Bio


Using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Sinclair studies microelectronic and magnetic thin film microstructure.

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • First Prize, Modern Metallography Micrograph Competition (1972)
  • First Prize, Physical Science, Electron Microscopy Society of America Scientific Exhibit (1975, 1976)
  • Robert Lansing Hardy Gold Medal, The Metallurgical Society of AIME (1976)
  • Eli Franklin Burton Award, Electron Microscopy Society of America (1977)
  • Fellowship, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (1979)
  • Marcus E. Grossman Award, American Society for Metals (1982)
  • Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching, Stanford University Society for Black Scientists and Engineers (1984)
  • Member, Stanford Society of Chicano/Latino Engineers and Scientists (1993)
  • Yamaha Prize for Best Poster, 1st International Conference on Metallic Multilayers, Kyoto (1993)

Professional Education


  • BA, Cambridge University, Materials Science (1968)
  • MA, Cambridge University, Materials Science (1972)
  • PhD, Cambridge University, Materials Science (1972)

2018-19 Courses


All Publications


  • Visualizing Facet-Dependent Hydrogenation Dynamics in Individual Palladium Nanoparticles. Nano letters Sytwu, K., Hayee, F., Narayan, T. C., Koh, A. L., Sinclair, R., Dionne, J. A. 2018

    Abstract

    Surface faceting in nanoparticles can profoundly impact the rate and selectivity of chemical transformations. However, the precise role of surface termination can be challenging to elucidate because many measurements are performed on ensembles of particles and do not have sufficient spatial resolution to observe reactions at the single and subparticle level. Here, we investigate solute intercalation in individual palladium hydride nanoparticles with distinct surface terminations. Using a combination of diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and dark-field contrast in an environmental transmission electron microscope (TEM), we compare the thermodynamics and directly visualize the kinetics of 40-70 nm {100}-terminated cubes and {111}-terminated octahedra with approximately 2 nm spatial resolution. Despite their distinct surface terminations, both particle morphologies nucleate the new phase at the tips of the particle. However, whereas the hydrogenated phase-front must rotate from [111] to [100] to propagate in cubes, the phase-front can propagate along the [100], [110], and [111] directions in octahedra. Once the phase-front is established, the interface propagates linearly with time and is rate-limited by surface-to-subsurface diffusion and/or the atomic rearrangements needed to accommodate lattice strain. Following nucleation, both particle morphologies take approximately the same time to reach equilibrium, hydrogenating at similar pressures and without equilibrium phase coexistence. Our results highlight the importance of low-coordination number sites and strain, more so than surface faceting, in governing solute-driven reactions.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b00736

    View details for PubMedID 30148640

  • Synthesis, characterization and light-induced spatial charge separation in Janus graphene oxide Holm, A., Park, J., Goodman, E., Zhang, J., Sinclair, R., Cargnello, M., Frank, C. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2018
  • In-situ observation of plasmon-driven hydrogenation reactions within Au@Pd coreshell nanoparticles Sytwu, K., Vadai, M., Hayee, F., Koh, A., Sinclair, R., Dionne, J. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2018
  • Rapid flame doping of Co to WS2 for efficient hydrogen evolution ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Shi, X., Fields, M., Park, J., McEnaney, J. M., Yan, H., Zhang, Y., Tsai, C., Jaramillo, T. F., Sinclair, R., Norskov, J. K., Zheng, X. 2018; 11 (8): 2270–77

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c8ee01111g

    View details for Web of Science ID 000442262900035

  • Designing Boron Nitride Islands in Carbon Materials for Efficient Electrochemical Synthesis of Hydrogen Peroxide. Journal of the American Chemical Society Chen, S., Chen, Z., Siahrostami, S., Higgins, D., Nordlund, D., Sokaras, D., Kim, T. R., Liu, Y., Yan, X., Nilsson, E., Sinclair, R., Norskov, J. K., Jaramillo, T. F., Bao, Z. 2018; 140 (25): 7851–59

    Abstract

    Heteroatom-doped carbons have drawn increasing research interest as catalysts for various electrochemical reactions due to their unique electronic and surface structures. In particular, co-doping of carbon with boron and nitrogen has been shown to provide significant catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, limited experimental work has been done to systematically study these materials, and much remains to be understood about the nature of the active site(s), particularly with regards to the factors underlying the activity enhancements of these boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) materials. Herein, we prepare several BCN materials experimentally with a facile and controlled synthesis method, and systematically study their electrochemical performance. We demonstrate the existence of h-BN domains embedded in the graphitic structures of these materials using X-ray spectroscopy. These synthesized structures yield higher activity and selectivity toward the 2e- ORR to H2O2 than structures with individual B or N doping. We further employ density functional theory calculations to understand the role of a variety of h-BN domains within the carbon lattice for the ORR and find that the interface between h-BN domains and graphene exhibits unique catalytic behavior that can preferentially drive the production of H2O2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of h-BN domains in carbon identified as a novel system for the electrochemical production of H2O2.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jacs.8b02798

    View details for PubMedID 29874062

  • Atomic and Molecular Layer Deposition of Hybrid Mo-Thiolate Thin Films with Enhanced Catalytic Activity ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS MacIsaac, C., Schneider, J. R., Closser, R. G., Hellstern, T. R., Bergsman, D. S., Park, J., Liu, Y., Sinclair, R., Bent, S. F. 2018; 28 (26)
  • Synthesis, Characterization, and Light-Induced Spatial Charge Separation in Janus Graphene Oxide CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS Holm, A., Park, J., Goodman, E. D., Zhang, J., Sinclair, R., Cargnello, M., Frank, C. W. 2018; 30 (6): 2084–92
  • Deformable Organic Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors ADVANCED MATERIALS Lee, Y., Oh, J., Kim, T., Gu, X., Kim, Y., Wang, G., Wu, H., Pfattner, R., To, J. F., Katsumata, T., Son, D., Kang, J., Matthews, J. R., Niu, W., He, M., Sinclair, R., Cui, Y., Tok, J., Lee, T., Bao, Z. 2018; 30 (7)
  • Anti-Hermitian photodetector facilitating efficient subwavelength photon sorting NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Kim, S., Kang, J., Mutlu, M., Park, J., Park, W., Goodson, K. E., Sinclair, R., Fan, S., Kik, P. G., Brongersma, M. L. 2018; 9: 316

    Abstract

    The ability to split an incident light beam into separate wavelength bands is central to a diverse set of optical applications, including imaging, biosensing, communication, photocatalysis, and photovoltaics. Entirely new opportunities are currently emerging with the recently demonstrated possibility to spectrally split light at a subwavelength scale with optical antennas. Unfortunately, such small structures offer limited spectral control and are hard to exploit in optoelectronic devices. Here, we overcome both challenges and demonstrate how within a single-layer metafilm one can laterally sort photons of different wavelengths below the free-space diffraction limit and extract a useful photocurrent. This chipscale demonstration of anti-Hermitian coupling between resonant photodetector elements also facilitates near-unity photon-sorting efficiencies, near-unity absorption, and a narrow spectral response (∼ 30 nm) for the different wavelength channels. This work opens up entirely new design paradigms for image sensors and energy harvesting systems in which the active elements both sort and detect photons.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-017-02496-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000422915700011

    View details for PubMedID 29358626

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5778063

  • Tumor Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicle-Coated Nanocarriers: An Efficient Theranostic Platform for the Cancer-Specific Delivery of Anti-miR-21 and Imaging Agents. ACS nano Jc Bose, R., Uday Kumar, S., Zeng, Y., Afjei, R., Robinson, E., Lau, K., Bermudez, A., Habte, F., Pitteri, S. J., Sinclair, R., Willmann, J. K., Massoud, T. F., Gambhir, S. S., Paulmurugan, R. 2018

    Abstract

    MicroRNAs are critical regulators of cancer initiation, progression, and dissemination. Extensive evidence suggests that the inhibition of over-expressed oncogenic miRNA function can be a robust strategy for anticancer therapy. However, in vivo targeted delivery of miRNA therapeutics to various types of cancers remains a major challenge. Inspired by their natural synthesis and cargo delivery capabilities, researchers have exploited tumor cell-derived extracellular vesicles (TEVs) for the cancer-targeted delivery of therapeutics and theranostics. Here, we investigate a TEV-based nanoplatform for multimodal miRNA delivery and phototherapy treatments as well as the magnetic resonance imaging of cancer. We demonstrated loading of anti-miR-21 that blocks the function of endogenous oncogenic miR-21 over-expressed in cancer cells into and subsequent delivery by TEVs derived from 4T1 cells. We also produced Cy5-anti-miR-21-loaded TEVs from two other cancer cell lines (HepG2 and SKBR3) and confirmed their robust homologous and heterologous transfection efficiency and intracellular Cy5-anti-miR-21 delivery. Additionally, TEV-mediated anti-miR-21 delivery attenuated doxorubicin (DOX) resistance in breast cancer cells with a 3-fold higher cell kill efficiency than in cells treated with DOX alone. We then investigated TEVs as a biomimetic source for the functionalization of gold-iron oxide nanoparticles (GIONs) and demonstrated nanotheranostic properties of TEV-GIONs in vitro. TEV-GIONs demonstrated excellent T2 contrast in in vitro magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and resulted in efficient photothermal effect in 4T1 cells. We also evaluated the biodistribution and theranostic property of anti-miR-21 loaded TEV-GIONs in vivo by labeling with indocyanine green near-infrared dye. We further validated the tumor specific accumulation of TEV-GIONs using MR imaging. Our findings demonstrate that the distribution pattern of the TEV-anti-miR-21-GIONs correlated well with the tumor-targeting capability as well as the activity and efficacy obtained in response to doxorubicin combination treatments. TEVs and TEV-GIONs are promising nanotheranostics for future applications in cancer molecular imaging and therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsnano.8b02587

    View details for PubMedID 30346694

  • Correlative Magnetic Imaging of Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording Media in Cross Section Using Lorentz TEM and MFM IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS Kim, T., Phatak, C., Petford-Long, A. K., Liu, Y., Taylor, C., Zhang, B., Myers, S., Greene, A., Seki, T., Alex, M., Bertero, G. A., Sinclair, R. 2018; 54 (1)
  • Defective Carbon-Based Materials for the Electrochemical Synthesis of Hydrogen Peroxide ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING Chen, S., Chen, Z., Siahrostami, S., Kim, T., Nordlund, D., Sokaras, D., Nowak, S., To, J. F., Higgins, D., Sinclair, R., Norskov, J. K., Jaramillo, T. F., Bao, Z. 2018; 6 (1): 311–17
  • In-situ visualization of solute-driven phase coexistence within individual nanorods. Nature communications Hayee, F., Narayan, T. C., Nadkarni, N., Baldi, A., Koh, A. L., Bazant, M. Z., Sinclair, R., Dionne, J. A. 2018; 9 (1): 1775

    Abstract

    Nanorods are promising components of energy and information storage devices that rely on solute-driven phase transformations, due to their large surface-to-volume ratio and ability to accommodate strain. Here we investigate the hydrogen-induced phase transition in individual penta-twinned palladium nanorods of varying aspect ratios with ~3 nm spatial resolution to understand the correlation between nanorod structure and thermodynamics. We find that the hydrogenated phase preferentially nucleates at the rod tips, progressing along the length of the nanorods with increasing hydrogen pressure. While nucleation pressure is nearly constant for all lengths, the number of phase boundaries is length-dependent, with stable phase coexistence always occurring for rods longer than 55 nm. Moreover, such coexistence occurs within individual crystallites of the nanorods and is accompanied by defect formation, as supported by in situ electron microscopy and elastic energy calculations. These results highlight the effect of particle shape and dimension on thermodynamics, informing nanorod design for improved device cyclability.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-018-04021-1

    View details for PubMedID 29720644

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5932065

  • Synthesis and characterization of graphite-encapsulated iron nanoparticles from ball milling-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition CARBON Agaogullari, D., Madsen, S. J., Ogut, B., Koh, A., Sinclair, R. 2017; 124: 170–79

    Abstract

    Graphite-encapsulated Fe nanoparticles were synthesized using a combined method of high-energy ball milling and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). Fe2O3 and graphite powders were milled to increase their surface areas and obtain a more homogeneous distribution. LPCVD was performed at a pressure of ~0.57 Torr in a tube furnace under a CH4/H2 atmosphere at 1050°C for 1 and 3 h. As-synthesized samples were purified in a 2 M HF solution. Characterization was performed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM). XRD revealed the presence of body centered cubic (BCC) and face centered cubic (FCC) Fe phases without residual iron oxides. SEM confirmed the powders were better mixed and smaller after ball milling compared to mortar and pestle milled powders. High resolution TEM showed all nanoparticles had at least four and on average 16 graphitic layers, around an Fe core ranging from 20-300 nm. Magnetic measurements indicated that nanoparticles exhibit soft ferromagnetic behavior with low saturation magnetization (17-21 emu/g) and coercivity (110 Oe). A chemical stability test performed in a 2 M HCl solution showed that graphitic shells did not degrade, nor was there evidence of core dissolution or shell discontinuity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.carbon.2017.08.043

    View details for Web of Science ID 000412118200021

    View details for PubMedID 29434378

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5807011

  • depends non-monotonically on large biaxial strain. Nature communications Balaji Gopal, C., García-Melchor, M., Lee, S. C., Shi, Y., Shavorskiy, A., Monti, M., Guan, Z., Sinclair, R., Bluhm, H., Vojvodic, A., Chueh, W. C. 2017; 8: 15360-?

    Abstract

    Elastic strain is being increasingly employed to enhance the catalytic properties of mixed ion-electron conducting oxides. However, its effect on oxygen storage capacity is not well established. Here, we fabricate ultrathin, coherently strained films of CeO2-δ between 5.6% biaxial compression and 2.1% tension. In situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals up to a fourfold enhancement in equilibrium oxygen storage capacity under both compression and tension. This non-monotonic variation with strain departs from the conventional wisdom based on a chemical expansion dominated behaviour. Through depth profiling, film thickness variations and a coupled photoemission-thermodynamic analysis of space-charge effects, we show that the enhanced reducibility is not dominated by interfacial effects. On the basis of ab initio calculations of oxygen vacancy formation incorporating defect interactions and vibrational contributions, we suggest that the non-monotonicity arises from the tetragonal distortion under large biaxial strain. These results may guide the rational engineering of multilayer and core-shell oxide nanomaterials.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms15360

    View details for PubMedID 28516915

  • Equilibrium oxygen storage capacity of ultrathin CeO2-delta depends non-monotonically on large biaxial strain NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Gopal, C. B., Garcia-Melchor, M., Lee, S. C., Shi, Y., Shavorskiy, A., Monti, M., Guan, Z., Sinclair, R., Bluhm, H., Vojvodic, A., Chueh, W. C. 2017; 8
  • Magnetic and electric properties of triangular lattice antiferromagnets Ba(3)ATa(2)O(9) (A = Ni and Co) MATERIALS RESEARCH BULLETIN Lee, M., Choi, E. S., Ma, J., Sinclair, R., dela Cruz, C. R., Zhou, H. D. 2017; 88: 308-314
  • Canted magnetic ground state of quarterdoped manganites R0.75Ca0.25MnO3 (R = Y, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER Sinclair, R., Cao, H. B., Garlea, V. O., Lee, M., Choi, E. S., Dun, Z. L., Dong, S., Dagotto, E., Zhou, H. D. 2017; 29 (6)
  • Observing Plasmon Damping Due to Adhesion Layers in Gold Nanostructures Using Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy ACS PHOTONICS Madsen, S. J., Esfandyarpour, M., Brongersma, M. L., Sinclair, R. 2017; 4 (2): 268-274
  • Direct visualization of hydrogen absorption dynamics in individual palladium nanoparticles NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Narayan, T. C., Hayee, F., Baldi, A., Koh, A. L., Sinclair, R., Dionne, J. A. 2017; 8
  • Direct visualization of hydrogen absorption dynamics in individual palladium nanoparticles. Nature communications Narayan, T. C., Hayee, F., Baldi, A., Leen Koh, A., Sinclair, R., Dionne, J. A. 2017; 8: 14020-?

    Abstract

    Many energy storage materials undergo large volume changes during charging and discharging. The resulting stresses often lead to defect formation in the bulk, but less so in nanosized systems. Here, we capture in real time the mechanism of one such transformation-the hydrogenation of single-crystalline palladium nanocubes from 15 to 80 nm-to better understand the reason for this durability. First, using environmental scanning transmission electron microscopy, we monitor the hydrogen absorption process in real time with 3 nm resolution. Then, using dark-field imaging, we structurally examine the reaction intermediates with 1 nm resolution. The reaction proceeds through nucleation and growth of the new phase in corners of the nanocubes. As the hydrogenated phase propagates across the particles, portions of the lattice misorient by 1.5%, diminishing crystal quality. Once transformed, all the particles explored return to a pristine state. The nanoparticles' ability to remove crystallographic imperfections renders them more durable than their bulk counterparts.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms14020

    View details for PubMedID 28091597

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5241819

  • Highly stretchable polymer semiconductor films through the nanoconfinement effect SCIENCE Xu, J., Wang, S., Wang, G. N., Zhu, C., Luo, S., Jin, L., Gu, X., Chen, S., Feig, V. R., To, J. W., Rondeau-Gagne, S., Park, J., Schroeder, B. C., Lu, C., Oh, J. Y., Wang, Y., Kim, Y., Yan, H., Sinclair, R., Zhou, D., Xue, G., Murmann, B., Linder, C., Cai, W., Tok, J. B., Chung, J. W., Bao, Z. 2017; 355 (6320): 59-?

    Abstract

    Soft and conformable wearable electronics require stretchable semiconductors, but existing ones typically sacrifice charge transport mobility to achieve stretchability. We explore a concept based on the nanoconfinement of polymers to substantially improve the stretchability of polymer semiconductors, without affecting charge transport mobility. The increased polymer chain dynamics under nanoconfinement significantly reduces the modulus of the conjugated polymer and largely delays the onset of crack formation under strain. As a result, our fabricated semiconducting film can be stretched up to 100% strain without affecting mobility, retaining values comparable to that of amorphous silicon. The fully stretchable transistors exhibit high biaxial stretchability with minimal change in on current even when poked with a sharp object. We demonstrate a skinlike finger-wearable driver for a light-emitting diode.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aah4496

    View details for Web of Science ID 000391739900042

    View details for PubMedID 28059762

  • The Exosome Total Isolation Chip. ACS nano Liu, F., Vermesh, O., Mani, V., Ge, T. J., Madsen, S. J., Sabour, A., Hsu, E. C., Gowrishankar, G., Kanada, M., Jokerst, J. V., Sierra, R. G., Chang, E., Lau, K., Sridhar, K., Bermudez, A., Pitteri, S. J., Stoyanova, T., Sinclair, R., Nair, V. S., Gambhir, S. S., Demirci, U. 2017

    Abstract

    Circulating tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a promising source for identifying cancer biomarkers for early cancer detection. However, the clinical utility of EVs has thus far been limited by the fact that most EV isolation methods are tedious, nonstandardized, and require bulky instrumentation such as ultracentrifugation (UC). Here, we report a size-based EV isolation tool called ExoTIC (exosome total isolation chip), which is simple, easy-to-use, modular, and facilitates high-yield and high-purity EV isolation from biofluids. ExoTIC achieves an EV yield ∼4-1000-fold higher than that with UC, and EV-derived protein and microRNA levels are well-correlated between the two methods. Moreover, we demonstrate that ExoTIC is a modular platform that can sort a heterogeneous population of cancer cell line EVs based on size. Further, we utilize ExoTIC to isolate EVs from cancer patient clinical samples, including plasma, urine, and lavage, demonstrating the device's broad applicability to cancers and other diseases. Finally, the ability of ExoTIC to efficiently isolate EVs from small sample volumes opens up avenues for preclinical studies in small animal tumor models and for point-of-care EV-based clinical testing from fingerprick quantities (10-100 μL) of blood.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsnano.7b04878

    View details for PubMedID 29090896

  • Magnetism and multiferroicity of an isosceles triangular lattice antiferromagnet Sr3NiNb2O9 JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER Lee, M., Choi, E. S., Ma, J., Sinclair, R., dela Cruz, C. R., Zhou, H. D. 2016; 28 (47)

    Abstract

    Various experimental measurements were performed to complete the phase diagram of a weakly distorted triangular lattice system, Sr3NiNb2O9 with Ni(2+) , spin-1 magnetic ions. This compound possesses an isosceles triangular lattice with two shorter bonds and one longer bond. It shows a two-step magnetic phase transition at [Formula: see text] K and [Formula: see text] K at zero magnetic field, characteristic of an easy-axis anisotropy. In the magnetization curves, a series of magnetic phase transitions was observed such as an up-up-down phase at [Formula: see text] T with 1/3 of the saturation magnetization (M sat) and an oblique phase at [Formula: see text] T with [Formula: see text]/3 M sat. Intriguingly, the magnetic phase transition below T N2 is in tandem with the ferroelectricity, which demonstrates multiferroic behaviors. Moreover, the multiferroic phase persists in all magnetically ordered phases regardless of the spin structure. The comparison between the phase diagrams of Sr3NiNb2O9 and its sister compound with an equilateral triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ba3NiNb2O9 (Hwang et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 257205), illustrates how a small imbalance among exchange interactions change the magnetic ground states of the TLAFs.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0953-8984/28/47/476004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000385448300004

    View details for PubMedID 27661860

  • Ultrathin Films. ACS nano Shi, Y., Lee, S. C., Monti, M., Wang, C., Feng, Z. A., Nix, W. D., Toney, M. F., Sinclair, R., Chueh, W. C. 2016; 10 (11): 9938-9947

    Abstract

    Large biaxial strain is a promising route to tune the functionalities of oxide thin films. However, large strain is often not fully realized due to the formation of misfit dislocations at the film/substrate interface. In this work, we examine the growth of strained ceria (CeO2) thin films on (001)-oriented single crystal yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) via pulsed-laser deposition. By varying the film thickness systematically between 1 and 430 nm, we demonstrate that ultrathin ceria films are coherently strained to the YSZ substrate for thicknesses up to 2.7 nm, despite the large lattice mismatch (∼5%). The coherency is confirmed by both X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. This thickness is several times greater than the predicted equilibrium critical thickness. Partial strain relaxation is achieved by forming semirelaxed surface islands rather than by directly nucleating dislocations. In situ reflective high-energy electron diffraction during growth confirms the transition from 2-D (layer-by-layer) to 3-D (island) at a film thickness of ∼1 nm, which is further supported by atomic force microscopy. We propose that dislocations likely nucleate near the surface islands and glide to the film/substrate interface, as evidenced by the presence of 60° dislocations. An improved understanding of growing oxide thin films with a large misfit lays the foundation to systematically explore the impact of strain and dislocations on properties such as ionic transport and redox chemistry.

