxial CoSi in Co/Thin Ti/(100) Si Structure and its Application for Shallow Junction Formation Ogawa, S., Fair, J., A., Kouzaki, T., Sinclair, R., Jones, E., C., Cheung, N., W. 1993
  • Production of c-Axis Oriented PtFe Thin Film with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy Lairson, B., M., Visokay, M., R., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B., M. 1993
  • In Situ HREM of Interface Reactions Sinclair, R., Konno, T., J. 1993
  • Structure and Magnetic Properties of Fe/Zr Multilayer Films Konno, T., J., Nakayama, T., Clemens, B., M., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • Reaction and Stability at VLSI Contact Interfaces Ogawa, S., Sinclair, R. 1992
  • Study of Semiconductor Metallization Problems by High Resolution Electron Microscopy and Thermodynamic Analysis Sinclair, R. 1992
  • Two-Step Martensitic Transformations in TiNi (10% Cu) Shape Memory Alloys Moberly, W., J., Duerig, T., W., Proft, J., L., Sinclair, R. 1992
  • Reactions at Solid Interfaces Sinclair, R., Ko, D., H., Konno, T., J., Nolan, T., P. 1992
  • Crystallization of Amorphous Si in Al/Si Multilayers Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1992
  • Amorphous Phase Formation and the Initial Reactions at Pt/GaAs Interfaces Ko, D., H., Sinclair, R. 1992
  • A Highly Reliable Sub-Half Micron Via and Interconnect Technology Using Al Alloy High-Temperature Sputter Filling Nishimura, H., Yamada, T., Sinclair, R., Ogawa, S. 1992
  • Reaction and Stability at ULSI Circuit Interfaces Sinclair, R., Ogawa, S. 1992
  • Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon-Aluminum Thin Films: In-Situ Observation and Thermal Analysis Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1992
  • METASTABLE AND EQUILIBRIUM DEFECT STRUCTURE OF II-VI/GAAS INTERFACES Schwartzman, A. F., Sinclair, R. MINERALS METALS MATERIALS SOC. 1991: 805-814
  • Reaction and Stability at Material Interfaces Sinclair, R. 1991
  • Structure and Thermodynamics of Amorphous Titanium-Silicon Produced by Solid- State Interdiffusion Holloway, K., Moine, P., Delage, J.,  , Bormann, R., Sinclair, R., Capuano, L. 1991
  • Amorphous-Phase Formation and Initial Reactions at Pt/GaAs Interfaces Ko, D., H., Sinclair, R. 1991
  • An In Situ HREM Study of Crystal Nucleation in Amorphous Silicon Thin Films Kirtikar, A., S., Morgiel, J., Sinclair, R., Wu, I., W., Chiang, A. 1991
  • Evidence for a Grain Boundary Grooving Model of Agglomeration in Polycrystalline TiSi2 Thin Films Nolan, T., Beyers, R., Sinclair, R. 1991
  • Crystallization of Amorphous Si in Si/Al Multilayers Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1991
  • In Situ Heating Studies at High Resolution Sinclair, R. 1991
  • SIO2/SI INTERFACES STUDIED BY STM AND HRTEM .2. Niwa, M., Onoda, M., Matsumoto, M., Iwasaki, H., Sinclair, R. JAPAN J APPLIED PHYSICS. 1990: 2665-2670
  • PHASE REACTIONS AT SEMICONDUCTOR METALLIZATION INTERFACES BHANSALI, A. S., Ko, D. H., Sinclair, R. MINERALS METALS MATERIALS SOC. 1990: 1171-1175
  • HRTEM and Nano-scale Microanalysis of the Titanium/Silicon Interfacial Reaction Correlated with Electrical Properties Ogawa, S., Kouzaki, T., Yoshida, T.,  , Sinclair, R. 1990