    View details for PubMedID 27934073

  • Growth of Highly Strained CeO2 Ultrathin Films ACS NANO Shi, Y., Lee, S. C., Monti, M., Wang, C., Feng, Z. A., Nix, W. D., Toney, M. F., Sinclair, R., Chueh, W. C. 2016; 10 (11): 9938-9947

    Abstract

    Large biaxial strain is a promising route to tune the functionalities of oxide thin films. However, large strain is often not fully realized due to the formation of misfit dislocations at the film/substrate interface. In this work, we examine the growth of strained ceria (CeO2) thin films on (001)-oriented single crystal yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) via pulsed-laser deposition. By varying the film thickness systematically between 1 and 430 nm, we demonstrate that ultrathin ceria films are coherently strained to the YSZ substrate for thicknesses up to 2.7 nm, despite the large lattice mismatch (∼5%). The coherency is confirmed by both X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. This thickness is several times greater than the predicted equilibrium critical thickness. Partial strain relaxation is achieved by forming semirelaxed surface islands rather than by directly nucleating dislocations. In situ reflective high-energy electron diffraction during growth confirms the transition from 2-D (layer-by-layer) to 3-D (island) at a film thickness of ∼1 nm, which is further supported by atomic force microscopy. We propose that dislocations likely nucleate near the surface islands and glide to the film/substrate interface, as evidenced by the presence of 60° dislocations. An improved understanding of growing oxide thin films with a large misfit lays the foundation to systematically explore the impact of strain and dislocations on properties such as ionic transport and redox chemistry.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsnano.6b04081

    View details for Web of Science ID 000388913100022

  • Aging, memory, and nonhierarchical energy landscape of spin jam PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Samarakoon, A., Sato, T. J., Chen, T., Chern, G., Yang, J., Klich, I., Sinclair, R., Zhou, H., Lee, S. 2016; 113 (42): 11806-11810

    Abstract

    The notion of complex energy landscape underpins the intriguing dynamical behaviors in many complex systems ranging from polymers, to brain activity, to social networks and glass transitions. The spin glass state found in dilute magnetic alloys has been an exceptionally convenient laboratory frame for studying complex dynamics resulting from a hierarchical energy landscape with rugged funnels. Here, we show, by a bulk susceptibility and Monte Carlo simulation study, that densely populated frustrated magnets in a spin jam state exhibit much weaker memory effects than spin glasses, and the characteristic properties can be reproduced by a nonhierarchical landscape with a wide and nearly flat but rough bottom. Our results illustrate that the memory effects can be used to probe different slow dynamics of glassy materials, hence opening a window to explore their distinct energy landscapes.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1608057113

    View details for Web of Science ID 000385610400061

    View details for PubMedID 27698141

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5081640

  • thin films. Scientific reports Zhang, J., Norris, K. J., Gibson, G., Zhao, D., Samuels, K., Zhang, M. M., Yang, J. J., Park, J., Sinclair, R., Jeon, Y., Li, Z., Williams, R. S. 2016; 6: 34294-?

    Abstract

    Niobium dioxide can exhibit negative differential resistance (NDR) in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices, which has recently attracted significant interest for its potential applications as a highly non-linear selector element in emerging nonvolatile memory (NVM) and as a locally-active element in neuromorphic circuits. In order to further understand the processing of this material system, we studied the effect of thermal annealing on a 15 nm thick NbO2 thin film sandwiched inside a nanoscale MIM device and compared it with 180 nm thick blanket NbOx (x = 2 and 2.5) films deposited on a silicon dioxide surface as references. A systematic transmission electron microscope (TEM) study revealed a similar structural transition from amorphous to a distorted rutile structure in both cases, with a transition temperature of 700 °C for the NbO2 inside the MIM device and a slightly higher transition temperature of 750 °C for the reference NbO2 film. Quantitative composition analysis from electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) showed the stoichiometry of the nominal 15 nm NbO2 layer in the as-fabricated MIM device deviated from the target 1:2 ratio because of an interaction with the electrode materials, which was more prominent at elevated annealing temperature.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep34294

    View details for PubMedID 27682633

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5041100

  • Thermally induced crystallization in NbO2 thin films SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Zhang, J., Norris, K. J., Gibson, G., Zhao, D., Samuels, K., Zhang, M. M., Yang, J. J., Park, J., Sinclair, R., Jeon, Y., Li, Z., Williams, R. S. 2016; 6

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep34294

    View details for Web of Science ID 000384178900001

    View details for PubMedID 27682633

  • The dissipation of field emitting carbon nanotubes in an oxygen environment as revealed by in situ transmission electron microscopy NANOSCALE Koh, A. L., Gidcum, E., Zhou, O., Sinclair, R. 2016; 8 (36): 16405-16415

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c6nr06231h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000384531600035

  • The dissipation of field emitting carbon nanotubes in an oxygen environment as revealed by in situ transmission electron microscopy. Nanoscale Koh, A. L., Gidcumb, E., Zhou, O., Sinclair, R. 2016; 8 (36): 16405-16415

    Abstract

    In this work, we report the first direct experimental observations of carbon nanotubes (CNT) field emitting in an oxygen environment, using aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy in combination with an electrical biasing specimen holder under low-dose, field-free imaging conditions. Our studies show that while the CNTs remain stable during high vacuum field emission, they experience abrupt decreases in length, also termed "burn-back", when field-emitting in an oxygen environment at around 30 Pa pressure. Furthermore, we perform correlative field-free and aberration-corrected, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging to understand how the structure of the CNTs - particularly the opening of the nanotube caps - is influenced by its gas environment during field emission. This work provides significant insight into the mechanism of carbon nanotube behavior under non-ideal field emission conditions.

    View details for PubMedID 27714121

  • Reconstructing solute-induced phase transformations within individual nanocrystals NATURE MATERIALS Narayan, T. C., Baldi, A., Koh, A. L., Sinclair, R., Dionne, J. A. 2016; 15 (7): 768-?

    Abstract

    Strain and defects can significantly impact the performance of functional nanomaterials. This effect is well exemplified by energy storage systems, in which structural changes such as volume expansion and defect generation govern the phase transformations associated with charging and discharging. The rational design of next-generation storage materials therefore depends crucially on understanding the correlation between the structure of individual nanoparticles and their solute uptake and release. Here, we experimentally reconstruct the spatial distribution of hydride phases within individual palladium nanocrystals during hydrogen absorption, using a combination of electron spectroscopy, dark-field imaging, and electron diffraction in an environmental transmission electron microscope. We show that single-crystalline cubes and pyramids exhibit a uniform hydrogen distribution at equilibrium, whereas multiply twinned icosahedra exclude hydrogen from regions of high compressive strains. Our technique offers unprecedented insight into nanoscale phase transformations in reactive environments and can be extended to a variety of functional nanomaterials.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NMAT4620

    View details for Web of Science ID 000378347800027

    View details for PubMedID 27088234

  • Oxidation of Carbon Nanotubes in an Ionizing Environment NANO LETTERS Koh, A. L., Gidcumb, E., Zhou, O., Sinclair, R. 2016; 16 (2): 856-863

    Abstract

    In this work, we present systematic studies on how an illuminating electron beam which ionizes molecular gas species can influence the mechanism of carbon nanotube oxidation in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM). We found that preferential attack of the nanotube tips is much more prevalent than for oxidation in a molecular gas environment. We establish the cumulative electron doses required to damage carbon nanotubes from 80 keV electron beam irradiation in gas versus in high vacuum. Our results provide guidelines for the electron doses required to study carbon nanotubes within or without a gas environment, to determine or ameliorate the influence of the imaging electron beam. This work has important implications for in situ studies as well as for the oxidation of carbon nanotubes in an ionizing environment such as that occurring during field emission.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b03035

    View details for Web of Science ID 000370215200005

    View details for PubMedID 26726919

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4859757

  • Torsional Deformations in Subnanometer MoS Interconnecting Wires NANO LETTERS Koh, A. L., Wang, S., Ataca, C., Grossman, J. C., Sinclair, R., Warner, J. H. 2016; 16 (2): 1210-1217

    Abstract

    We use aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy to track the real time atomic level torsional dynamics of subnanometer wires of MoS interconnecting monolayer regions of MoS2. An in situ heating holder is used inside the transmission electron microscope to raise the temperature of the sample to 400 °C to increase crystallization rates of the wires and reduce contamination effects. Frequent rotational twisting of the MoS wire is captured, demonstrating elastic torsional deformation of the MoS wires. We show that torsional rotations of the crystal structure of the MoS wires depend upon the specific atomic structure of the anchored sections of the suspended wire and the number of unit cells that make up the wire length. Elastic torsional flexibility of the MoS wires is revealed to help their self-adapting connectivity during the structural changes. Plastic torsional deformation is also seen for MoS wires that contain defects in their crystal structure, which produce small scale rotational disorder within the wires. Upon removal of the defects, the wire returns back to pristine form. These results provide detailed insights into how the atomic structure of the anchoring site significantly influences the nanowire configurations relative to the monolayered MoS2.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b04507

    View details for Web of Science ID 000370215200058

    View details for PubMedID 26785319

  • Chemical and Phase Evolution of Amorphous Molybdenum Sulfide Catalysts for Electrochemical Hydrogen Production. ACS nano Lee, S. C., Benck, J. D., Tsai, C., Park, J., Koh, A. L., Abild-Pedersen, F., Jaramillo, T. F., Sinclair, R. 2016; 10 (1): 624-632

    Abstract

    Amorphous MoSx is a highly active, earth-abundant catalyst for the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction. Previous studies have revealed that this material initially has a composition of MoS3, but after electrochemical activation, the surface is reduced to form an active phase resembling MoS2 in composition and chemical state. However, structural changes in the MoSx catalyst and the mechanism of the activation process remain poorly understood. In this study, we employ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to image amorphous MoSx catalysts activated under two hydrogen-rich conditions: ex situ in an electrochemical cell and in situ in an environmental TEM. For the first time, we directly observe the formation of crystalline domains in the MoSx catalyst after both activation procedures as well as spatially localized changes in the chemical state detected via electron energy loss spectroscopy. Using density functional theory calculations, we investigate the mechanisms for this phase transformation and find that the presence of hydrogen is critical for enabling the restructuring process. Our results suggest that the surface of the amorphous MoSx catalyst is dynamic: while the initial catalyst activation forms the primary active surface of amorphous MoS2, continued transformation to the crystalline phase during electrochemical operation could contribute to catalyst deactivation. These results have important implications for the application of this highly active electrocatalyst for sustainable H2 generation.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsnano.5b05652

    View details for PubMedID 26624225

  • Rapid genome reshaping by multiple-gene loss after whole-genome duplication in teleost fish suggested by mathematical modeling PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Inoue, J., Sato, Y., Sinclair, R., Tsukamoto, K., Nishida, M. 2015; 112 (48): 14918-14923

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1507669112

    View details for Web of Science ID 000365988900056

    View details for PubMedID 26578810

  • Rotating Anisotropic Crystalline Silicon Nanoclusters in Graphene ACS NANO Chen, Q., Koh, A. L., Robertson, A. W., He, K., Lee, S., Yoon, E., Lee, G., Sinclair, R., Warner, J. H. 2015; 9 (10): 9497-9506

    Abstract

    The atomic structure and dynamics of silicon nanoclusters covalently bonded to graphene are studied using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. We show that as the cluster size increases to 4-10 atoms, ordered crystalline cubic phases start to emerge. Anisotropic crystals are formed due to higher stability of the Si-C bond under electron beam irradiation compared to the Si-Si bond. Dynamics of the anisotropic crystalline Si nanoclusters reveal that they can rotate perpendicular to the graphene plane, with oscillations between the two geometric configurations driven by local volume constraints. These results provide important insights into the crystalline phases of clusters of inorganic dopants in graphene at the intermediate size range between isolated single atoms and larger bulk 2D forms.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsnano.5b03476

    View details for Web of Science ID 000363915300008

    View details for PubMedID 26207802

  • High-Density 2D Homo- and Hetero- Plasmonic Dimers with Universal Sub-10-nm Gaps ACS NANO Zhang, M., Large, N., Koh, A. L., Cao, Y., Manjavacas, A., Sinclair, R., Nordlander, P., Wang, S. X. 2015; 9 (9): 9331-9339

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsnano.5b03090

    View details for Web of Science ID 000361935800073

    View details for PubMedID 26202803

  • Control of Rubrene Polymorphs via Polymer Binders: Applications in Organic Field-Effect Transistors CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS Jo, P. S., Duong, D. T., Park, J., Sinclair, R., Salleo, A. 2015; 27 (11): 3979-3987
  • Large-Area Assembly of Densely Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Solution Shearing and Their Application to Field-Effect Transistors ADVANCED MATERIALS Park, S., Pitner, G., Giri, G., Koo, J. H., Park, J., Kim, K., Wang, H., Sinclair, R., Wong, H. P., Bao, Z. 2015; 27 (16): 2656-2662

    Abstract

    Dense alignment of single-walled carbon nanotubes over a large area is demonstrated using a novel solution-shearing technique. A density of 150-200 single-walled carbon nanotubes per micro-meter is achieved with a current density of 10.08 μA μm(-1) at VDS = -1 V. The on-current density is improved by a factor of 45 over that of random-network single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201405289

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353298900013

    View details for PubMedID 25788393

  • A correlative optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach to locating nanoparticles in brain tumors. Micron Kempen, P. J., Kircher, M. F., de la Zerda, A., Zavaleta, C. L., Jokerst, J. V., Mellinghoff, I. K., Gambhir, S. S., Sinclair, R. 2015; 68: 70-76

    Abstract

    The growing use of nanoparticles in biomedical applications, including cancer diagnosis and treatment, demands the capability to exactly locate them within complex biological systems. In this work a correlative optical and scanning electron microscopy technique was developed to locate and observe multi-modal gold core nanoparticle accumulation in brain tumor models. Entire brain sections from mice containing orthotopic brain tumors injected intravenously with nanoparticles were imaged using both optical microscopy to identify the brain tumor, and scanning electron microscopy to identify the individual nanoparticles. Gold-based nanoparticles were readily identified in the scanning electron microscope using backscattered electron imaging as bright spots against a darker background. This information was then correlated to determine the exact location of the nanoparticles within the brain tissue. The nanoparticles were located only in areas that contained tumor cells, and not in the surrounding healthy brain tissue. This correlative technique provides a powerful method to relate the macro- and micro-scale features visible in light microscopy with the nanoscale features resolvable in scanning electron microscopy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.micron.2014.09.004

    View details for PubMedID 25464144

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4262686

  • Theranostic mesoporous silica nanoparticles biodegrade after pro-survival drug delivery and ultrasound/magnetic resonance imaging of stem cells. Theranostics Kempen, P. J., Greasley, S., Parker, K. A., Campbell, J. L., Chang, H., Jones, J. R., Sinclair, R., Gambhir, S. S., Jokerst, J. V. 2015; 5 (6): 631-642

    Abstract

    Increasing cell survival in stem cell therapy is an important challenge for the field of regenerative medicine. Here, we report theranostic mesoporous silica nanoparticles that can increase cell survival through both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. First, the nanoparticle offers ultrasound and MRI signal to guide implantation into the peri-infarct zone and away from the most necrotic tissue. Second, the nanoparticle serves as a slow release reservoir of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-a protein shown to increase cell survival. Mesenchymal stem cells labeled with these nanoparticles had detection limits near 9000 cells with no cytotoxicity at the 250 µg/mL concentration required for labeling. We also studied the degradation of the nanoparticles and showed that they clear from cells in approximately 3 weeks. The presence of IGF increased cell survival up to 40% (p<0.05) versus unlabeled cells under in vitro serum-free culture conditions.

    View details for DOI 10.7150/thno.11389

    View details for PubMedID 25825602

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4377731

  • Designing Active and Stable Silicon Photocathodes for Solar Hydrogen Production Using Molybdenum Sulfide Nanomaterials ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS Benck, J. D., Lee, S. C., Fong, K. D., Kibsgaard, J., Sinclair, R., Jaramillo, T. F. 2014; 4 (18)
  • Doping against the Native Propensity of MoS2: Degenerate Hole Doping by Cation Substitution NANO LETTERS Suh, J., Park, T., Lin, D., Fu, D., Park, J., Jung, H. J., Chen, Y., Ko, C., Jang, C., Sun, Y., Sinclair, R., Chang, J., Tongay, S., Wu, J. 2014; 14 (12): 6976-6982

    Abstract

    Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) draw much attention as the key semiconducting material for two-dimensional electrical, optoelectronic, and spintronic devices. For most of these applications, both n- and p-type materials are needed to form junctions and support bipolar carrier conduction. However, typically only one type of doping is stable for a particular TMD. For example, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is natively an n-type presumably due to omnipresent electron-donating sulfur vacancies, and stable/controllable p-type doping has not been achieved. The lack of p-type doping hampers the development of charge-splitting p-n junctions of MoS2, as well as limits carrier conduction to spin-degenerate conduction bands instead of the more interesting, spin-polarized valence bands. Traditionally, extrinsic p-type doping in TMDs has been approached with surface adsorption or intercalation of electron-accepting molecules. However, practically stable doping requires substitution of host atoms with dopants where the doping is secured by covalent bonding. In this work, we demonstrate stable p-type conduction in MoS2 by substitutional niobium (Nb) doping, leading to a degenerate hole density of ∼ 3 × 10(19) cm(-3). Structural and X-ray techniques reveal that the Nb atoms are indeed substitutionally incorporated into MoS2 by replacing the Mo cations in the host lattice. van der Waals p-n homojunctions based on vertically stacked MoS2 layers are fabricated, which enable gate-tunable current rectification. A wide range of microelectronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic devices can be envisioned from the demonstrated substitutional bipolar doping of MoS2. From the miscibility of dopants with the host, it is also expected that the synthesis technique demonstrated here can be generally extended to other TMDs for doping against their native unipolar propensity.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl503251h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346322800035

    View details for PubMedID 25420217

  • Ultrafast polarization response of an optically trapped single ferroelectric nanowire. Nano letters Nah, S., Kuo, Y., Chen, F., Park, J., Sinclair, R., Lindenberg, A. M. 2014; 14 (8): 4322-4327

    Abstract

    One-dimensional potassium niobate nanowires are of interest as building blocks in integrated piezoelectric devices, exhibiting large nonlinear optical and piezoelectric responses. Here we present femtosecond measurements of light-induced polarization dynamics within an optically trapped ferroelectric nanowire, using the second-order nonlinear susceptibility as a real-time structural probe. Large amplitude, reversible modulations of the nonlinear susceptibility are observed within single nanowires at megahertz repetition rates, developing on few-picosecond time-scales, associated with anomalous coupling of light into the nanowire.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl5011228

    View details for PubMedID 25051318

  • Redox-Triggered Self-Assembly of Gadolinium-Based MRI Probes for Sensing Reducing Environment BIOCONJUGATE CHEMISTRY Ye, D., Pandit, P., Kempen, P., Lin, J., Xiong, L., Sinclair, R., Rutt, B., Rao, J. 2014; 25 (8): 1526-1536

    View details for DOI 10.1021/bc500254g

    View details for Web of Science ID 000340735900020

  • Tuning Interlayer Coupling in Large-Area Heterostructures with CVD-Grown MoS2 and WS2 Monolayers NANO LETTERS Tongay, S., Fan, W., Kang, J., Park, J., Koldemir, U., Suh, J., Narang, D. S., Liu, K., Ji, J., Li, J., Sinclair, R., Wu, J. 2014; 14 (6): 3185-3190

    Abstract

    Band offsets between different monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are expected to efficiently separate charge carriers or rectify charge flow, offering a mechanism for designing atomically thin devices and probing exotic two-dimensional physics. However, developing such large-area heterostructures has been hampered by challenges in synthesis of monolayers and effectively coupling neighboring layers. Here, we demonstrate large-area (>tens of micrometers) heterostructures of CVD-grown WS2 and MoS2 monolayers, where the interlayer interaction is externally tuned from noncoupling to strong coupling. Following this trend, the luminescence spectrum of the heterostructures evolves from an additive line profile where each layer contributes independently to a new profile that is dictated by charge transfer and band normalization between the WS2 and MoS2 layers. These results and findings open up venues to creating new material systems with rich functionalities and novel physical effects.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl500515q

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337337100032

  • RESET-first unipolar resistance switching behavior in annealed Nb2O5 films THIN SOLID FILMS Lee, K., Kim, J., Mok, I., Na, H., Ko, D., Sohn, H., Lee, S., Sinclair, R. 2014; 558: 423-429
  • The Stanford Nanocharacterization Laboratory (SNL) and Recent Applications of an Aberration-Corrected Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS Sinclair, R., Kempen, P. J., Chin, R., Koh, A. L. 2014; 16 (5): 476-481
  • A tunable silk-alginate hydrogel scaffold for stem cell culture and transplantation. Biomaterials Ziv, K., Nuhn, H., Ben-Haim, Y., Sasportas, L. S., Kempen, P. J., Niedringhaus, T. P., Hrynyk, M., Sinclair, R., Barron, A. E., Gambhir, S. S. 2014; 35 (12): 3736-3743

    Abstract

    One of the major challenges in regenerative medicine is the ability to recreate the stem cell niche, which is defined by its signaling molecules, the creation of cytokine gradients, and the modulation of matrix stiffness. A wide range of scaffolds has been developed in order to recapitulate the stem cell niche, among them hydrogels. This paper reports the development of a new silk-alginate based hydrogel with a focus on stem cell culture. This biocomposite allows to fine tune its elasticity during cell culture, addressing the importance of mechanotransduction during stem cell differentiation. The silk-alginate scaffold promotes adherence of mouse embryonic stem cells and cell survival upon transplantation. In addition, it has tunable stiffness as function of the silk-alginate ratio and the concentration of crosslinker - a characteristic that is very hard to accomplish in current hydrogels. The hydrogel and the presented results represents key steps on the way of creating artificial stem cell niche, opening up new paths in regenerative medicine.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.01.029

    View details for PubMedID 24484675

  • Effects of germanium incorporation on optical performances of silicon germanium passive devices for group-IV photonic integrated circuits PHOTONICS AND NANOSTRUCTURES-FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS Cho, S., Park, J., Kim, H., Sinclair, R., Park, B., Harris, J. S. 2014; 12 (1): 54-68
  • Controlling sulphur precursor addition for large single crystal domains of WS2 NANOSCALE Rong, Y., Fan, Y., Koh, A. L., Robertson, A. W., He, K., Wang, S., Tan, H., Sinclair, R., Warner, J. H. 2014; 6 (20): 12096-12103

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c4nr04091k

    View details for Web of Science ID 000343000800064

  • Approaching the limits of dielectric breakdown for SiO2 films deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition ACTA MATERIALIA Usui, T., Donnelly, C. A., Logar, M., Sinclair, R., Schoonman, J., Prinz, F. B. 2013; 61 (20): 7660-7670
  • In situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of material reactions MRS BULLETIN Sinclair, R. 2013; 38 (12): 1065-1071
  • HREM analysis of graphite-encapsulated metallic nanoparticles for possible medical applications. Ultramicroscopy Sinclair, R., Li, H., Madsen, S., Dai, H. 2013; 134: 167-174

    Abstract

    High resolution electron microscopy has been applied to study the structure of metallic nanoparticles. These have sparked considerable interest as contrast agents in the field of biological imaging, including in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Here, we describe a method of synthesizing sub-10nm superparamagnetic metal and alloy nanoparticles by reduction of metallic salts. Annealing at 900°C in a methane/hydrogen environment forms a thin graphitic-carbon shell which is expected to improve stability, biocompatibility, and functionalization. Subsequent high resolution electron microscopy verifies graphitization and allows for crystallographic analysis. Most particles consist of single crystals in the phase predicted for the bulk material at the annealing temperature. Electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and lattice constant measurements show large variation in composition for alloy nanoparticles from a single synthesis. The magnetization relaxation time (T2) measurements demonstrate that Fe and AuFe nanoparticles compete with commercially available iron oxide MRI contrast agents. X-ray attenuation measurements of an AuFe alloy nanoparticle solution gave a relative radiodensity of 280 Hounsfield Units, demonstrating promise as a dual-purpose contrast agent in CT and MRI. Long term stability in an atmospheric environment was also tested, with no signs of corrosion or oxidation after several years of storage.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ultramic.2013.05.006

    View details for PubMedID 23809196

  • A scanning transmission electron microscopy approach to analyzing large volumes of tissue to detect nanoparticles. Microscopy and microanalysis Kempen, P. J., Thakor, A. S., Zavaleta, C., Gambhir, S. S., Sinclair, R. 2013; 19 (5): 1290-1297

    Abstract

    The use of nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer requires the complete characterization of their toxicity, including accurately locating them within biological tissues. Owing to their size, traditional light microscopy techniques are unable to resolve them. Transmission electron microscopy provides the necessary spatial resolution to image individual nanoparticles in tissue, but is severely limited by the very small analysis volume, usually on the order of tens of cubic microns. In this work, we developed a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) approach to analyze large volumes of tissue for the presence of polyethylene glycol-coated Raman-active-silica-gold-nanoparticles (PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs). This approach utilizes the simultaneous bright and dark field imaging capabilities of STEM along with careful control of the image contrast settings to readily identify PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs in mouse liver tissue without the need for additional time-consuming analytical characterization. We utilized this technique to analyze 243,000 μm3 of mouse liver tissue for the presence of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs. Nanoparticles injected into the mice intravenously via the tail vein accumulated in the liver, whereas those injected intrarectally did not, indicating that they remain in the colon and do not pass through the colon wall into the systemic circulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S143192761300192X

    View details for PubMedID 23803218

  • Atomic Scale Verification of Oxide-Ion Vacancy Distribution near a Single Grain Boundary in YSZ. Scientific reports An, J., Park, J. S., Koh, A. L., Lee, H. B., Jung, H. J., Schoonman, J., Sinclair, R., Gür, T. M., Prinz, F. B. 2013; 3: 2680-?

    Abstract

    This study presents atomic scale characterization of grain boundary defect structure in a functional oxide with implications for a wide range of electrochemical and electronic behavior. Indeed, grain boundary engineering can alter transport and kinetic properties by several orders of magnitude. Here we report experimental observation and determination of oxide-ion vacancy concentration near the Σ13 (510)/[001] symmetric tilt grain-boundary of YSZ bicrystal using aberration-corrected TEM operated under negative spherical aberration coefficient imaging condition. We show significant oxygen deficiency due to segregation of oxide-ion vacancies near the grain-boundary core with half-width < 0.6 nm. Electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements with scanning TEM indicated increased oxide-ion vacancy concentration at the grain boundary core. Oxide-ion density distribution near a grain boundary simulated by molecular dynamics corroborated well with experimental results. Such column-by-column quantification of defect concentration in functional materials can provide new insights that may lead to engineered grain boundaries designed for specific functionalities.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep02680

    View details for PubMedID 24042150

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3775093

  • Oxidation Studies of Carbon Nanotubes for Applications as X-Ray Field Emitters Using an Aberration-Corrected, Environmental TEM. Microscopy and microanalysis Koh, A. L., Gidcumb, E., Zhou, O., Sinclair, R. 2013; 19: 466-467

    View details for PubMedID 25552911

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4278573

  • Atomic layer deposition of CdO and CdxZn1-xO films MATERIALS CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS Bakke, J. R., Haegglund, C., Jung, H. J., Sinclair, R., Bent, S. F. 2013; 140 (2-3): 465-471
  • Amorphous thin film TaWSiC as a diffusion barrier for copper interconnects APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Wongpiya, R., Ouyang, J., Kim, T. R., Deal, M., Sinclair, R., Nishi, Y., Clemens, B. 2013; 103 (2)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4813396

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321761000036

  • Advanced Characterization Techniques for Nanoparticles for Cancer Research: Applications of SEM and NanoSIMS for Locating Au Nanoparticles in Cells. Materials Research Society symposia proceedings. Materials Research Society Kempen, P. J., Hitzman, C., Sasportas, L. S., Gambhir, S. S., Sinclair, R. 2013; 1569: 157-163

    Abstract

    The ability of nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to locate and analyze Raman active gold core nanoparticles (R-AuNPs) in a biological system is compared with the standard analysis using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The same cell with R-AuNPs on and inside the macrophage was analyzed with both techniques to directly compare them. SEM analysis showed a large number of nanoparticles within the cell. Subsequent NanoSIMS analysis showed fewer R-AuNPs with lower spatial resolution. SEM was determined to be superior to NanoSIMS for the analysis of inorganic nanoparticles in complex biological systems.

    View details for PubMedID 25364091

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4215514

  • Aberration-Corrected TEM Imaging of Oxygen Occupancy in YSZ JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS An, J., Koh, A. L., Park, J. S., Sinclair, R., Guer, T. M., Prinz, F. B. 2013; 4 (7): 1156-1160

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jz4002423

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317317500017

  • Automatic Segmentation of Scaling in 2-D Psoriasis Skin Images IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING Lu, J., Kazmierczak, E., Manton, J. H., Sinclair, R. 2013; 32 (4): 719-730

    Abstract

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects over 3% of the population. Various methods are currently used to evaluate psoriasis severity and to monitor therapeutic response. The PASI system of scoring is widely used for evaluating psoriasis severity. It employs a visual analogue scale to score the thickness, redness (erythema), and scaling of psoriasis lesions. However, PASI scores are subjective and suffer from poor inter- and intra-observer concordance. As an integral part of developing a reliable evaluation method for psoriasis, an algorithm is presented for segmenting scaling in 2-D digital images. The algorithm is believed to be the first to localize scaling directly in 2-D digital images. The scaling segmentation problem is treated as a classification and parameter estimation problem. A Markov random field (MRF) is used to smooth a pixel-wise classification from a support vector machine (SVM) that utilizes a feature space derived from image color and scaling texture. The training sets for the SVM are collected directly from the image being analyzed giving the algorithm more resilience to variations in lighting and skin type. The algorithm is shown to give reliable segmentation results when evaluated with images with different lighting conditions, skin types, and psoriasis types.

    View details for DOI 10.1109/TMI.2012.2236349

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318474700009

    View details for PubMedID 23288330

  • Observations of Carbon Nanotube Oxidation in an Aberration-Corrected Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope ACS NANO Koh, A. L., Gidcumb, E., Zhou, O., Sinclair, R. 2013; 7 (3): 2566-2572

    Abstract

    We report the first direct study on the oxidation of carbon nanotubes at the resolution of an aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM), as we locate and identify changes in the same nanotubes as they undergo oxidation at increasing temperatures in situ in the ETEM. Contrary to earlier reports that CNT oxidation initiates at the end of the tube and proceeds along its length, our findings show that only the outside graphene layer is being removed and, on occasion, the interior inner wall is oxidized, presumably due to oxygen infiltrating into the hollow nanotube through an open end or breaks in the tube. We believe that this work provides the foundation for a greater scientific understanding of the mechanism underlying the nanotube oxidation process, as well as guidelines to manipulate the nanotubes' structure or prevent their oxidation.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn305949h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316846700075

    View details for PubMedID 23360330

  • Spatial Variation of Available Electronic Excitations within Individual Quantum Dots NANO LETTERS Jung, H. J., Dasgupta, N. P., Van Stockum, P. B., Koh, A. L., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F. B. 2013; 13 (2): 716-721

    Abstract

    Quantum dots (QDs) allow for manipulation of the position and energy levels of electrons at sub-10 nm length scales through control of material chemistry, size, and shape. It is known from optical studies that the bandgap of semiconductor QDs increases as their size decreases due to the narrowing of the quantum confinement potential. The mechanism of quantum confinement also indicates that the localized properties within individual QDs should depend on their shape in addition to their size, but direct observations of this effect have proven challenging due to the limited spatial resolution of measurement techniques at this scale and the ability to remove contributions from the surroundings. Here we present experimental evidence of spatial variations in the lowest available electron transition energy within a series of single electrically isolated QDs due to a dome-shaped geometry, measured using electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a (scanning) transmission electron microscope [(S)TEM-EELS]. We observe a consistent increase in the energy onset of electronic excitations from the lateral center of the dot toward the edges, which we attribute purely to shape. This trend is in qualitative agreement with a simple quantum simulation of the local density of states in a dome-shaped QD.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl304400c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315079500065

    View details for PubMedID 23276278

  • Codoping titanium dioxide nanowires with tungsten and carbon for enhanced photoelectrochemical performance. Nature communications Cho, I. S., Lee, C. H., Feng, Y., Logar, M., Rao, P. M., Cai, L., Kim, D. R., Sinclair, R., Zheng, X. 2013; 4: 1723-?

    Abstract

    Recent density-functional theory calculations suggest that codoping TiO2 with donor-acceptor pairs is more effective than monodoping for improving photoelectrochemical water-splitting performance because codoping can reduce charge recombination, improve material quality, enhance light absorption and increase solubility limits of dopants. Here we report a novel ex-situ method to codope TiO2 with tungsten and carbon (W, C) by sequentially annealing W-precursor-coated TiO2 nanowires in flame and carbon monoxide gas. The unique advantages of flame annealing are that the high temperature (>1,000 °C) and fast heating rate of flame enable rapid diffusion of W into TiO2 without damaging the nanowire morphology and crystallinity. This is the first experimental demonstration that codoped TiO2:(W, C) nanowires outperform monodoped TiO2:W and TiO2:C and double the saturation photocurrent of undoped TiO2 for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Such significant performance enhancement originates from a greatly improved electrical conductivity and activity for oxygen-evolution reaction due to the synergistic effects of codoping.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms2729

    View details for PubMedID 23591890

  • Codoping titanium dioxide nanowires with tungsten and carbon for enhanced photoelectrochemical performance. Nature communications Cho, I. S., Lee, C. H., Feng, Y., Logar, M., Rao, P. M., Cai, L., Kim, D. R., Sinclair, R., Zheng, X. 2013; 4: 1723-?

    Abstract

    Recent density-functional theory calculations suggest that codoping TiO2 with donor-acceptor pairs is more effective than monodoping for improving photoelectrochemical water-splitting performance because codoping can reduce charge recombination, improve material quality, enhance light absorption and increase solubility limits of dopants. Here we report a novel ex-situ method to codope TiO2 with tungsten and carbon (W, C) by sequentially annealing W-precursor-coated TiO2 nanowires in flame and carbon monoxide gas. The unique advantages of flame annealing are that the high temperature (>1,000 °C) and fast heating rate of flame enable rapid diffusion of W into TiO2 without damaging the nanowire morphology and crystallinity. This is the first experimental demonstration that codoped TiO2:(W, C) nanowires outperform monodoped TiO2:W and TiO2:C and double the saturation photocurrent of undoped TiO2 for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Such significant performance enhancement originates from a greatly improved electrical conductivity and activity for oxygen-evolution reaction due to the synergistic effects of codoping.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms2729

    View details for PubMedID 23591890

  • Locating and Characterizing Self-Assembled Gadolinium Chelate Nanoparticles in Stem Cells Using TEM Kempen, P., J., Nejadnik, H., Ye, D., Rutt, B., K., Rao, J., Daldrup-Link, H., E., Sinclair, R. 2013
  • Amorphous Thin Film TaWSiC as a Diffusion Barrier for Copper Interconnects Appl. Phys. Lett. Wongpiya, R., Ouyang, J., Kim, T., R., Deal, M., Sinclair, R., Nishi, Y. 2013; 103: 22104

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4813396

  • Codoping Titanium Dioxide Nanowires with (W, C) for Enhancing Photoelectrochemical Performance Nature Communications Cho, I., S., Lee, C., H., Feng, Y., Logar, M., Rao, P., M., Cai, L., Sinclair, R. 2013; 4: 1723

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms2729

  • Oxidation Studies of Carbon Nanotubes for Applications as X-Ray Field Emitters Using an Aberration-Corrected, Environmental TEM Sinclair, R. 2013
  • Advanced Characterization Techniques for Nanoparticles for Cancer Research: Applications of SEM and NanoSIMS for Locating Au Nanoparticles in Cells Kempen, P., J., Hitzman, C., Sasportas, L., S., Gambhir, S., S., Sinclair, R. 2013
  • A Correlative Light Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy Approach to Locating Raman Active Gold Core Nanoparticles in Tissue Sections Kempen, P., J., Kircher, M., F., Jokerst, J., V., Zavaleta, C., L., Gambhir, S., S., Sinclair, R. 2013
  • In Situ High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy of Materials Reactions Mat. Res. Soc. Bull. Sinclair, R. 2013; 38: 1065-1071
  • Atomic Scale Verification of Oxide-Ion Vacancy Distribution near a Single Grain Boundary in YSZ Scientific Reports An, J., Park, J., S., Koh, A., L., Lee, H., B., Jung, H., J., Sinclair, R. 2013; 3: 2680

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep02680

  • HREM Analysis of Graphite-Encapsulated Metallic Nanoparticles for Possible Medical Applications Ultramicroscopy  Sinclair, R., Li, H., Madsen, S., Dai, H. 2013; 134: 167-174
  • A Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) Technique to Analyze ‘Large’ Volumes of Tissue to Detect Nanoparticles Microscopy and Microanalysis Kempen, P., J., Thakor, A., S., Zavaleta, C., L., Gambhir, S., S., Sinclair, R. 2013; 5 (19): 1290-1297
  • Chracterization of E-Beam Fabricated Gold Nanoparticles Madsen, S., Kempen, P., J., Sinclair, R. 2013
  • NorTEMnet 2013 Workshop on Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy Olsson, E., Sinclair, R., Jaeger, W. 2013
  • Observations of Carbon Nanotube Oxidation in an Aberration-Corrected, Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope ACS nano  Koh, A., L., Gidcumb, E., Zhou, O., Sinclair, R. 2013; 3 (7): 2566-2572

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn305949h

  • Atomic scale verification of oxide-ion vacancy distribution near a single grain boundary in YSZ. Scientific reports An, J., Park, J. S., Koh, A. L., Lee, H. B., Jung, H. J., Schoonman, J., Sinclair, R., Gür, T. M., Prinz, F. B. 2013; 3: 2680-?