  • In Situ HREM Observations of Crystallization in LPCVD Amorphous Silicon Morgiel, J., Wu, I., W., Chiang, A.,  , Sinclair, R. 1990
  • Structure of the Ti-Single Crystal Si Interface Ogawa, S., Kouzaki, T., Yoshida, T., Sinclair, R. 1990
  • Thermodynamic Stability of PtAl Thin Films on GaAs Ko, D., H., Sinclair, R. 1990
  • Characterization of Metal Silicide/Silicon Interfaces Sinclair, R. 1990
  • A Phase Diagram Approach for Predicting Reactions in Al/TiW (-Nitride) Thin-Film Systems Bhansali, A., S., M. Raaijmakers, I., J.M., Sinclair, R., Morgan, A., E., Burrow, B., J., Arst, M. 1990
  • Microstructure-Property Studies for Semiconductor Interfaces Using High- Resolution Electron Microscopy Sinclair, R. edited by Craighead, H., G. , Gibson, J., M. 1990
  • Twinning in Ternary Ti50Ni(50-x)Mx Alloys Moberly, W., J., Sinclair, R., Duerig, T., W. 1990
  • High Resolution Electron Microscopy of Defects in Materials edited by Sinclair, R., Smith, D., J., Dahmen, U. 1990
  • SiO2/Si Interfaces Studied by STM and HRTEM Niwa, M., Onoda, M., Iwasaki, H., Sinclair, R. 1990
  • In Situ High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Sinclair, R. 1990
  • Mechanical Twinning and Plasticity in Ti-Ni-Fe(3%) Moberly, W., J., Duerig, T., W., Proft, J., L. , Sinclair, R. edited by Muddle, B., C. 1990
  • Twinless Martensite in TiNiCu Shape Memory Alloys Moberly, W., J., Duerig, T., W., Proft, J., L. , Sinclair, R. 1989
  • Structure and Reaction at Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces Sinclair, R., Ogawa, S. 1989
  • Reactions at Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces Sinclair, R. 1989
  • Quaternary Phase Equilibria in the Ti-Si-N-O System: Stability of Metallization Layers and Prediction of Thin Film Reactions Bhansali, A., S., Sinclair, R. 1989
  • HREM In Situ Annealing of the CdTe/GaAs Heterojunction Schwartzman, A., F., Sinclair, R. 1989
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy and High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy of Co-Ni-Pt Thin Film Magnetic Recording Media Chan, L., Yamashita, T., Sinclair, R. 1989
  • Phase Equilibria at Semiconductor Interfaces Sinclair, R., Bhansali, A., S., Schwartzman, A., F. edited by Smith, F., W. 1989
  • In Situ Annealing Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Study of Ti/GaAs and Ni/GaAs Interfacial Reactions Kim, K., B., Sinclair, R. 1989
  • In Situ High Resolution Electron Microscopy Sinclair, R. 1989
  • PHASE-DIAGRAMS IN SEMICONDUCTOR METALLIZATION Sinclair, R. MINERALS METALS MATERIALS SOC. 1988: 44-44
  • Microstructures of Polysilicon Sinclair, R., Carim, A., H., Morgiel, J., Bravman, J., C. 1988
  • In-Situ and High-Resolution TEM Observation of Interfacial Reactions in Metal- Silicon Multilayers Holloway, K., Do, K., B., Sinclair, R. 1988
  • PHASE-DIAGRAMS AND INSITU HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY OF METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR SYSTEMS Kim, K. B., Bhansali, A., Holloway, K. C., Sinclair, R. MINERALS METALS MATERIALS SOC. 1987: A7-A8
  • In Situ High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Interface Studies Parker, M., A., Sinclair, R. 1987
  • Interfacial Reactions in Titanium-Silicon Multilayers Holloway, K., Sinclair, R. 1987