    Abstract

    This study presents atomic scale characterization of grain boundary defect structure in a functional oxide with implications for a wide range of electrochemical and electronic behavior. Indeed, grain boundary engineering can alter transport and kinetic properties by several orders of magnitude. Here we report experimental observation and determination of oxide-ion vacancy concentration near the Σ13 (510)/[001] symmetric tilt grain-boundary of YSZ bicrystal using aberration-corrected TEM operated under negative spherical aberration coefficient imaging condition. We show significant oxygen deficiency due to segregation of oxide-ion vacancies near the grain-boundary core with half-width < 0.6 nm. Electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements with scanning TEM indicated increased oxide-ion vacancy concentration at the grain boundary core. Oxide-ion density distribution near a grain boundary simulated by molecular dynamics corroborated well with experimental results. Such column-by-column quantification of defect concentration in functional materials can provide new insights that may lead to engineered grain boundaries designed for specific functionalities.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep02680

    View details for PubMedID 24042150

  • A Brain Tumor Molecular Imaging Strategy using a New Triple-Modality MRI-Photoacoustic-Raman Nanoparticle Conference on Photons Plus Ultrasound - Imaging and Sensing de la Zerda, A., Kircher, M. F., Jokerst, J. V., Zavaleta, C. L., Kempen, P. J., Mittra, E., Pitter, K., Huang, R., Campos, C., Habte, F., Sinclair, R., Brennan, C. W., Mellinghoff, I. K., Holland, E. C., Gambhir, S. S. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2013

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2001719

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322832800007

  • In Situ Cycle-by-Cycle Flash Annealing of Atomic Layer Deposited Materials JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Langston, M. C., Dasgupta, N. P., Jung, H. J., Logar, M., Huang, Y., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F. B. 2012; 116 (45): 24177-24183

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp308895e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311190800041

  • Nickel Silicide Nanowire Arrays for Anti-Reflective Electrodes in Photovoltaics ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS Dasgupta, N. P., Xu, S., Jung, H. J., Iancu, A., Fasching, R., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F. B. 2012; 22 (17): 3650-3657
  • Shape Matters: Intravital Microscopy Reveals Surprising Geometrical Dependence for Nanoparticles in Tumor Models of Extravasation NANO LETTERS Smith, B. R., Kempen, P., Bouley, D., Xu, A., Liu, Z., Melosh, N., Dai, H., Sinclair, R., Gambhir, S. S. 2012; 12 (7): 3369-3377

    Abstract

    Delivery is one of the most critical obstacles confronting nanoparticle use in cancer diagnosis and therapy. For most oncological applications, nanoparticles must extravasate in order to reach tumor cells and perform their designated task. However, little understanding exists regarding the effect of nanoparticle shape on extravasation. Herein we use real-time intravital microscopic imaging to meticulously examine how two different nanoparticles behave across three different murine tumor models. The study quantitatively demonstrates that high-aspect ratio single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) display extravasational behavior surprisingly different from, and counterintuitive to, spherical nanoparticles although the nanoparticles have similar surface coatings, area, and charge. This work quantitatively indicates that nanoscale extravasational competence is highly dependent on nanoparticle geometry and is heterogeneous.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl204175t

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306296200004

    View details for PubMedID 22650417

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3495189

  • Smart-cut layer transfer of single-crystal SiC using spin-on-glass JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B Lee, J., Bargatin, I., Park, J., Milaninia, K. M., Theogarajan, L. S., Sinclair, R., Howe, R. T. 2012; 30 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1116/1.4734006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306750700046

  • Photoacoustic Imaging of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Living Mice via Silica-Coated Gold Nanorods ACS NANO Jokerst, J. V., Thangaraj, M., Kempen, P. J., Sinclair, R., Gambhir, S. S. 2012; 6 (7): 5920-5930

    Abstract

    Improved imaging modalities are critically needed for optimizing stem cell therapy. Techniques with real-time content to guide and quantitate cell implantation are especially important in applications such as musculoskeletal regenerative medicine. Here, we report the use of silica-coated gold nanorods as a contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging and quantitation of mesenchymal stem cells in rodent muscle tissue. The silica coating increased the uptake of gold into the cell more than 5-fold, yet no toxicity or proliferation changes were observed in cells loaded with this contrast agent. Pluripotency of the cells was retained, and secretome analysis indicated that only IL-6 was disregulated more than 2-fold from a pool of 26 cytokines. The low background of the technique allowed imaging of down to 100,000 cells in vivo. The spatial resolution is 340 μm, and the temporal resolution is 0.2 s, which is at least an order of magnitude below existing cell imaging approaches. This approach has significant advantages over traditional cell imaging techniques like positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging including real time monitoring of stem cell therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn302042y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306673800020

    View details for PubMedID 22681633

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3582222

  • A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle NATURE MEDICINE Kircher, M. F., de la Zerda, A., Jokerst, J. V., Zavaleta, C. L., Kempen, P. J., Mittra, E., Pitter, K., Huang, R., Campos, C., Habte, F., Sinclair, R., Brennan, C. W., Mellinghoff, I. K., Holland, E. C., Gambhir, S. S. 2012; 18 (5): 829-U235

    Abstract

    The difficulty in delineating brain tumor margins is a major obstacle in the path toward better outcomes for patients with brain tumors. Current imaging methods are often limited by inadequate sensitivity, specificity and spatial resolution. Here we show that a unique triple-modality magnetic resonance imaging-photoacoustic imaging-Raman imaging nanoparticle (termed here MPR nanoparticle) can accurately help delineate the margins of brain tumors in living mice both preoperatively and intraoperatively. The MPRs were detected by all three modalities with at least a picomolar sensitivity both in vitro and in living mice. Intravenous injection of MPRs into glioblastoma-bearing mice led to MPR accumulation and retention by the tumors, with no MPR accumulation in the surrounding healthy tissue, allowing for a noninvasive tumor delineation using all three modalities through the intact skull. Raman imaging allowed for guidance of intraoperative tumor resection, and a histological correlation validated that Raman imaging was accurately delineating the brain tumor margins. This new triple-modality-nanoparticle approach has promise for enabling more accurate brain tumor imaging and resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm.2721

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303763500053

    View details for PubMedID 22504484

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3422133

  • Aberration-Corrected Transmission Electron Microscopy of the Intergranular Phase in Magnetic Recording Media NANO LETTERS Hossein-Babaei, F., Koh, A. L., Srinivasan, K., Bertero, G. A., Sinclair, R. 2012; 12 (5): 2595-2598

    Abstract

    In perpendicular hard disk memory media, nanometric magnetic Co-rich grains are separated by a ∼1 nm thick nonmagnetic and preferably amorphous intergranular phase (IP). Attempts at observing the IP structure at high resolution using TEM have been obstructed by the superposition of lattice fringes from the crystalline grains extending into the IP region in images. Here we present the first images of a magnetic recording medium produced using a spherical aberration-corrected TEM showing the true amorphous IP structure in contrast to the crystalline grains, allowing the accurate determination of the grain-IP interface and the grain and IP dimensions. It is shown that these aberration-corrected TEM images are functionally superior for analyzing certain features of the ultrahigh capacity data recording media.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl301274x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303696400073

    View details for PubMedID 22519694

  • Oxygen Surface Exchange at Grain Boundaries of Oxide Ion Conductors ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS Lee, W., Jung, H. J., Lee, M. H., Kim, Y., Park, J. S., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F. B. 2012; 22 (5): 965-971
  • Interfacial Alloy Hydride Destabilization in Mg/Pd Thin Films PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Chung, C., Lee, S., Groves, J. R., Brower, E. N., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B. M. 2012; 108 (10)

    Abstract

    Recently, a large increase in the equilibrium hydrogen pressure has been reported for MG thin films capped with a Pd layer. We show that this increase is due to intermixing of Mg and Pd, as opposed to a strain effect as previously claimed. Transmission electron microscopy and depth profiling x-ray photoemission spectroscopy are used to directly measure interfacial intermixing between Mg and Pd, and we find that intermixing and equilibrium hydrogen pressure both increase with annealing. We present a thermodynamic model of the effect of alloying on equilibrium pressure, and find that the observed equilibrium pressure increase is consistent with the observed thickness of the intermixed region, which is of the order of a few nm. We also show that stress measured during hydrogenation corresponds to a negligible increase in equilibrium pressure.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.106102

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301101200008

    View details for PubMedID 22463426

  • Effects of thermal cycling on microstructure and properties in Nitinol MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING Pelton, A. R., Huang, G. H., Moine, P., Sinclair, R. 2012; 532: 130-138
  • A Brain Tumor Molecular Imaging Strategy Using a Novel Triple Modality Nanoparticle Nature Medicine Kircher, M., F., Zerda, A., De La, Jokerst, J., V., Zavaleta, C., L., Kempen, P., J., Mittra, E.S., Sinclair, R. 2012; 18: 829-834
  • Aberration Corrected Transmission Electron Microscopy of the Intergranular Phase in Magnetic Recording Media Nano Lett.  Hossein-Babaei, F., Koh, A., L., Srinivasan, K., Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R. 2012; 5 (12): 2595–2598
  • Effect of crystallinity on proton conductivity in yttrium-doped barium zirconate thin films SOLID STATE IONICS Kim, Y. B., Guer, T. M., Jung, H., Kang, S., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F. B. 2011; 198 (1): 39-46
  • Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Analysis of Grain Structure in Perpendicular Magnetic Recording Media NANO LETTERS Hossein-Babaei, F., Sinclair, R. A., Srinivasan, K., Bertero, G. A. 2011; 11 (9): 3751-3754

    Abstract

    The key component of a hard disk medium is a Co-based magnetic layer (ML) grown on a Ru seed layer. The ML nanostructure, composed of less than 10 nm grains, is believed to be controlled by this seed layer. We successfully used scanning transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive spectrometry simultaneous composition-based imaging and Moiré pattern analysis for determining the mutual structural and orientation relationship between the two layers revealing a grain-to-grain agreement. The method presented here can be utilized for observing structural correlations between consecutive polycrystalline thin film layers in general.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl201784z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294790200041

    View details for PubMedID 21806054

  • Preclinical Evaluation of Raman Nanoparticle Biodistribution for their Potential Use in Clinical Endoscopy Imaging SMALL Zavaleta, C. L., Hartman, K. B., Miao, Z., James, M. L., Kempen, P., Thakor, A. S., Nielsen, C. H., Sinclair, R., Cheng, Z., Gambhir, S. S. 2011; 7 (15): 2232-2240

    Abstract

    Raman imaging offers unsurpassed sensitivity and multiplexing capabilities. However, its limited depth of light penetration makes direct clinical translation challenging. Therefore, a more suitable way to harness its attributes in a clinical setting would be to couple Raman spectroscopy with endoscopy. The use of an accessory Raman endoscope in conjunction with topically administered tumor-targeting Raman nanoparticles during a routine colonoscopy could offer a new way to sensitively detect dysplastic lesions while circumventing Raman's limited depth of penetration and avoiding systemic toxicity. In this study, the natural biodistribution of gold surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles is evaluated by radiolabeling them with (64) Cu and imaging their localization over time using micropositron emission tomography (PET). Mice are injected either intravenously (IV) or intrarectally (IR) with approximately 100 microcuries (μCi) (3.7 megabecquerel (MBq)) of (64) Cu-SERS nanoparticles and imaged with microPET at various time points post injection. Quantitative biodistribution data are obtained as % injected dose per gram (%ID g(-1)) from each organ, and the results correlate well with the corresponding microPET images, revealing that IV-injected mice have significantly higher uptake (p < 0.05) in the liver (5 h = 8.96% ID g(-1); 24 h = 8.27% ID g(-1)) than IR-injected mice (5 h = 0.09% ID g(-1); 24 h = 0.08% ID g(-1)). IR-injected mice show localized uptake in the large intestine (5 h = 10.37% ID g(-1); 24 h = 0.42% ID g(-1)) with minimal uptake in other organs. Raman imaging of excised tissues correlate well with biodistribution data. These results suggest that the topical application of SERS nanoparticles in the mouse colon appears to minimize their systemic distribution, thus avoiding potential toxicity and supporting the clinical translation of Raman spectroscopy as an endoscopic imaging tool.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/smll.201002317

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294361200015

    View details for PubMedID 21608124

  • Fabrication of planar, layered nanoparticles using tri-layer resist templates NANOTECHNOLOGY Hu, W., Zhang, M., Wilson, R. J., Koh, A. L., Wi, J., Tang, M., Sinclair, R., Wang, S. X. 2011; 22 (18)

    Abstract

    A simple and universal pathway to produce free multilayer synthetic nanoparticles is developed based on lithography, vapor phase deposition and a tri-layer resist lift-off and release process. The fabrication method presented in this work is ideal for production of a broad range of nanoparticles, either free in solution or still attached to an intact release layer, with unique magnetic, optical, radioactive, electronic and catalytic properties. Multi-modal capabilities are implicit in the layered architecture. As an example, directly fabricated magnetic nanoparticles are evaluated to illustrate the structural integrity of thin internal multilayers and the nanoparticle stability in aggressive biological environments, which is highly desired for biomedical applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0957-4484/22/18/185302

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288653300005

    View details for PubMedID 21415483

  • Crater patterned 3-D proton conducting ceramic fuel cell architecture with ultra thin Y:BaZrO3 electrolyte ELECTROCHEMISTRY COMMUNICATIONS Kim, Y. B., Guer, T. M., Kang, S., Jung, H., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F. B. 2011; 13 (5): 403-406
  • The Fate and Toxicity of Raman-Active Silica-Gold Nanoparticles in Mice SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Thakor, A. S., Luong, R., Paulmurugan, R., Lin, F. I., Kempen, P., Zavaleta, C., Chu, P., Massoud, T. F., Sinclair, R., Gambhir, S. S. 2011; 3 (79)

    Abstract

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical imaging method that is based on the Raman effect, the inelastic scattering of a photon when energy is absorbed from light by a surface. Although Raman spectroscopy is widely used for chemical and molecular analysis, its clinical application has been hindered by the inherently weak nature of the Raman effect. Raman-silica-gold-nanoparticles (R-Si-Au-NPs) overcome this limitation by producing larger Raman signals through surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Because we are developing these particles for use as targeted molecular imaging agents, we examined the acute toxicity and biodistribution of core polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ylated R-Si-Au-NPs after different routes of administration in mice. After intravenous administration, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs were removed from the circulation by macrophages in the liver and spleen (that is, the reticuloendothelial system). At 24 hours, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs elicited a mild inflammatory response and an increase in oxidative stress in the liver, which subsided by 2 weeks after administration. No evidence of significant toxicity was observed by measuring clinical, histological, biochemical, or cardiovascular parameters for 2 weeks. Because we are designing targeted PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs (for example, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs labeled with an affibody that binds specifically to the epidermal growth factor receptor) to detect colorectal cancer after administration into the bowel lumen, we tested the toxicity of the core nanoparticle after administration per rectum. We observed no significant bowel or systemic toxicity, and no PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs were detected systemically. Although additional studies are required to investigate the long-term effects of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs and their toxicity when carrying the targeting moiety, the results presented here support the idea that PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs can be safely used in living subjects, especially when administered rectally.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3001963

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292976700004

    View details for PubMedID 21508310

  • Thermal conductivity anisotropy and grain structure in Ge2Sb2Te5 films JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Lee, J., Li, Z., Reifenberg, J. P., Lee, S., Sinclair, R., Asheghi, M., Goodson, K. E. 2011; 109 (8)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3573505

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290047000229

  • Atomic Layer Deposition of Lead Sulfide Quantum Dots on Nanowire Surfaces NANO LETTERS Dasgupta, N. P., Jung, H. J., Trejo, O., McDowell, M. T., Hryciw, A., Brongersma, M., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F. B. 2011; 11 (3): 934-940

    Abstract

    Quantum dots provide unique advantages in the design of novel optoelectronic devices owing to the ability to tune their properties as a function of size. Here we demonstrate a new technique for fabrication of quantum dots during the nucleation stage of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of PbS. Islands with sub-10 nm diameters were observed during the initial ALD cycles by transmission electron microscopy, and in situ observations of the coalescence and sublimation behavior of these islands show the possibility of further modifying the size and density of dots by annealing. The ALD process can be used to cover high-aspect-ratio nanostructures, as demonstrated by the uniform coating of a Si nanowire array with a single layer of PbS quantum dots. Photoluminescence measurements on the quantum dot/nanowire composites show a blue shift when the number of ALD cycles is decreased, suggesting a route to fabricate unique three-dimensional nanostructured devices such as solar cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl103001h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288061500003

    View details for PubMedID 21319844

  • Oxidative Stress Mediates the Effects of Raman-Active Gold Nanoparticles in Human Cells SMALL Thakor, A. S., Paulmurugan, R., Kempen, P., Zavaleta, C., Sinclair, R., Massoud, T. F., Gambhir, S. S. 2011; 7 (1): 126-136

    Abstract

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated Raman-active gold nanoparticles (PEG-R-AuNPs) consist of an interchangeable Raman organic molecule layer held onto a gold nanocore by a silica shell. PEG-R-AuNPs have been shown preclinically to increase the sensitivity and specificity of Raman spectroscopy, with picomolar sensitivity and multiplexing capabilities. Although clinical trials are being designed to use functionalized PEG-R-AuNPs in various applications (e.g., to target dysplastic bowel lesions during colonoscopy), the effects of these nanoparticles on human cells remain unknown. The occurrence and mechanisms underlying any potential cytotoxicity induced by these nanoparticles (0-1000 PEG-R-AuNPs/cell) are investigated in immortalized human HeLa and HepG2 cell lines at several time points (0-48 h) after exposure. Using fluorometric assays, cell viability (MTT), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (dichlorofluorescein diacetate), protein oxidation (protein carbonyl content), and total cellular antioxidant concentrations the concentrations (metmyoblobin-induced oxidation of ABTS) are assessed. Analysis of lipid oxidation using an enzyme immunoassay (8-isoprostane concentrations), gene expression of antioxidant enzymes using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions, and the intracellular location of PEG-R-AuNPs using transmission electron microscopy is also undertaken. PEG-R-AuNPs cause no cytotoxicity in either HeLa or HepG2 cells in the acute setting as ROS generation is balanced by antioxidant enzyme upregulation. Following prolonged exposures (48 h) at relatively high concentrations (1000 PEG-R-AuNPs/cell), nanoparticles are found within vesicles inside cells. Under these conditions, a minimal amount of cytotoxicity is seen in both cell lines owing to increases in cellular oxidative stress, most likely due to ROS overwhelming the antioxidant defenses. Evidence of oxidative stress-induced damage includes increased lipid and protein oxidation. Although further in vivo toxicity studies are necessary, these initial encouraging results show that PEG-R-AuNPs cause minimal toxicity in human cells in the acute setting, which bodes well for potential future applications of these nanoparticles in living subjects.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/smll.201001466

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285794100015

    View details for PubMedID 21104804

  • Atomic layer deposition of CdxZn1-xS films JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY Bakke, J. R., Tanskanen, J. T., Jung, H. J., Sinclair, R., Bent, S. F. 2011; 21 (3): 743-751

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c0jm02786c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285749900021

  • Scanning Electron Microscopy and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Correlation Studies of Functionalized Composite Organic-Inorganic SERS Nanoparticles on Cancer Cells Koh, A., L., Sinclair, R. 2011

    View details for DOI 10.1557/opi.2011.664.

  • Oxidative Stress Mediates the Effets of Raman Active Gold Nanoparticles in Human Cells Small Thakor, A., S., Paulmurugan, R., Kempen, P., J., Zavaleta, C., L., Sinclair, R., Massoud, T., F. 2011; 7: 126–136
  • Crater Patterned 3-D Protonic Fuel Cell with Ultra Thin Y:BaZrO3 Ceramic Membrane Electrochem. Comm. Kim, Y., B., Gur, T., M., Kang, S., Jung, H., J., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F., B. 2011; 5 (13): 403-406
  • Correlative Microscopy of Tumor Vasculature Kempen, P., J., Smith, B., R., Kircher, M., F., Gambhir, S., S., Sinclair, R. 2011
  • The Fate and Toxicity of Raman Active Silica-Gold Nanoparticles in Mice Sci Transl Med Thakor, A., S., Luong, R., Murugan, R., Lin, F., Kempen, P., J., Zavaleta, C., L., Sinclair, R. 2011; 3: 79ra33
  • Effect of crystallinity on ionic conductivity of Y-doped Barium Zirconate Solid State Ionics Kim, Y., B., Gur, T., M., Jung, H., J., Kang, S., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F., B. 2011; 198 (1, 19): 39-46
  • Proton Conduction in Epitaxial and Polycrystalline Yttrium-doped Barium Zirconate Thin Films Kim, Y., B., Gür, T., M., Jung, H., J., Kang, S., Prinz, F., B. 2011
  • Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of lead sulfide quantum wells fabricated by atomic layer deposition NANOTECHNOLOGY Lee, W., Dasgupta, N. P., Jung, H. J., Lee, J., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F. B. 2010; 21 (48)

    Abstract

    We report the use of scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) to investigate one-dimensional quantum confinement effects in lead sulfide (PbS) thin films. Specifically, quantum confinement effects on the band gap of PbS quantum wells were explored by controlling the PbS film thickness and potential barrier height. PbS quantum well structures with a thickness range of 1-20 nm were fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Two barrier materials were selected based on barrier height: aluminum oxide as a high barrier material and zinc oxide as a low barrier material. Band gap measurements were carried out by STS, and an effective mass theory was developed to compare the experimental results. Our results show that the band gap of PbS thin films increased as the film thickness decreased, and the barrier height increased from 0.45 to 2.19 eV.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0957-4484/21/48/485402

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284053500011

    View details for PubMedID 21063050

  • Laser-Synthesized Epitaxial Graphene ACS NANO Lee, S., Toney, M. F., Ko, W., Randel, J. C., Jung, H. J., Munakata, K., Lu, J., Geballe, T. H., Beasley, M. R., Sinclair, R., Manoharan, H. C., Salleo, A. 2010; 4 (12): 7524-7530

    Abstract

    Owing to its unique electronic properties, graphene has recently attracted wide attention in both the condensed matter physics and microelectronic device communities. Despite intense interest in this material, an industrially scalable graphene synthesis process remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate a high-throughput, low-temperature, spatially controlled and scalable epitaxial graphene (EG) synthesis technique based on laser-induced surface decomposition of the Si-rich face of a SiC single-crystal. We confirm the formation of EG on SiC as a result of excimer laser irradiation by using reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Laser fluence controls the thickness of the graphene film down to a single monolayer. Laser-synthesized graphene does not display some of the structural characteristics observed in EG grown by conventional thermal decomposition on SiC (0001), such as Bernal stacking and surface reconstruction of the underlying SiC surface.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn101796e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285449100060

    View details for PubMedID 21121692

  • Atomic Layer Deposition of CdS Films CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS Bakke, J. R., Jung, H. J., Tanskanen, J. T., Sinclair, R., Bent, S. F. 2010; 22 (16): 4669-4678

    View details for DOI 10.1021/cm100874f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280855100021

  • Atomic layer deposition of ZnS via in situ production of H2S THIN SOLID FILMS BAKKE, J. R., King, J. S., Jung, H. J., Sinclair, R., Bent, S. F. 2010; 518 (19): 5400-5408
  • Structural and magnetic characterizations of high moment synthetic antiferromagnetic nanoparticles fabricated using self-assembled stamps 11th Joint MMM-Intermag Conference Koh, A. L., Hu, W., Wilson, R. J., Earhart, C. M., Wang, S. X., Sinclair, R. AMER INST PHYSICS. 2010

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3358067

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277834300225

  • Utilizing Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy to Locate and Image Raman Active Gold Core Nanoparticles in Mouse Tissue Kempen, P., J., Thakor, A., S., Zavaleta, C., L., Gambhir, S., S., Sinclair, R. 2010
  • TEM Study on PbS Quantum Dots Made by Atomic Layer Deposition and Their Behavior Under E-beam Irradiation Jung, H., J., Dasgupta, N., P., Prinz, F., B., Sinclair, R. 2010
  • Utilizing Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy to Locate and Image Raman Active Gold Core Nanoparticles in Mouse Tissue Kempen, P., J., Thakor, A., S., Zavaleta, C., L., Gambhir, S., S., Sinclair, R. 2010
  • Nanostructural correlation between Co magnetic layer and its Ru seed layer in a PMR medium Hossein-Babaei (Jr.), F., Sinclair, R., Bertero, G., Srinivasan, K. 2010
  • Structural and Magnetic Characterization of High Moment Synthetic Antiferromagnetic Nanoparticles Fabricated Using Self-Assembled Stamps J. Appl Phys. Koh, A., L., Hu, W., Wilson, R., J., Earhart, C., M., Wang, S., X., Sinclair, R. 2010; 107: 09B522 1-3
  • Organic-Inorganic Particles as Labels to Trace Biological Signaling Pathways Koh, A., L., Sinclair, R. 2010
  • Developing Remote Microscopy at a University User Facility Chin, R., Sinclair, R. 2010
  • Electron Energy-Loss Spectrometry (EELS) and Energy-Filtered TEM (EFTEM) Analyses of Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles Koh, A. L., Watanabe, M., Sinclair, R. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. 2009: 432–433
  • In Situ and High Resolution TEM Studies of Nano-scale Materials Sinclair, R., Koh, A. L., Kempen, P. J., Jung, H. J. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. 2009: 1200–1201
  • Formation and properties of magnetic chains for 100nm nanoparticles used in separations of molecules and cells 7th International Conference on Scientific and Clinical Applications of Magnetic Carriers Wilson, R. J., Hu, W., Fu, C. W., Koh, A. L., Gaster, R. S., Earhart, C. M., Fu, A., Heilshorn, S. C., Sinclair, R., Wang, S. X. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2009: 1452–58

    Abstract

    Optical observations of 100 nm metallic magnetic nanoparticles are used to study their magnetic field induced self assembly. Chains with lengths of tens of microns are observed to form within minutes at nanoparticle concentrations of 10(10) per mL. Chain rotation and magnetophoresis are readily observed, and SEM reveals that long chains are not simple single particle filaments. Similar chains are detected for several 100 nm commercial bio-separation nanoparticles. We demonstrate the staged magnetic condensation of different types of nanoparticles into composite structures and show that magnetic chains bind to immunomagnetically labeled cells, serving as temporary handles which allow novel magnetic cell manipulations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jmmm.2009.02.066

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265278000028

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2757286

  • A Novel Method for Detection of Phosphorylation in Single Cells by Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) using Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles (COINs) PLOS ONE Shachaf, C. M., Elchuri, S. V., Koh, A. L., Zhu, J., Nguyen, L. N., Mitchell, D. J., Zhang, J., Swartz, K. B., Sun, L., Chan, S., Sinclair, R., Nolan, G. P. 2009; 4 (4)

    Abstract

    Detection of single cell epitopes has been a mainstay of immunophenotyping for over three decades, primarily using fluorescence techniques for quantitation. Fluorescence has broad overlapping spectra, limiting multiplexing abilities.To expand upon current detection systems, we developed a novel method for multi-color immuno-detection in single cells using "Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles" (COINs) Raman nanoparticles. COINs are Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) nanoparticles, with unique Raman spectra. To measure Raman spectra in single cells, we constructed an automated, compact, low noise and sensitive Raman microscopy device (Integrated Raman BioAnalyzer). Using this technology, we detected proteins expressed on the surface in single cells that distinguish T-cells among human blood cells. Finally, we measured intracellular phosphorylation of Stat1 (Y701) and Stat6 (Y641), with results comparable to flow cytometry.Thus, we have demonstrated the practicality of applying COIN nanoparticles for measuring intracellular phosphorylation, offering new possibilities to expand on the current fluorescent technology used for immunoassays in single cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0005206

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265510400006

    View details for PubMedID 19367337

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2666268

  • Synthetic antiferromagnetic nanoparticles with tunable susceptibilities 53rd Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials Hu, W., Wilson, R. J., Earhart, C. M., Koh, A. L., Sinclair, R., Wang, S. X. AMER INST PHYSICS. 2009

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3072028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266633500313

  • "NO TITAN, NO EXCUSE" (T. J. KONNO, 1 APRIL 2008) A REPORT ON AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON REMOTE ELECTRON MICROSCOPY FOR IN SITU STUDIES ACTA MICROSCOPICA Sinclair, R., Chin, R., Koh, A. L., Solorzano, G. 2009; 18 (1): 33-38
  • Real-time visualization of RGD-quantum dot binding in tumor neovasculature using intravital microscopy in multiple living mouse models Conference on Colloidal Quantum Dots for Biomedical Applications IV Smith, B. R., Cheng, Z., De, A., Koh, A. L., Sinclair, R., Gambhir, S. S. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2009

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.809578

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285710600021

  • No Titan, No Excuse’ (T.J. Konno, 1 April 2008) A Report on an International Workshop on Remote Electron Microscopy for In Situ Studies Acta Microscopica Sinclair, R., Chin, R., Koh, A., L., Solorzano, G. 2009; 1 (18): 33–38
  • Direct Microscale Visualization of Targeted Quantum Dot Binding in Multiple Tumor Models of Living Mice using Intravital Microscopy Smith, B., Cheng, Z., Zerda, A., de la, Koh, A., L., Sinclair, R. 2009
  • Electron Microscopy Characterization of Gold-Silica Core-Shell Nanoparticle Raman Labels (Nanoplex™ Biotags) and their Conjugation to Cells Kempen, P., J., Koh, A., L., Zavaleta, C., Hartman, K., Gambhir, S., Sinclair, R. 2009
  • Formation and properties of magnetic chains for 100 nm nanoparticles used in separations of molecules and cells J. Magn. Magn. Mat. Wilson, R.J., Hu, W., Wong, C., P.F., Koh, A., L., Gaster, R., Earhart, C., M., Sinclair, R. 2009; 321: 1452–1458
  • Particle Size, Surface Coating, and PEGylation Influence the Biodistribution of Quantum Dots in Living Mice SMALL Schipper, M. L., Iyer, G., Koh, A. L., Cheng, Z., Ebenstein, Y., Aharoni, A., Keren, S., Bentolila, L. A., Li, J., Rao, J., Chen, X., Banin, U., Wu, A. M., Sinclair, R., Weiss, S., Gambhir, S. S. 2009; 5 (1): 126-134

    Abstract

    This study evaluates the influence of particle size, PEGylation, and surface coating on the quantitative biodistribution of near-infrared-emitting quantum dots (QDs) in mice. Polymer- or peptide-coated 64Cu-labeled QDs 2 or 12 nm in diameter, with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG) of molecular weight 2000, are studied by serial micropositron emission tomography imaging and region-of-interest analysis, as well as transmission electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. PEGylation and peptide coating slow QD uptake into the organs of the reticuloendothelial system (RES), liver and spleen, by a factor of 6-9 and 2-3, respectively. Small particles are in part renally excreted. Peptide-coated particles are cleared from liver faster than physical decay alone would suggest. Renal excretion of small QDs and slowing of RES clearance by PEGylation or peptide surface coating are encouraging steps toward the use of modified QDs for imaging living subjects.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/smll.200800003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262895300019

    View details for PubMedID 19051182

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3084659

  • Electron microscopy localization and characterization of functionalized composite organic-inorganic SERS nanoparticles on leukemia cells ULTRAMICROSCOPY Koh, A. L., Shachaf, C. M., Elchuri, S., Nolan, G. P., Sinclair, R. 2008; 109 (1): 111-121

    Abstract

    We demonstrate the use of electron microscopy as a powerful characterization tool to identify and locate antibody-conjugated composite organic-inorganic nanoparticle (COINs) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles on cells. U937 leukemia cells labeled with antibody CD54-conjugated COINs were characterized in their native, hydrated state using wet scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in their dehydrated state using high-resolution SEM. In both cases, the backscattered electron (BSE) detector was used to detect and identify the silver constituents in COINs due to its high sensitivity to atomic number variations within a specimen. The imaging and analytical capabilities in the SEM were further complemented by higher resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) data to give reliable and high-resolution information about nanoparticles and their binding to cell surface antigens.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ultramic.2008.09.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261750500016

    View details for PubMedID 18995965

  • Multiplex Detection of Protease Activity with Quantum Dot Nanosensors Prepared by Intein-Mediated Specific Bioconjugation ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Xia, Z., Xing, Y., So, M., Koh, A. L., Sinclair, R., Rao, J. 2008; 80 (22): 8649-8655

    Abstract

    We report here a protease sensing nanoplatform based on semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (QD-BRET) to detect the protease activity in complex biological samples. These nanosensors consist of bioluminescent proteins as the BRET donor, quantum dots as the BRET acceptor, and protease substrates sandwiched between the two as a sensing group. An intein-mediated conjugation strategy was developed for site-specific conjugation of proteins to QDs in preparing these QD nanosensors. In this traceless ligation, the intein itself is spliced out and excluded from the final conjugation product. With this method, we have synthesized a series of QD nanosensors for highly sensitive detection of an important class of protease matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. We demonstrated that these nanosensors can detect the MMP activity in buffers and in mouse serum with the sensitivity to a few nanograms per milliliter and secreted proteases by tumor cells. The suitability of these nanosensors for a multiplex protease assay has also been shown.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ac801562f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260910900039

    View details for PubMedID 18922019

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2677517

  • TEM analyses of synthetic anti-ferromagnetic (SAF) nanoparticles fabricated using different release layers 11th Conference on Frontiers of Electron Microscopy in Materials Science Koh, A. L., Hu, W., Wilson, R. J., Wang, S. X., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2008: 1490–94

    Abstract

    This paper investigates the structural characteristics of templated synthetic anti-ferromagnetic (SAF) magnetic nanoparticles fabricated on two different release layers. When copper was used as the latter, the layered structure of the SAFs was found to be disrupted with wavy multi-layers due to the formation of copper grains from the release layer. By introducing oxygen into the copper release layer before the deposition of the film, the topography of the oxidized copper grains was effectively controlled. This led to the fabrication of SAF nanoparticles with flat multi-layers.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ultramic.2008.03.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260518200014

    View details for PubMedID 18672328

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2582063

  • Real-time intravital imaging of RGD-quantum dot binding to luminal endothelium in mouse tumor neovasculature NANO LETTERS Smith, B. R., Cheng, Z., De, A., Koh, A. L., Sinclair, R., Gambhir, S. S. 2008; 8 (9): 2599-2606

    Abstract

    Nanoscale materials have increasingly become subject to intense investigation for use in cancer diagnosis and therapy. However, there is a fundamental dearth in cellular-level understanding of how nanoparticles interact within the tumor environment in living subjects. Adopting quantum dots (qdots) for their excellent brightness, photostability, monodispersity, and fluorescent yield, we link arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides to target qdots specifically to newly formed/forming blood vessels expressing alpha vbeta 3 integrins. Using this model nanoparticle system, we exploit intravital microscopy with subcellular ( approximately 0.5 microm) resolution to directly observe and record, for the first time, the binding of nanoparticle conjugates to tumor blood vessels in living subjects. This generalizable method enabled us to show that in this model qdots do not extravasate and, unexpectedly, that they only bind as aggregates rather than individually. This level of understanding is critical on the path toward ensuring regulatory approval of nanoparticles in humans for disease diagnostics and therapeutics. Equally vital, the work provides a platform by which to design and optimize molecularly targeted nanoparticles including quantum dots for applications in living subjects.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl80141f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259140200001

    View details for PubMedID 18386933

  • Improved QD-BRET conjugates for detection and imaging BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS Xing, Y., So, M., Koh, A. L., Sinclair, R., Rao, J. 2008; 372 (3): 388-394

    Abstract

    Self-illuminating quantum dots, also known as QD-BRET conjugates, are a new class of quantum dot bioconjugates which do not need external light for excitation. Instead, light emission relies on the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer from the attached Renilla luciferase enzyme, which emits light upon the oxidation of its substrate. QD-BRET combines the advantages of the QDs (such as superior brightness and photostability, tunable emission, multiplexing) as well as the high sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging, thus holding the promise for improved deep tissue in vivo imaging. Although studies have demonstrated the superior sensitivity and deep tissue imaging potential, the stability of the QD-BRET conjugates in biological environment needs to be improved for long-term imaging studies such as in vivo cell tracking. In this study, we seek to improve the stability of QD-BRET probes through polymeric encapsulation with a polyacrylamide gel. Results show that encapsulation caused some activity loss, but significantly improved both the in vitro serum stability and in vivo stability when subcutaneously injected into the animal. Stable QD-BRET probes should further facilitate their applications for both in vitro testing as well as in vivo cell tracking studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.04.159

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256941300002

    View details for PubMedID 18468518

  • Synthesis and characterization of PVP-coated large core iron oxide nanoparticles as an MRI contrast agent NANOTECHNOLOGY Lee, H., Lee, S., Xu, C., Xie, J., Lee, J., Wu, B., Koh, A. L., Wang, X., Sinclair, R., Xwang, S., Nishimura, D. G., Biswal, S., Sun, S., Cho, S. H., Chen, X. 2008; 19 (16)

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize biocompatible polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated iron oxide (PVP-IO) nanoparticles and to evaluate their efficacy as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. The PVP-IO nanoparticles were synthesized by a thermal decomposition method and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and a superconducting quantum interface device (SQUID). The core size of the particles is about 8-10 nm and the overall size is around 20-30 nm. The measured r(2) (reciprocal of T(2) relaxation time) and r2∗ (reciprocal of T2∗ relaxation time) are 141.2 and 338.1 (s mM)(-1), respectively. The particles are highly soluble and stable in various buffers and in serum. The macrophage uptake of PVP-IO is comparable to that of Feridex as measured by a Prussian blue iron stain and phantom study. The signal intensity of a rabbit liver was effectively reduced after intravenous administration of PVP-IO. Therefore PVP-IO nanoparticles are potentially useful for T(2)-weighted MR imaging.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0957-4484/19/16/165101

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254174800001

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3050625

  • High-moment antiferromagnetic nanoparticles with tunable magnetic properties ADVANCED MATERIALS Hu, W., Wilson, R. J., Koh, A., Fu, A., Faranesh, A. Z., Earhart, C. M., Osterfeld, S. J., Han, S., Xu, L., Guccione, S., Sinclair, R., Wang, S. X. 2008; 20 (8): 1479-?
  • Preparation, structural and magnetic characterization of synthetic anti-ferromagnetic (SAF) nanoparticles PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE Koh, A. L., Hu, W., Wilson, R. J., Wang, S. X., Sinclair, R. 2008; 88 (36): 4225-4241
  • Electron Microscopy Characterization of Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles (COINs) as Raman Labels for Extra-Cellular Analyses Microsc. Microanal. Koh, A., L., Shachaf, C., M., Elchuri, S., Nolan, G., P., Sinclair, R. 2008; 14: 670CD
  • Electron Microscopy Characterization of Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles (COINs) as Raman Labels for Extra-Cellular Analyses Koh, A., L., Shachaf, C., M., Elchuri, S., Nolan, G., P., Sinclair, R. 2008
  • Real-Time Intravital Imaging of RGD−Quantum Dot Binding to Luminal Endothelium in Mouse Tumor Neovasculature Nano Letters Smith, B., R., Cheng, Z., De, A., Koh, A., L., Sinclair, R., Gambhir, S., S. 2008; 9 (8): 2599-2606
  • Analytical TEM examinations of CoPt-TiO2 perpendicular magnetic recording media MICROSCOPY AND MICROANALYSIS Risner, J. D., Nolan, T. P., Bentley, J., Girt, E., Harkness, S. D., Sinclair, R. 2007; 13 (2): 70-79

    Abstract

    For this analytical TEM study, nonmagnetic oxygen-rich boundaries were introduced into Co-Pt-alloy perpendicular recording media by cosputtering Co and Pt with TiO2. Increasing the TiO2 content resulted in changes to the microstructure and elemental distribution within grains and boundaries in these films. EFTEM imaging was used to generate composition maps spanning many tens of grains, thereby giving an overall depiction of the changes in elemental distribution occurring with increasing TiO2 content. Comparing EFTEM with spectrum-imaging maps created by high-resolution STEM with EDXS and EELS enabled both corroboration of EFTEM results and quantification of the chemical composition within individual grain boundary areas. The difficulty of interpreting data from EDXS for these extremely thin films is discussed. Increasing the TiO2 content of the media was found to create more uniformly wide Ti- and O-rich grain boundaries as well as Ti- and O-rich regions within grains.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S14319276070213