  • Characterization of Defects in Materials edited by Siegel, R., W., Weertman, J., R., Sinclair, R. 1987
  • Crystalline-To-Amorphous Transitions in Ti-Ni Alloys Pelton, A., R., Moine, P., Noak, M., A., Sinclair, R. 1986
  • The Evolution of Si/SiO Interface Roughness Carim, A., H., Sinclair, R. edited by Huff, H., R., Abe, T., Kolbesen, B. 1986
  • In Situ HREM and HVEM Studies of Silicon Epitaxial Regrowth Parker, M., A. , Sinclair, R. 1986
  • Characterization of Emitter-Collector Shorts by Anodization, Voltage Contrast SEM and TEM Carim, A., H., Sinclair, R., Stacy, W., T. 1985
  • In-Situ High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy of Dynamic Events During the Amorphous to Crystalline Phase Transformation in Silicon Parker, M., A., Sigmon, T., W., Sinclair, R. 1985
  • Morphological Studies of Polysilicon Emitter Contacts Bravman, J., C., Patton, G., L., Sinclair, R., Plummer, J., D. 1985
  • Silicon on Sapphire of Single Crystal Quality Obtained by Double Solid Phase Expitaxial Regrowth Parker, M., A., Sigmon, T., W., Sinclair, R. 1985
  • Direct Observation of Defect Motion in Silicon By High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Parker, M., A., Sinclair, R. 1985
  • Structural Determination of Amorphous Ti-Ni Alloys Pelton, A., R., Moine, P., Sinclair, R. 1984
  • The Morphology of the Polysilicon-SiO2 Interface Bravman, J., C., Sinclair, R. 1984
  • Defect Structure of WC Deformed at Room and High Temperatures Hibbs, M., K., Rowcliffe, D., J., Sinclair, R. edited by Viswanathan, R., K., Rowcliffe, D., J., Gurland, J. 1983
  • Lattice Imaging of CdS/CdTe Solar Cell Interface Yamashita, T., Werthen, J., G., Bube, R., H., Sinclair, R. edited by Bailey, G., W. 1983
  • HREM of Interfaces and Defects in Semiconductors Sinclair, R. 1983
  • Observation of Dislocation Reactions in CdTe at Lattice Resolution Yamashita, T., Sinclair, R. 1983
  • High Voltage High Resolution Electron Microscopy of Compound Semiconductors Sinclair, R., Ponce, F., A., Yamashita, T., Smith, David, J. 1983
  • Microstructural Characterization of Deformation and Precipitation in (W, Ti)C Shinde, S., L., Jayaram, V., Sinclair, R. edited by Viswanathan, R., K., Rowcliffe, D., J., Gurland, J. 1983
  • High Resolution Electron Microscopy II-VI Compound Semiconductors Sinclair, R., Ponce, F., A., Yamashita, T., Smith, David, J. 1983
  • Lattice Resolution Movie of Defect Modification in Cadmium Telluride Sinclair, R., Smith, D., J., Erasmus, S., J., Ponce, F., A. 1982
  • The Effect of Oxygen in Cosputtered (Titanium + Silicon) Films Beyers, R., Sinclair, R., Thomas, M., E. edited by Corbett, J., W., Mahajan, S. 1982
  • Applications of the 2 1/2 D TEM Technique Sinclair, R. 1982
  • Dynamic Observation of Atomic-Level Events in Cadmium Telluride by High Resolution TEM Yamashita, T., Sinclair, R. edited by Corbett, J., W., Mahajan, S. 1982
  • The Premartensitic State in TiNi Sinclair, R., Moine, P., Michal, G., M. 1981
  • High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy of Semiconductor Materials Sinclair, R., Ponce, F., A., Bravman, J., C., Yamashita, T., Pirouz, P. 1981
  • Imaging of Defects in Cadmium Telluride Using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Ponce, F., A., Yamashita, T., Bube, R., H., Sinclair, R. edited by Narayan, J., Tan, T., Y. 1981