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245662200001

    View details for PubMedID 17367546

  • Orientation relationship in diamond and silicon carbide composites DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS Park, J. S., Sinclair, R., Rowcliffe, D., Stern, M., Davidson, H. 2007; 16 (3): 562-565
  • Microstructure and exchange coupling of segregated oxide perpendicular recording media 17th Annual Magnetic Recording Conference (TMRC 2006) Nolan, T. P., Risner, J. D., Harkness, S. D., Girt, E., Wu, S. Z., Ju, G., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 2007: 639–44
  • Composition mapping of Co-Pt-Ti-O perpendicular magnetic recording media by simultaneous EDS and EELS spectrum imaging BENTLEY, J., Risner, J. D., Sinclair, R. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. 2007: 158–159
  • TEM Studies of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Cell Labeling and Magnetic Separation Koh, A., L., Sinclair, R. 2007
  • Grain Size Distribution in CoCrPtO-based Perpendicular Magnetic Recording Media Hossein-Babaei, F., Kwon, U., Sinclair, R. 2007
  • Characterization of Magnetic Nanoparticles by High Resolution TEM Methods Sinclair, R., Li, H., Koh, A., L. 2007
  • TEM Observations of Bio-conjugated Streptavidin-Gold Particles Koh, A., L., Sinclair, R. 2007
  • TEM Studies of Synthetic Anti-ferromagnetic (SAF) Nanoparticles Koh, A., L., Hu, W., Wilson, R., Wang, S., X., Sinclair, R. 2007
  • Characterization of magnetic nano-particles by high resolution TEM methods Sinclair, R., Li, H., Koh, A. L. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. 2007: 66–67
  • Effect of magnetic recording layer thickness on media performance in CoCrPt-oxide perpendicular media 41st IEEE International Magnetics Conference (Intermag 2006) Kwon, U., Jung, H. S., Kuo, M., Velu, E. M., Malhotra, S. S., Jiang, W., Bertero, G., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 2006: 2330–32
  • FIB and TEM studies of interface structure in diamond-SiC composites 10th Meeting on Frontiers of Electron Microscopy in Materials Science Park, J. S., Sinclair, R., Rowcliffe, D., Stern, M., Davidson, H. SPRINGER. 2006: 4611–16
  • Observation of the effect of grain orientation on chromium segregation in longitudinal magnetic media JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Risner, J. D., Sinclair, R., BENTLEY, J. 2006; 99 (3)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2169873

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235341000048

  • Information Storage Technology: The Role of the TEM Sinclair, R., Risner, J., Kwon, U. 2006
  • TEM Studies of Reactions in Thin Films and their Interfaces Sinclair, R. 2006
  • Characterization of AuFe-C Core-shell Nanoparticles Li, H., Dai, H., Xing, L., Sinclair, R. 2006
  • FIB and TEM Studies of Interface Structure in Diamond-SiC Composites Park, J., S., Sinclair, R., Rowcliffe, D., Stern, M., Davidson, H. 2006
  • Ru/Ru-oxide interlayers for CoCrPtO perpendicular recording media International Magnetics Conference (Intermag 2005) Kwon, U., Sinclair, R., Velu, E. M., Malhotra, S., Bertero, G. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 2005: 3193–95
  • High-Resolution Analytical TEM and Energy-Filtered Imaging of CoPt-Oxide Perpendicular Magnetic Recording Media. Microscopy and microanalysis Risner, J. D., Nolan, T. P., BENTLEY, J., Wu, S. Z., Iv, S. D., Sinclair, R. 2005; 11: 1806-1807

    Abstract

    Extended abstract of a paper presented at Microscopy and Microanalysis 2005 in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, July 31--August 4, 2005.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S1431927605502186

    View details for PubMedID 24017771

  • Crystallization behaviour of ALD-Ta2O5 thin films: the application of in-situ TEM PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE Min, K. H., Sinclair, R., Park, I. S., Kim, S. T., Chung, U. I. 2005; 85 (18): 2049-2063
  • Crystallization and anisotropic dielectric properties of tantalum oxide thin films JOURNAL OF CERAMIC PROCESSING RESEARCH Min, K. H., Sinclair, R. 2005; 6 (1): 17-19
  • Application of in situ HREM to study crystallization in materials 6th Conference of the Yugoslav-Materials-Research-Society Sinclair, R., Min, K. H., Kwon, U. TRANS TECH PUBLICATIONS LTD. 2005: 7–11
  • HRTEM and Nano-probe EDS Studies on the Microstructure of CoCrPtO Perpendicular Recording Media with Ru/Ru-oxide Interlayers Kwon, U., Sinclair, R. 2005
  • High-Resolution Analytical TEM and Energy-Filtered Imaging of CoPt-Oxide Perpendicular Magnetic Recording Media Risner, J., D., Nolan, T., P., Bentley, J., Wu, S., Z., Harkness, S., D., Sinclair, R. 2005
  • Application of In Situ HREM to Study Crystallization in Materials Materials Science Forum Sinclair, R., Min, K., H., Kwon, U. 2005; 494: 7-12
  • Crystallization Behavior of ALD-Ta2O5 Thin Films: An Application of In-situ TEM Philos. Mag. Min, K., H., Sinclair, R., Park, I., S., Kim, S., T., Chung, U., I. 2005; 18 (85): 2049-2063
  • Synthesis and Characterization of Fe-C Core-shell Nanoparticles Li, H., Dai, H., Sinclair, R. 2005
  • Investigation of the chemical state of ultrathin Hf-Al-O films during high temperature annealing SURFACE SCIENCE Cho, M. H., Chang, H. S., Cho, Y. J., Moon, D. W., Min, K. H., Sinclair, R., Kang, S. K., Ko, D. H., Lee, J. H., Gu, J. H., Lee, N. I. 2004; 554 (1): L75-L80
  • Change in the chemical state and thermal stability of HfO2 by the incorporation of Al2O3 APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Cho, M. H., Chang, H. S., Cho, Y. J., Moon, D. W., Min, K. H., Sinclair, R., Kang, S. K., Ko, D. H., Lee, J. H., Gu, J. H., Lee, N. I. 2004; 84 (4): 571-573

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1633976

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188316500039

  • Carbide evolution in temper embrittled NiCrMoV bainitic steel STEEL RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL Wittig, J. E., Sinclair, R. 2004; 75 (1): 47-54
  • High Resolution and Analytical TEM of Cr Grain Boundary Segregation in Co-alloy Longitudinal Hard Disk Magnetic Recording Media Risner, J., Sinclair, R., Bentley, J. 2004
  • Recent developments in nano-characterization of materials JOURNAL OF CERAMIC PROCESSING RESEARCH Sinclair, R., Li, H., Risner, J., Kwon, U., Huh, J. U., Chin, R. W., Min, K. H. 2004; 5 (1): 5-9
  • Thermal stability of epitaxial Pt films on Y2O3 in a metal-oxide-Si structure APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Cho, M. H., Moon, D. W., Min, K. H., Sinclair, R., Park, S. A., Kim, Y. K., Jeong, K., Kang, S. K., Ko, D. H. 2003; 83 (23): 4758-4760

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1632541

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186970200024

  • Transmission electron microscopy analysis of computer hard disc, magnetic thin films 11th International Conference on Electron Microscopy of Solids Risner, J., Kwon, U., Park, D. W., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2003: 241–43
  • Characterization for crystallization of SrBi2Nb2O9 thin films on Si substrates 11th Seoul International Symposium on the Physics of Semiconductors and Applications Yoo, D. C., Lee, J. Y., Sinclair, R., Kim, I. S., Kim, Y. T. KOREAN PHYSICAL SOC. 2003: S450–S453
  • The effects of slider material on the gasification of carbon JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME Ramirez, A. G., Sinclair, R., Harkins, C. G., Lin, A. R. 2002; 124 (4): 771-774

    View details for DOI 10.1115/1.1467613

    View details for Web of Science ID 000178565200013

  • In situ TEM studies of metal-carbon reactions MICROSCOPY AND MICROANALYSIS Sinclair, R., Itoh, T., Chin, R. 2002; 8 (4): 288-304

    Abstract

    The reactions which occur between amorphous carbon and a number of first transition metals (Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) have been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The materials are in thin-film form with the metal layer sandwiched between thicker carbon layers. In four cases, the predominant reaction is the graphitization of the amorphous carbon, at temperatures well below 800 degrees C. This is brought about by the elements themselves in the case of Co and Ni, and by metastable carbides in the case of Fe (Fe3C) and Cr (Cr3C2-x). The Ti-C and Cu-C systems do not exhibit graphitization. For the former, only TiC is produced up to 1000 degrees C, while the carbon does not react at all with copper. In situ TEM studies show the mechanism to be of the dissolution-precipitation type, which is equivalent to the metal-mediated crystallization process for amorphous silicon and germanium. The heat of graphitization is found to be 18-19 kcal/mol-C by differential scanning calorimetry.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S1431927602020226

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179056000007

    View details for PubMedID 12533226

  • In Situ HREM of Crystallization Reactions Sinclair, R., Min, K., H. 2002
  • In-Situ Heating Study of Materials Sinclair, R., Min, K., H. 2002
  • Failure Analysis of Ferroelectric RAM Device by Transmission Electron Microscopy Baik, H., S., Park, G., S., Song, S., A., Lee, J., K., Sinclair, R. 2002
  • Reactions in Metal-Carbon Systems Sinclair, R., Itoh, T., Chin, R. 2002
  • TEM Microstructure Studies of Thin Film Magnetic Recording Media Sinclair, R., Kwon, U., Risner, J., D. 2002
  • Grain Size Relationship Between the Magnetic Layer and the Underlayer in CoCrPtTa Recording Media Ma, K., Sinclair, R., Bertero, G., Cao, W. 2001
  • Microstructural characterization of longitudinal magnetic recording media Symposium on Advances in Materials Problem Solving with the Electron Microscope held at the 1999 MRS Fall Meeting Sinclair, R., Park, D. W., Habermeier, C., Ma, K. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 2001: 3–12
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy of Computer Hard Disc, Magnetic Thin Films Sinclair, R. edited by Kawaii, T. 2001
  • Quantitative EFTEM of Cr Grain Boundary Segregation in CoCrTa Wittig, J., E., Al-Sharab, J., F., Bentley, J., Evans, N., D., Nolan, T., P., Sinclair, R. 2001
  • Microstructural Characterization of Longitudinal Magnetic Recording Media Sinclair, R., Park, D., W., Habermeier, C., Ma, K. 2001
  • In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of Materials Sinclair, R., Min, K., H. edited by Chen, L., J. 2001
  • Grain size analysis of longitudinal thin film media 44th Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials Park, D. W., Sinclair, R., Lal, B. B., Malhotra, S. S., Russak, M. A. AMER INST PHYSICS. 2000: 5687–89
  • In Situ HREM of Interface Reactions Sinclair, R. edited by Yoshihara, K. 2000
  • Thermal stability of a Cu/Ta multilayer: An intriguing interfacial reaction Acta Materialia Workshop on Materials Science and Mechanics of Interfaces Lee, H. J., Kwon, K. W., Ryu, C., Sinclair, R. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 1999: 3965–75
  • A study of the failure mechanism of a titanium nitride diffusion barrier JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Lee, H. J., Sinclair, R., Li, P., Roberts, B. 1999; 86 (6): 3096-3103
  • Study of DC plasma oxidized Al2O3 barriers in spin dependent tunneling junctions using high resolution transmission electron microscopy 1999 International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG 99) Clark, T. E., Mancoff, F. B., Wang, S. X., Clemens, B. M., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1999: 2922–24
  • Case study of media noise mechanisms in longitudinal recording 1999 International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG 99) Yen, E. T., Wu, S. Z., Thomson, T., Ristau, R., Ranjan, R., Rauch, G. C., Habermeier, C., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1999: 2730–32
  • Solid-state amorphization at tetragonal-Ta/Cu interfaces APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Kwon, K. W., Lee, H. J., Sinclair, R. 1999; 75 (7): 935-937
  • Wear-induced modifications of amorphous carbon in the presence of magnetic media 43rd Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials Ramirez, A. G., Sinclair, R. AMER INST PHYSICS. 1999: 5597–99
  • Growth and characterization of epitaxial NiMnSb/PtMnSb C1(b) Heusler alloy superlattices JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Mancoff, F. B., Bobo, J. F., Richter, O. E., Bessho, K., Johnson, P. R., Sinclair, R., Nix, W. D., White, R. L., Clemens, B. M. 1999; 14 (4): 1560-1569
  • Crystallization of amorphous carbon thin films in the presence of magnetic media JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Ramirez, A. G., Itoh, T., Sinclair, R. 1999; 85 (3): 1508-1513
  • Thermal Stability of a Cu/Ta Multilayer: an Intriguing Interfacial Reaction Acta Mater. Lee, H., J., Kwon, K., W., Ryu, C., Sinclair, R. 1999; 15/16 (47): 3965-3975
  • Thermal Stability of the Copper/Tantalum Interfaces in Advanced Microelectronic Metallization Kwon, K., W., Lee, H., J., Sinclair, R. 1999
  • Growth and Characterization of Epitaxial NiMnSb/PtMnSb C1b Heusler Alloy Superlattices J. Mater. Res. Mancoff, F., B., Bobo, J., F., Richter, O., Bessho, K., Johnson, P., R., Sinclair, R. 1999; 4 (14): 1560-1569
  • Magnetic Imaging of Recording Media Sinclair, R., Tang, K. 1999
  • Kinetic analysis of the C49-to-C54 phase transformation in TiSi2 thin films by in situ observation JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 1-REGULAR PAPERS BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS & REVIEW PAPERS Tanaka, H., Hirashita, N., Sinclair, R. 1998; 37 (8): 4284-4287
  • Effects of ultra-high vacuum on crystallographic, recording and magnetic properties of thin film media 7th Joint MMM-Intermag Conference Gao, C., Wu, S., Chen, J. P., Malmhall, R., Habermeier, C., Sinclair, R., Laidler, H., O'Grady, K. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1998: 1576–78
  • Chromium segregation in CoCrTa/Cr and CoCrPt/Cr thin films for longitudinal recording media 7th Joint MMM-Intermag Conference Wittig, J. E., Nolan, T. P., Ross, C. A., Schabes, M. E., Tang, K., Sinclair, R., BENTLEY, J. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1998: 1564–66
  • Interfacial reaction in the poly-Si/Ta2O5/TiN capacitor system JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Lee, H. J., Sinclair, R., Lee, M. B., Lee, H. D. 1998; 83 (1): 139-144
  • Chromium distribution in CoCrTa/Cr longitudinal recording media Symposium L on Materials for High-Density Magnetic Recording / Symposium M on Integrated Magneto-Optics at the MRS Spring Meeting Wittig, J. E., Nolan, T. P., Sinclair, R., BENTLEY, J. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 1998: 211–216
  • Roughness Measurements of Thin SiO2 and poly-Si Interfaces Using High Resolution Cross-Sectional TEM Yamaguchi, M., Sinclair, R., Niwa, M. 1998
  • Chromium Distrubution in CoCrTa/Cr Longitudinal Recording Media Wittig, J., E., Nolan, T., P., Sinclair, R., Bentley, J. 1998
  • Evidence of heteroepitaxial growth of copper on beta-tantalum APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Kwon, K. V., Ryu, C., Sinclair, R., Wong, S. S. 1997; 71 (21): 3069-3071
  • Wear effects on microstructural features of amorphous-carbon thin films 24th International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films (ICMCTF 97) Ramirez, A. G., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 1997: 549–54
  • Magnetic clusters, intergranular exchange interaction and their microstructural basis in thin film longitudinal media 35th Annual IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG 97) Tang, K., Schabes, M. E., Ross, C. A., He, L., Ranjan, R., Yamashita, T., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1997: 4074–76
  • Nanoroughness effect on Cr growth mechanism 41st Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials Chang, J. J., Chen, Q. X., Chen, G. L., Sinclair, R. AMER INST PHYSICS. 1997: 3943–45
  • Evolution of bicrystal media development 7th Annual Magnetic Recording Conference (TMRC) on Media Chang, J. J., Peng, Q. Z., Chen, Q. X., Lin, Z. H., Yen, E., Chen, G. L., Bertram, H. N., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1997: 885–90
  • Roughness measurements of thin SiO2 and poly-Si interfaces using high resolution cross-sectional TEM Symposium on Silicon Nitride and Silicon Dioxide Thin Insulating Films Yamaguchi, M., Sinclair, R., Niwa, M. ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY INC. 1997: 232–39
  • Evidence of Heteroepitaxial Growth of Copper on β-Tantalum Appl. Phys. Lett. Kwon, K., W., Ryu, C., Sinclair, R., Wong, S., S. 1997; 71: 3069-3071
  • Evolution of Bicrystal Media IEEE Trans. Magn. Chang, J., K., Peng, Q., Chen, Q., Chen, G., L., Bertram, H., N., Sinclair, R. 1997; 33: 885-890
  • Micromagnetic and Microstructure-Property Relationships in Magnetic Recording Media Sinclair, R., Tang, K., McKinlay, S., E. 1997
  • Applications of TEM for Analysis of Local Failures Occurring During Si Metallization Process Lee, H., J., Sinclair, R. 1997
  • Wear Effects on the Microstructural Features of Amorphous Carbon Thin Film Surf. Coat. Tech. Ramirez, A., Sinclair, R. 1997; 94-95: 549-554
  • Structure-Property Relationships in Sputtered Magneto-optic Multilayers Sinclair, R., Bertero, G., A., Visokay, M., R. 1997
  • Nano-roughness Effect on Cr Growth Mechanism J. Appl. Phys. Chang, J., K., Chen, Q., Chen, G., L., Sinclair, R. 1997; 8 (81): 3943-3946
  • Diffusion Barrier Stability in ULSI Applications Sinclair, R., Lee, H., J., Kwon, K., W. 1997
  • In Situ HREM of Reactions at Interfaces Sinclair, R., Itoh, T., Lee, H., J., Kwon, K., W. 1997
  • Characterization of Ta as an underlayer for Cu Interconnects Kwon, K., W., Lee, H., J., Ryu, C., Sinclair, R., Wong, S., S. 1997
  • Growth of alpha' nitrogen martensite and Fe16N2 films using (001)silicon substrates 1996 IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG 96) Clark, T. E., Visokay, M. R., Zhu, N. C., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1996: 3503–5
  • Microstructure/magnetic property relationships in CoCrPt magnetic thin films 1996 IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG 96) McKinlay, S. E., FUSSING, N., Sinclair, R., Doerner, M. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1996: 3587–89
  • Thin film media with and without bicrystal cluster structure on glass ceramic substrates 1996 IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG 96) Chen, Q. X., Chang, J. J., Chen, G. L., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1996: 3599–3601
  • Measurements of crystalline anisotropy on longitudinal media 1996 IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG 96) Chang, J. J., Peng, Q. Z., Bertram, H. N., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1996: 4902–4
  • Lorentz transmission electron microscopy study of micromagnetic structures in real computer hard disks 1996 IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG 96) Tang, K., Visokay, M. R., Ross, C. A., Ranjan, R., Yamashita, T., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1996: 4130–32
  • Analyses of stacking fault density in Co-alloy thin films by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy 1996 IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG 96) Ishikawa, A., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1996: 3605–7
  • Atomically flat, ultra thin-SiO2/Si(001) interface formation by UHV healing 13th International Vacuum Congress/9th International Conference on Solid Surfaces (IVC-13/ICSS-9) Niwa, M., Okada, K., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1996: 425–430
  • In situ observation of the C49-to-C54 phase transformation in TiSi2 thin films by transmission electron microscopy JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 2-LETTERS Tanaka, H., Hirashita, N., Sinclair, R. 1996; 35 (4B): L479-L481
  • Structural comparisons of ion beam and de magnetron sputtered spin valves by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy 40th Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials Bailey, W. E., Zhu, N. C., Sinclair, R., Wang, S. X. AMER INST PHYSICS. 1996: 6393–95
  • Anomalous moment and anisotropy behavior in Fe3O4 films PHYSICAL REVIEW B Margulies, D. T., Parker, F. T., Spada, F. E., GOLDMAN, R. S., Li, J., Sinclair, R., Berkowitz, A. E. 1996; 53 (14): 9175-9187
  • Magnetic and structural characteristics of sputtered barium ferrite thin films 6th International Conference on Magnetic Recording Media Li, J. S., Rosenbluem, S. S., Hayashi, H., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1996: 157–60
  • As-deposited crystalline barium ferrite thin film media for longitudinal recording JOURNAL OF MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS Li, J. S., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S. S., Hayashi, H. 1996; 153 (1-2): 246-254
  • Effects of Pt addition on the magnetic and crystallographic properties of Co-Cr-Pt thin-film media JOURNAL OF MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS Ishikawa, A., Sinclair, R. 1996; 152 (1-2): 265-273
  • In situ atomic resolution electron microscopy of metal-mediated crystallization of semiconductors 2nd International Conference on Grain Growth in Polycrystalline Materials Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. TRANS TECH PUBLICATIONS LTD. 1996: 749–754
  • The failure mechanism of MOCVD TiN diffusion barrier at high temperature Symposium on Materials Reliability in Microelectronics VI, at the 1996 MRS Spring Meeting LEE, H., Sinclair, R. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 1996: 279–284
  • In Situ Atomic Resolution Electron Microscopy of Metal-Mediated Crystallization of Semiconductors Materials Science Forum Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1996; 204-206: 749-754
  • In Situ Observation of the C49-to-C54 Phase Transformation in TiSi2 Thin Films by Transmission Electron Microscopy Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. Tanaka, H., Hirashita, N., Sinclair, R. 1996; 35: L479-481
  • Effects of Pt Addition on the Magnetic and Crystallographic Properties of Co-Cr-Pt Thin Film Media J. Magn. Magn. Mater. Ishikawa, A., Sinclair, R. 1996; 152: 265-273
  • Structural Comparisons of Ion-Beam and RF Sputter-Deposited GMR Spin Valves by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy J. Appl. Phys. Bailey, W., E., Zhu, N., C., Sinclair, R., Wang, S., X. 1996; 79: 6393-6395
  • Strategies and Opportunities for In-Situ Electron Microscopy Sinclair, R. edited by Munoz, E., M. Rivera 1996
  • Micromagnetic and Experimental Studies of CoPtCr Polycrystalline Thin Film Media with Bicrystal Microstructure IEEE Trans. Magn. Peng, Q., Bertram, H., N., Fussing, N., Doerner, M., F., Mirzamaani, M., Margulies, D., Sinclair, R. 1996; 31: 2821-2823
  • Microstructure-Magnetic Property Relationships in CoCrPt Magnetic Thin Films IEEE Trans. Magn. McKinlay, S., Fussing, N., Sinclair, R., Doerner, M., F. 1996; 32: 3587-3589
  • A Failure Mechanism of MOCVD TiN Diffusion Barriers at High Temperatures Lee, H., J., Li, P., Roberts, B., Sinclair, R. 1996
  • Growth of a' Nitrogen-Martensite and Fe16N2 Films Using (001) Silicon Substrates IEEE Trans. Magn. Clark, T., E., Visokay, M., R., Zhu, N., Sinclair, R. 1996; 32: 3503-3505
  • In Situ Electron and Tunneling Microscopy of Dynamic Processes edited by Sharma, R., Gai, P., L., Gajdardziska-Josifovska, M. 1996
  • Thin Film Media With and Without Bicrystal Cluster Structure on Glass Ceramic Structures IEEE Trans. Magn. Chen, Q., Chang, J., K., Chen, G., L., Sinclair, R. 1996; 32: 3599-3601
  • Physical characterization of two-dimensional doping profiles for process modeling 3rd International Workshop on the Measurement and Characterization of Ultra-Shallow Doping Profiles in Semiconductors Alvis, R., Luning, S., Thompson, L., Sinclair, R., Griffin, P. A V S AMER INST PHYSICS. 1996: 231–35
  • MICROSTRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF NIFE/AG MULTILAYERS STUDIED BY X-RAY-DIFFRACTION AND IN-SITU HIGH-RESOLUTION TEM JOURNAL OF MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS Snoeck, E., Sinclair, R., Parker, M. A., Hylton, T. L., Coffey, K. R., Howard, J. K., Lessmann, A., BIENENSTOCK, A. I. 1995; 151 (1-2): 24-32
  • KERR ROTATIONS AND ANISOTROPY IN (PT/CO/PT)/X MULTILAYERS 33rd Annual Intermag Conference Bertero, G. A., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1995: 3337–42
  • MICROMAGNETIC AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF COPTCR POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN-FILM MEDIA WITH BICRYSTAL MICROSTRUCTURE 33rd Annual Intermag Conference Peng, Q. S., Bertram, H. N., FUSSING, N., Doerner, M., Mirzamaani, M., Margulies, D., Sinclair, R., Lambert, S. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1995: 2821–23
  • HIGH-DENSITY RECORDING CHARACTERISTICS OF SPUTTERED BARIUM FERRITE THIN-FILMS 33rd Annual Intermag Conference Li, J. S., Rosenblum, S. S., NOJIMA, W., Hayashi, H., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1995: 2749–51
  • INTERFACIAL REACTIONS IN THE ZR-SI SYSTEM STUDIED BY IN-SITU TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Tanaka, H., Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R., Hirashita, N. 1995; 78 (8): 4982-4987
  • REACTION-MEDIATED TEXTURING OF BARIUM FERRITE MAGNETIC THIN-FILMS ON ZNO UNDERLAYER JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Li, J. S., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S. S., Hayashi, H. 1995; 10 (9): 2343-2349
  • STRUCTURE AND CORROSION PROPERTIES OF AL/SI AND FE/ZR MULTILAYERS 3rd US/Japan Seminar on Development and Environmental Characteristics of New Materials Nakayama, T., Yamamoto, K., Satoh, H., Konno, T. J., Clemens, B. M., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 1995: 19–24
  • INTERFACE STRUCTURE AND PERPENDICULAR MAGNETIC-ANISOTROPY IN PT/CO MULTILAYERS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Bertero, G. A., Sinclair, R., Park, C. H., Shen, Z. X. 1995; 77 (8): 3953-3959
  • DIRECT FORMATION OF ORDERED COPT AND FEPT COMPOUND THIN-FILMS BY SPUTTERING APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Visokay, M. R., Sinclair, R. 1995; 66 (13): 1692-1694
  • METAL-MEDIATED CRYSTALLIZATION OF AMORPHOUS-GERMANIUM IN GERMANIUM SILVER LAYERED SYSTEMS PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE B-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STATISTICAL MECHANICS ELECTRONIC OPTICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. 1995; 71 (2): 179-199
  • CRYSTALLIZATION OF AMORPHOUS-CARBON IN CARBON-COBALT LAYERED THIN-FILMS ACTA METALLURGICA ET MATERIALIA Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. 1995; 43 (2): 471-484
  • METAL-MEDIATED CRYSTALLIZATION OF AMORPHOUS-SILICON IN SILICON SILVER LAYERED SYSTEMS PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE B-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STATISTICAL MECHANICS ELECTRONIC OPTICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. 1995; 71 (2): 163-178
  • Quantitative measurement of interface fracture energy in multi-layer thin film structures 5th Symposium on Materials Reliability in Microelectronics, at the 1995 MRS Spring Meeting Ma, Q., Fujimoto, H., Flinn, P., Jain, V., AdibiRizi, F., Moghadam, F., Dauskardt, R. H. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1995: 91–96
  • Growth and characterization of FePt compound thin films Symposium on Magnetic Ultrathin Films, Multilayers and Surfaces Visokay, M. R., Sinclair, R. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1995: 91–96
  • Study of diffusion barrier performance in MOCVD TiN by transmission electron microscopy 5th Symposium on Materials Reliability in Microelectronics, at the 1995 MRS Spring Meeting LEE, H., Sinclair, R., Roberts, B., Jackson, R. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1995: 205–209
  • In situ TEM study of reactions in iron amorphous carbon layered thin films Symposium on Structure and Properties of Multilayered Thin Films, at the 1995 MRS Spring Meeting Itoh, T., Sinclair, R. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1995: 45–50
  • Interface reaction enhanced epitaxial growth of barium ferrite magnetic thin films Symposium on Structure and Properties of Interfaces in Ceramics, at the 1994 Fall Meeting of the Materials-Research-Society Li, J. S., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S. S., Hayashi, H. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1995: 165–170
  • TEM study of crystallization of a-SiC in contact with silver Symposium on Structure and Properties of Multilayered Thin Films, at the 1995 MRS Spring Meeting Zhu, N. C., Sinclair, R. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1995: 39–44
  • HREM of Ultra-thin Oxides Sinclair, R., Niwa, M., Kouzaki, T. 1995
  • In Situ TEM Study of Reactions in Iron/Amorphous Carbon Layered Thin Films Itoh, T., Sinclair, R. 1995
  • (Pt/Co/Pt)/X Multilayer Thin Films for Magneto-Optic Media Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R. 1995
  • High Density Recording Characteristics of Sputtered Barium Ferrite Thin Films IEEE Trans. Magn. Li, J., Rosenblum, S., S., Nojima, W., Hayashi, H., Sinclair, R. 1995; 31: 2749-2751
  • Direct Formation of Ordered CoPt and FePt Compound Thin Films by Sputtering Appl. Phys. Lett. Visokay, M., R., Sinclair, R. 1995; 66: 1692-1694
  • TEM study of Crystallization of a-SiC in Contact with Silver Zhu, N., C., Sinclair, R. 1995
  • Interface Reaction Enhanced Epitaxial Growth of Barium Ferrite Magnetic Thin Films Li, J., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S., S., Hayashi, H. 1995
  • Formation of Epitaxial (001) Ordered FePd Films from Multilayer Precursors Visokay, M., R., Lairson, B., M., Clemens, B., M., Sinclair, R. 1995
  • In Situ Electron Microscopy and its Application to Semiconductor Reactions at High Resolution Sinclair, R. 1995
  • Thermochemical Properties and Phase Diagrams in Properties of Metal Silicides Sinclair, R., Madar, R., Setton, M. edited by Maex, K., van Rossum, M. Inst. Elec. Eng’rs, London. 1995: 95–152
  • Formation of Epitaxial (001) Ordered FePd Films from Multilayer Precursors J. Mag. Soc. Jpn. Visokay, M., R., Lairson, B., M., Clemens, B., M., Sinclair, R. 1995; 19: 399-403
  • Study of Diffusion Barrier Performance of MOCVD-TiN Lee, H., J., Sinclair, R., Roberts, B., E., Jackson, R. 1995
  • Crystallization of Amorphous Carbon in Carbon-Cobalt Layered Thin Films Acta Metall. Mater. Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1995; 43: 471-484
  • Metal-Mediated Crystallization of Amorphous Germanium in Germanium-Silver Layered Systems Philos. Mag. B Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1995; 71: 179-199
  • Microstructural Evolution of NiFe/Ag Multilayers Studied by X-ray Diffraction and In Situ TEM J. Magn. Magn. Mater. Snoeck, E., Sinclair, R., Parker, M., A., Hylton, T., L., Coffey, K., R., Howard, J., K. 1995; 151: 24-32
  • Pt/Co/Pt)/X Multilayer Thin Films for Magneto-Optic Media J. Mag. Soc. Jpn. Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R. 1995; 19: 201-204
  • Crystallization in metal-metalloid multilayers Symposium on Structure and Properties of Multilayered Thin Films, at the 1995 MRS Spring Meeting Sinclair, R., Konno, T. J., Itoh, T., Zhu, N. C. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1995: 3–8
  • Interfacial Reactions in the Zr/Si System Studied by In-Situ TEM J. Appl. Phys. Tanaka, H., Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R., Hiroshita, N. 1995; 78: 4982-4987
  • Interface Structure and Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in Pt/Co Multilayers J. Appl. Phys. Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R., Park, C., H., Shen, Z., X. 1995; 77: 3953-3959
  • Microstructural, Magnetic and Magneto-Optical Properties of (100) and (111) Oriented Thick ‘FCC’ Cobalt Single Crystal Ozkan, M., Suzuki, T., Miller, D., Kellock, A., Chang, C., A., Sinclair, R. 1995
  • Microstructural, Magnetic and Magneto-Optical Properties of (100) and (111) Oriented Thick ‘FCC’ Cobalt Single Crystal J. Mag. Soc. Jpn. Ozkan, M., Suzuki, T., Miller, D., Kellock, A., Chang, C., A., Sinclair, R. 1995; 19 (S1): 267-270
  • Observation of micromagnetic structure in computer hard disks by Lorentz transmission electron microscopy Symposium on Magnetic Ultrathin Films, Multilayers and Surfaces Tang, K., Visokay, M. R., Sinclair, R. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1995: 21–26
  • Reaction Mediated Texturing of Barium Ferrite Magnetic Thin Films J. Mater. Res. Li, J., Rosenblum, S., S., Hayashi, H., Sinclair, R. 1995; 10: 2343-2349
  • Metal-Mediated Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon in Silicon-Silver Layered Systems Philos. Mag. B Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1995; 71: 163-178
  • HREM analysis of ultra-thin oxides 4th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated-Circuit Technology Sinclair, R., Niwa, M., Kouzaki, T. PUBLISHING HOUSE ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY. 1995: A739–A741
  • IN-SITU HREM - APPLICATION TO METAL-MEDIATED CRYSTALLIZATION International Symposium on High-Voltage and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy - Achievements and Future Developments Sinclair, R., Konno, T. J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1994: 225–32
  • TEMPERATURE AND ORIENTATION EFFECTS ON THE MAGNETIC-PROPERTIES OF DOPED BARIUM FERRITE THIN-FILMS 6th Joint Magnetism and Magnetic Materials-Intermag Conference Li, J. S., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S. S., Hayashi, H. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1994: 4050–52
  • LONGITUDINAL RECORDING PERFORMANCE OF SPUTTERED BARIUM FERRITE MEDIA ON A CARBON RIGID DISK SUBSTRATE 6th Joint Magnetism and Magnetic Materials-Intermag Conference Rosenblum, S. S., Hayashi, H., Li, J. S., Sinclair, R. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1994: 4047–49