  • High Resolution Imaging of Semiconductor Interfaces Sinclair, R., Ponce, F., A., Yamashita, T., Bravman, J., C. 1981
  • Chemical and Microstructural Analyses of Grain Boundaries in BaTiO-Based Dielectrics Mecartney, M., L., Sinclair, R., Ewell, G., J. edited by Levinson, L., M. 1981
  • Physical Properties of Ion-Implanted SEM-Annealed Silicon Regolini, J., L., Johnson, N., M., Sinclair, R., Sigmon, T., W., Gibbons, J., F. edited by White, C., W., Percey, P., S. 1980
  • Analytical Electron Microscopy of Ferroelectric BaTiO3 Mecartney, M., L., Sinclair, R. 1980
  • A Transmission Electron Microscopical Investigation of Phase Transformations in TiNi Moine, P., Michal, G., M., Sinclair, R. 1980
  • Defect Structure of Deformed WC Hibbs, M., K., Sinclair, R. 1980
  • Structure Imaging of Defects in Cadmium Telluride Ponce, F., Yamashita, T., Sinclair, R. 1980
  • Combined High Resolution and Analytical TEM Studies of Phase-Separated Alloys Wu, C., K., Marshall, A., F., Thomas, G., Sinclair, R. 1980
  • High Resolution Imaging of Cadmium Telluride Sinclair, R., Ponce, F., Yamashita, T., Pirouz, P. 1980
  • Lattice Fringe Imaging of Alloys Sinclair, R. 1979
  • In-Situ Observations of Diffusionless Transformations in NiTi Michal, G., M., Sinclair, R. 1979
  • Growth Relationships in NbSn-Cu Superconducting Composites Sinclair, R. edited by Kuhlman-Wilsdorf, D., Harrigan, W., C. 1979
  • Origin of Stacking Faults in NiTi Martensite Sinclair, R. edited by Cowley, J., M., Cohen, J., B., Salamon, M., B. 1979
  • Aspects of Microanalysis in a TEM Sinclair, R., Jacobson, B., E. 1978
  • Applications of Lattice Fringe Imaging Sinclair, R. 1978
  • Modulated Substitutional-Intersitial Solute-Atom Clustering in Nitrided Austenitic Fe-34 Ni-V Alloys Driver, J., H., Sinclair, R., Jack, K., H. 1978
  • Fine Structure of Interfaces as Revealed by Lattice Fringe Imaging Sinclair, R. 1977
  • Preliminary Observations of Electron Irradiation Damage in Short-Range Ordered Ni4Mo Sinclair, R., Gelles, D., S., Thomas, G. 1976
  • Applications of High Resolution Electron Microscopy in Materials Science edited by Thomas, G., Glaeser, R., M., Cowley, J., M. 1976
  • Applications of High Resolution Electron Microscopy in Materials Science edited by Thomas, G., Glaeser, R., M., Cowley, J., M. 1976
  • Lattice Image and Optical Diffraction Studies of Alloys Thomas, G., Sinclair, R., Gronsky, R. 1976
  • Optical Microdiffraction in Lattice Image Analysis Gronsky, R., Sinclair, R., Thomas, G. 1976
  • Studies of Atomic Scattering Factors from the Critical Voltage in Ordered Alloys: Applications to Cu3Au Rocher, A., Sinclair, R., Thomas, G. 1975
  • Lattice Image Studies of Ordered Alloys Sinclair, R., Dutkiewicz, J. 1975
  • Lattice Imaging of Spinodal Alloys Gronsky, R., Okada, M., Sinclair, R., Thomas, G. 1975
  • Lattice Image Contrast of Ordered Domains in CuAu Sinclair, R., Thomas, G. 1974
  • Lattice Imaging of Ordered Alloys Sinclair, R., Scheider, K., Thomas, G. 1974
  • A New 1000C Double Tilt Stage for the Hitachi 650 kV Microscope Worthington, W., Kosel, T., Sinclair, R. 1974
  • High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Sinclair, R. 1973