  • OXYGEN COULOMETRIC TITRATION STUDY OF M-BA-FERRITE SOLID STATE IONICS Li, J. S., Gur, T. M., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S. S., Hayashi, H. 1994; 73 (3-4): 185-188
  • FORMATION OF EPITAXIAL FERROMAGNETIC INTERMETALLICS BY SOLID-STATE REACTION OF EPITAXIAL MULTILAYERS Clemens, B. M., Lairson, B. M., VISOKAY, M., Artymowicz, D., Sinclair, R. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 1994: 518-INOR
  • CONTAMINATION CONTROL RESEARCH ROUND-TABLE MEETS JOURNAL OF THE IES Cooper, D. W., OHANLON, ENSOR, Kasper, Fu, FRANCIS, RADER, SINCLAIR, KNOLLENBERG, Sommer 1994; 37 (4): 10-11
  • (PT/CO/PT)/X MULTILAYER FILMS WITH HIGH KERR ROTATIONS AND LARGE PERPENDICULAR MAGNETIC ANISOTROPIES APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Bertero, G. A., Sinclair, R. 1994; 64 (24): 3337-3339
  • IN-SITU DYNAMIC HIGH-RESOLUTION TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY - APPLICATION TO PT/GAAS INTERFACIAL REACTIONS ULTRAMICROSCOPY Ko, D. H., Sinclair, R. 1994; 54 (2-4): 166-178
  • STUDIES OF MATERIAL REACTIONS BY IN-SITU HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY MRS BULLETIN Sinclair, R. 1994; 19 (6): 26-31
  • THERMOCHEMICAL STABILITY OF BAFE12O19 AND BAFE2O4 AND PHASE-RELATIONS IN THE BA-FE-O TERNARY-SYSTEM JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Li, J. S., Gur, T. M., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S. S., Hayashi, H. 1994; 9 (6): 1499-1512
  • NOISE PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF ORIENTED COCRTA/CR MEDIA 38th Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (MMM 93) Ranjan, R., BENNETT, W. R., Tarnopolsky, G. J., Yamashita, T., Nolan, T., Sinclair, R. AMER INST PHYSICS. 1994: 6144–46
  • METAL-CONTACT-INDUCED CRYSTALLIZATION OF SEMICONDUCTORS 8th International Conference on Rapidly Quenched and Metastable Materials Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 1994: 426–432
  • STRUCTURE-PROPERTY CORRELATIONS IN PT/CO MULTILAYERS FOR MAGNETOOPTIC RECORDING JOURNAL OF MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS Bertero, G. A., Sinclair, R. 1994; 134 (1): 173-184
  • CRYSTALLIZATION OF CO-SPUTTERED AMORPHOUS COBALT-CARBON ALLOYS - MORPHOLOGY AND KINETICS OF SPHERULITIC GROWTH 8th International Conference on Rapidly Quenched and Metastable Materials Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 1994: 297–302
  • CRYSTALLIZATION OF CO-SPUTTERED AMORPHOUS COBALT CARBON ALLOYS ACTA METALLURGICA ET MATERIALIA Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. 1994; 42 (4): 1231-1247
  • ATOMIC-ORDER PLANARIZATION OF ULTRATHIN SIO2/SI(001) INTERFACES 1993 International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (SSDM 93) Niwa, M., Kouzaki, T., Okada, K., Udagawa, M., Sinclair, R. JAPAN SOC APPLIED PHYSICS. 1994: 388–94
  • ON THE PERPENDICULAR MAGNETIC-ANISOTROPY OF PT CO MULTILAYERS - STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS Symposium on Polycrystalline Thin Films: Structure, Texture, Properties and Applications, at the 1994 MRS Spring Meeting Bertero, G. A., Sinclair, R. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1994: 369–374
  • Observations of ferroelectric domain walls in KTP by HREM 13th International Congress on Electron Microscopy Snoeck, E., Sinclair, R. EDITIONS PHYSIQUE. 1994: 233–234
  • EFFECT OF INTERLAYERS UPON TEXTURE AND MAGNETIC-PROPERTIES IN CO ALLOY MULTILAYER FILMS FOR LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIC RECORDING Symposium on Polycrystalline Thin Films: Structure, Texture, Properties and Applications, at the 1994 MRS Spring Meeting Visokay, M. R., Kuwabara, M., SAFFARI, H., Hayashi, H., Sinclair, R., Onishi, Y. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1994: 381–386
  • TEM AND IN-SITU HREM FOR STUDYING METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACIAL REACTIONS International Meeting on Reactive Phase Formation at Interfaces and Diffusion Processes Sinclair, R., Konno, T. J., Ko, D. H. TRANSTEC PUBLICATIONS LTD. 1994: 111–120
  • IN-SITU TEM OBSERVATION OF INTERFACIAL REACTIONS IN THE ZR/SI SYSTEM Symposium on Advanced Metallization for Devices and Circuits: Science, Technology and Manufacturability Tanaka, H., Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1994: 481–485
  • In situ HREM of phase reactions (invited) 13th International Congress on Electron Microscopy Sinclair, R., Konno, T. J., Ko, D. H. EDITIONS PHYSIQUE. 1994: 429–430
  • ATOMICALLY LAYERED STRUCTURES FOR PERPENDICULAR MAGNETIC INFORMATION-STORAGE Symposium on Polycrystalline Thin Films: Structure, Texture, Properties and Applications, at the 1994 MRS Spring Meeting Lairson, B. M., Visokay, M. R., Sinclair, R., Brennan, S. M., Clemens, B. M., Perez, J., Baldwin, C. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1994: 359–367
  • CORRELATION OF MICRO-STRUCTURAL, MICRO-CHEMICAL AND MICRO-MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF LONGITUDINAL RECORDING MEDIA USING CM20FEG LORENTZ TEM 52nd Annual Meeting of the Microscopy-Society-of-America/29th Annual Meeting of the Microbeam-Analysis-Society Nolan, T. P., Sinclair, R., Yamashita, T., Ranjan, R. SAN FRANCISCO PRESS INC. 1994: 892–893
  • NICKEL MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF AMORPHOUS CARBON TO GRAPHITE Symposium on Novel Forms of Carbon II, at the 1994 MRS Spring Meeting Itoh, T., Sinclair, R. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1994: 31–36
  • CHARACTERIZATION OF SPUTTERED BARIUM FERRITE THIN-FILMS ON SILICON-NITRIDE COATED CARBON SUBSTRATES Symposium on Epitaxial Oxide Thin Films and Heterostructures, at the MRS Spring Meeting Li, J. S., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S. S., Hayashi, H. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1994: 59–64
  • TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY OF MOCVD TITANIUM NITRIDE FILMS Symposium on Advanced Metallization for Devices and Circuits: Science, Technology and Manufacturability Itoh, T., Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R., RAAIJMAKERS, I. J., Roberts, B. E. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1994: 735–740
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy of MOCVD Titanium Nitride Films Itoh, T., Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R., M. Raaijmakers, I., J.M., Roberts, B., E. 1994
  • Polycrystalline Thin Films-Structure, Texture, Properties and Applications edited by Barmak, K., Parker, M., A., Floro, J., F. 1994
  • Roughness Control and Electrical Properties of SiO/Si (001) Interfaces First International Symposium on Control of Semiconductor Interfaces, Elsevier, New York Niwa, M., Okada, K., Kouzaki, T., Sinclair, R. 1994: 405-410
  • Reactions at Semiconductor Metal Interfaces First International Symposium on Control of Semiconductor Interfaces, Elsevier, New York Sinclair, R., Konno, T., J., Ko, D., H. 1994: 247-254
  • Studies of Material Reactions by In-Situ High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM) MRS Bull. Sinclair, R. 1994; 6 (19): 26-31
  • Effect of Interlayers Upon Texture and Magnetic Properties in Co Alloy Multilayers for Longitudinal Magnetic Recording Visokay, M., R., Kuwabara, M., Saffari, H., Hayashi, H., Sinclair, R., Onishi, Y. 1994
  • CORRELATION OF STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES IN THIN-FILM MAGNETIC MEDIA Symposium on Polycrystalline Thin Films: Structure, Texture, Properties and Applications, at the 1994 MRS Spring Meeting Nolan, T. P., Sinclair, R., Ranjan, R., Yamashita, T., Tarnopolsky, G., Bennett, W. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1994: 297–302
  • Atomic-Order Planarization of Ultra-Thin SiO2/Si (001) Interfaces Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Niwa, M., Kouzaki, T., Okada, K., Udagawa, M., Sinclair, R. 1994; 33: 388-394
  • Longitudinal Recording Performance of Doped Barium Ferrite Magnetic Thin Films IEEE Trans. Magn. Rosenblum, S., S., Li, J., Hayashi, H., Sinclair, R. 1994; 30: 4047-4049
  • Temperature and Orientation Effects on Magnetic Properties of Barium Ferrite Thin Films IEEE Trans. Magn. Li, J., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S., S., Hayashi, H. 1994; 30: 4050-4052
  • In Situ HREM: Application to Metal-Mediated Crystallization Ultramicroscopy Sinclair, R., Konno, T., J. 1994; 56: 225-232
  • Dynamic High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy: Application to Pt/GaAs Interfacial Reactions Ultramicroscopy Ko, D., H., Sinclair, R. 1994; 54: 166-178
  • Crystallization of Co-sputtered Amorphous Cobalt-Carbon Alloys: Morphology and Kinetics of Spherulitic Growth Mater. Sci. Eng. Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1994; A179/A180: 297-302
  • Nickel Mediated Transformation of Amorphous Carbon to Graphite Itoh, T., Sinclair, R. 1994
  • In-Situ TEM Observation of Interfacial Reactions in the Zr/Si System Tanaka, H., Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1994
  • Microscopic Interfacial Phenomena During Solid Phase Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon Thin Films: In-Situ CTEM and HREM Studies Guillemet, J., P., de Mauduit, B., Peiraggi, B., Sinclair, R., Konno, T., J. 1994
  • TEM and In Situ HREM for Studying Metal-Semiconductor Interfacial Reactions Sinclair, R., Konno, T., J., Ko, D., H. edited by Limoge, Y., Bocquet, J., L. 1994
  • Structure-Property Correlations in Pt/Co Multilayers for Magneto-Optic Recording J. Magn. Magn. Mater. Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R. 1994; 134: 173-184
  • Metal-Contact Induced Crystallization of Semiconductors Mater. Sci. Eng. A Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1994; A179/A180: 426-432
  • Correlation of Micro-structural, Micro-chemical and Micro-magnetic Properties of Longitudinal Recording Media Using CM20 FEG Lorentz TEM Nolan, T., P., Sinclair, R., Yamashita, T., Ranjan, R. 1994
  • Effects of Substrate Temperature on Magnetic and Crystallographic Properties of Co-Cr-Pt/Cr Films Deposited by Laser Ablation Method Ishikawa, A., Shiroishi, Y., Sinclair, R. 1994
  • Atomically Layered Structures for Magnetic Information Storage Lairson, B., M., Visokay, M., R., Sinclair, R., Brennan, S., N., Clemens, B., M. 1994
  • Characterization of Sputtered Magnetic Barium-Ferrite Thin Films on Silicon Nitride Coated High Density Amorphous Carbon Substrates Li, J., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S., S., Hayashi, H. 1994
  • Reactions at Semiconductor Metal Interfaces Sinclair, R., Konno, T., J., Ko, D., H. 1994
  • In Situ HREM of Phase Reactions Sinclair, R., Konno, T., J., Ko, D., H. 1994
  • Oxygen Coulometric Titration Study of M Ba-Ferrite Solid State Ionics Li, J., Gur, T., M., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S., S., Hayashi, H. 1994; 73: 185-188
  • On The Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy of Co/Pt Multilayers: Structure-Property Relationships Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R. 1994
  • Crystallization of Co-sputtered Amorphous Cobalt-Carbon Alloys Acta Metall. Mater. Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1994; 42: 1231-1247
  • Observation of Ferroelectric Domain Walls in KTP by HREM Snoeck, E., Sinclair, R. 1994
  • ³Roughness Control and Electrical Properties of SiO/Si (001) Interfaces Niwa, M., Okada, K., Kouzaki, T., Sinclair, R. 1994
  • Thermochemical Stability of BaFe12O19 and BaFe2O4 and Phase Relations in the Ba-Fe-O Ternary System J. Mater. Res. Li, J., Gur, T., M., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S., S., Hayashi, H. 1994; 9: 1499-1512
  • EPITAXIAL PTFE AND PTCO(001) THIN-FILMS WITH PERPENDICULAR MAGNETIC-ANISOTROPY 1ST INTERNATIONAL SYMP ON METALLIC MULTILAYERS ( MML 93 ) Lairson, B. M., Visokay, M. R., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B. M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1993: 577–79
  • MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MAGNETIC FE/PT MULTILAYER THIN-FILMS BY TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY 1ST INTERNATIONAL SYMP ON METALLIC MULTILAYERS ( MML 93 ) Visokay, M. R., Lairson, B. M., Clemens, B. M., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1993: 136–40
  • STRUCTURE AND CORROSION PROPERTIES OF FE/ZR MULTILAYERS 1ST INTERNATIONAL SYMP ON METALLIC MULTILAYERS ( MML 93 ) Nakayama, T., Satoh, H., Konno, T. J., Clemens, B. M., Stevenson, D. A., Sinclair, R., HAGSTROM, S. B. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1993: 105–7
  • CRYSTALLIZATION AND DECOMPOSITION OF CO-SPUTTERED AMORPHOUS SILICON-ALUMINUM THIN-FILMS MATERIALS CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. 1993; 35 (2): 99-113
  • STRUCTURE AND CORROSION PROPERTIES OF AL/SI MULTILAYERS 1ST INTERNATIONAL SYMP ON METALLIC MULTILAYERS ( MML 93 ) Nakayama, T., Konno, T. J., Satoh, H., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1993: 167–69
  • INFLUENCE OF INTERFACIAL DOPING WITH RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS ON THE MAGNETIC-PROPERTIES OF SELECTED CO/PT MULTILAYERS 1ST INTERNATIONAL SYMP ON METALLIC MULTILAYERS ( MML 93 ) Bertero, G. A., Sinclair, R., White, R. L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1993: 275–78
  • ANNEALING OF METAL METALLOID MULTILAYERS STUDIED BY IN-SITU ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY 1ST INTERNATIONAL SYMP ON METALLIC MULTILAYERS ( MML 93 ) Sinclair, R., Konno, T. J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1993: 108–12
  • ANNEALING EFFECT ON STRUCTURE OF FE/ZR MULTILAYERS 1ST INTERNATIONAL SYMP ON METALLIC MULTILAYERS ( MML 93 ) Yamamoto, K., Nakayama, T., Satoh, H., Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1993: 128–30
  • ATOMIC-SCALE PLANARIZATION OF SIO2/SI(001) INTERFACES APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Niwa, M., Udagawa, M., Okada, K., KOUZAZKI, T., Sinclair, R. 1993; 63 (5): 675-677
  • EPITAXIAL TETRAGONAL PTCO (001) THIN-FILMS WITH PERPENDICULAR MAGNETIC-ANISOTROPY JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Lairson, B. M., Visokay, M. R., Marinero, E. E., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B. M. 1993; 74 (3): 1922-1928
  • DIRECT OBSERVATION OF CRYSTALLIZATION IN SILICON BY IN-SITU HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY 4TH CONF ON FRONTIERS OF ELECTRON MICROSCOPY IN MATERIALS SCIENCE Sinclair, R., Morgiel, J., KIRTIKAR, A. S., Wu, I. W., Chiang, A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1993: 41–45
  • CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ORIENTATION OF TEXTURED COCRTA/CR SPUTTERED THIN-FILM MEDIA FOR LONGITUDINAL RECORDING JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Nolan, T. P., Sinclair, R., Ranjan, R., Yamashita, T. 1993; 73 (10): 5117-5124
  • EFFECT OF MICROSTRUCTURAL FEATURES ON MEDIA NOISE IN LONGITUDINAL RECORDING MEDIA 37TH ANNUAL CONF ON MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS Nolan, T. P., Sinclair, R., Ranjan, R., Yamashita, T. AMER INST PHYSICS. 1993: 5566–68
  • TEM ANALYSIS OF CO-GD AND CO-GD MULTILAYER STRUCTURES JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Bertero, G. A., Hufnagel, T. C., Clemens, B. M., Sinclair, R. 1993; 8 (4): 771-774
  • EPITAXIAL PTFE(001) THIN-FILMS ON MGO(001) WITH PERPENDICULAR MAGNETIC-ANISOTROPY APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Lairson, B. M., Visokay, M. R., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B. M. 1993; 62 (6): 639-641
  • APPLICATION OF HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY TO THE STUDY OF MAGNETIC THIN-FILMS AND MULTILAYERS SYMP ON MAGNETIC ULTRATHIN FILMS : MULTILAYERS AND SURFACES, INTERFACES CHARACTIZATION, AT THE 1993 SPRING MEETING OF THE MATERIALS-RESEARCH-SOC Sinclair, R., Nolan, T. P., Bertero, G. A., Visokay, M. R. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1993: 705–712
  • IN-SITU HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY OF METAL-CONTACT INDUCED CRYSTALLIZATION OF AMORPHOUS-SEMICONDUCTORS 8th Royal-Microscopical-Society Conference: Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 1993 (MSM VIII) Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. IOP PUBLISHING LTD. 1993: 173–76
  • Atomic-Order Planarization of Ultra-Thin SiO2/Si (001) Interfaces Niwa, M., Kouzaki, T., Okada, K., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • Application of High Resolution Electron Microscopy to the Study of Magnetic Thin Films and Multilayers Sinclair, R., Nolan, T., P., Bertero, G., A., Visokay, M., R. 1993
  • Microstructural Analysis of Magnetic Fe/Pt Multilayer Thin Films by Transmission Electron Microscopy J. Magn. Magn. Mater. Visokay, M., R., Lairson, B., M., Clemens, B., M., Sinclair, R. 1993; 126: 136-140
  • Deposition of Barium Ferrite Thin Films by RF Off-Axis Magnetron Sputtering Li, J., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S., S., Hayashi, H. 1993
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy of Epitaxial Fe/Pt Multilayers Visokay, M., R., Lairson, B., M., Clemens, B., M., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • Reactions at the Ti-Si Interface Studied Using Hot Stage TEM Kirtikar, A., S., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • Crystallization and Decomposition of Co-sputtered Amorphous Silicon-Aluminum Thin Films Mater. Chem. Phys. Konno, J., Sinclair, R. 1993; 35: 99-113
  • Transmission Electron Microscopic Analysis of Microstructural Features in Magnetic Recording Media IEEE Trans. Magn. Nolan, T., P., Sinclair, R., Ranjan, R., Yamashita, T. 1993; 29: 292-299
  • Real Time Lattice Imaging of Crystallization in Amorphous Silicon Morgiel, J., Wu, I., W., Chiang, A., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • Reactions in Metal-Metalloid Multilayers Sinclair, R., Konna, T., J. 1993
  • Crystallographic Orientation of Textured CoCrTa/Cr Recording Media J. Appl. Phys. Nolan, T., P., Sinclair, R., Ranjan, R., Yamashita, T. 1993; 73: 5117-5124
  • Magnetic Properties and Crystallography of Selected Co/Pt Multilayers with Rare-Earth Doped Interface Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • Magnetic and Magneto-Optic Properties of PtFe(001) and PtCo(001) Thin Films Lairson, B., M., Visokay, M., R., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B., M. 1993
  • Structural Properties of Uniaxial Tetragonal PtCo(001) and PtFe(001) Thin Films on MgO(001) Lairson, B., M., Visokay, M., R., Sinclair, R., Brennan, S., M., Clemens, B., M. 1993
  • Evolution of Gd Thin Film Structure Due to Amorphization by Co-Deposition Hufnagel, T., C., Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B., M. 1993
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of PtCo(001) and PtFe(001) Films Formed from Epitaxial Pt/Co and Pt/Fe Multilayers Visokay, M., R., Lairson, B., M., Clemens, B., M., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • Grain Separation Enhanced Magnetic Coercivity in Pt/Co Multilayers Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • A Solid State Electrochemical Technique to Study Barium Ferrite Thermodynamic Stability Li, J., Gur, T., M., Sinclair, R., Rosenblum, S., S., Hayashi, H. 1993
  • Crystallization of Amorphous Germanium in Silver-Germanium Layered Systems Konno, J., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • In-Situ High Resolution Electron Microscopy of Metal-Contact Induced Crystallization of Semiconductors Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • Epitaxial Tetragonal PtCo(001) Thin Films with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy J. Appl. Phys. Lairson, B., M., Visokay, M., R., Marinero, E., E., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B., M. 1993; 74: 1922-1928
  • Epitaxial PtFe and PtCo(001) Thin Films with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy J. Magn. Mag. Mater. Lairson, B., M., Visokay, M., R., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B., M. 1993; 126: 577-579
  • Annealing of Metal Multilayers Studied by In Situ High Resolution Electron Microscopy J. Magn. Magn. Mater. Sinclair, R., Konno, T., J. 1993; 126: 108-112
  • Influence of Interfacial Doping with Rare Earth Elements on the Magnetic Properties of Selected Co/Pt Multilayers J. Magn. Mag. Mater. Bertero, G., A., Sinclair, R. 1993; 126: 275-278
  • TEM Analysis of Co-Gd and Cr-Gd Multilayer Structures J. Mater. Res. Bertero, A., Hufnagel, T., C., Clemens, B., M., Sinclair, R. 1993; 8: 771-774
  • Epitaxial PtFe (001) Thin Films on MgO (001) with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy Appl. Phys. Lett. Lairson, B., M., Visokay, M., R., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B., M. 1993; 62: 639-641
  • STRUCTURAL-PROPERTIES OF ANISOTROPIC PTCO(001) AND PTFE(001) THIN-FILMS ON MGO(001) SYMP ON PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN THIN FILMS - THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS, AT THE 1993 SPRING MEETING OF THE MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC Lairson, B. M., Visokay, M. R., Brennan, S. B., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B. M. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1993: 9–14
  • EVOLUTION OF GD THIN-FILM STRUCTURE DUE TO AMORPHIZATION BY CO DEPOSITION SYMP ON PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN THIN FILMS - THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS, AT THE 1993 SPRING MEETING OF THE MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC Hufnagel, T. C., Bertero, G. A., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B. M. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1993: 73–76
  • Direct Solid State Phase Transformation from Co to Epitaxial CoSi in Co/Thin Ti/(100) Si Structure and its Application for Shallow Junction Formation Ogawa, S., Fair, J., A., Kouzaki, T., Sinclair, R., Jones, E., C., Cheung, N., W. 1993
  • Production of c-Axis Oriented PtFe Thin Film with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy Lairson, B., M., Visokay, M., R., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B., M. 1993
  • Production of c-Axis Oriented PtFe Thin Film with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy J. Magn. Soc. Jap. Lairson, B., M., Visokay, M., R., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B., M. 1993; 17 (S1): 40-43
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy of Epitaxial Fe/Pt Multilayers J. Magn. Soc. Jap. Visokay, M., R., Lairson, B., M., Clemens, B., M., Sinclair, R. 1993; 17 (S1): 113-116
  • Direct Observation of Crystallization in Silicon by In Situ High Resolution Electron Microscopy Ultramicroscopy Sinclair, R., Morgiel, J., Kirtikar, A., S., Wu, I., W., Chiang, A. 1993; 51: 41-45
  • In Situ HREM of Interface Reactions Sinclair, R., Konno, T., J. 1993
  • Structure and Magnetic Properties of Fe/Zr Multilayer Films Konno, T., J., Nakayama, T., Clemens, B., M., Sinclair, R. 1993
  • MAGNETIC AND MAGNETOOPTIC PROPERTIES OF PTFE(001) AND PTCO(001) THIN-FILMS SYMP ON MAGNETIC ULTRATHIN FILMS : MULTILAYERS AND SURFACES, INTERFACES CHARACTIZATION, AT THE 1993 SPRING MEETING OF THE MATERIALS-RESEARCH-SOC Lairson, B. M., Visokay, M. R., Sinclair, R., Clemens, B. M. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1993: 805–810
  • TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY STUDY OF COPT(001) AND FEPT(001) FILMS FORMED FROM EPITAXIAL CO/PT AND FE/PT MULTILAYERS SYMP ON PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN THIN FILMS - THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS, AT THE 1993 SPRING MEETING OF THE MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC Visokay, M. R., Lairson, B. M., Clemens, B. M., Sinclair, R. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1993: 15–20
  • TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF MICROSTRUCTURAL FEATURES IN MAGNETIC RECORDING MEDIA 3RD MAGNETIC RECORDING CONF ( TMRC 92 ) Nolan, T. P., Sinclair, R., Ranjan, R., Yamashita, T. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1993: 292–99
  • CRYSTALLIZATION OF SILICON IN ALUMINUM AMORPHOUS-SILICON MULTILAYERS PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE B-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STATISTICAL MECHANICS ELECTRONIC OPTICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES Konno, T. J., Sinclair, R. 1992; 66 (6): 749-765
  • MICROSTRUCTURE AND CRYSTALLOGRAPHY OF TEXTURED COCRTA/CR RECORDING MEDIA ULTRAMICROSCOPY Nolan, T. P., Sinclair, R., Ranjan, R., Yamashita, T. 1992; 47 (4): 437-446
  • EPITAXIAL PT(001), PT(110), AND PT(111) FILMS ON MGO(001), MGO(110), MGO(111), AND AL2O3(0001) APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Lairson, B. M., Visokay, M. R., Sinclair, R., Hagstrom, S., Clemens, B. M. 1992; 61 (12): 1390-1392
  • AMORPHOUS PHASE FORMATION AND INITIAL INTERFACIAL REACTIONS IN THE PLATINUM GAAS SYSTEM JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Ko, D. H., Sinclair, R. 1992; 72 (5): 2036-2042
  • STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION OF AMORPHOUS NI-TI THIN-FILMS USING ELECTRON-DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS ACTA METALLURGICA ET MATERIALIA Moine, P., Delage, J., Pelton, A. R., Sinclair, R. 1992; 40 (8): 1855-1863
  • SIO2/SI INTERFACES STUDIED BY SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY AND HIGH-RESOLUTION TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Niwa, M., Matsumoto, M., Iwasaki, H., Onada, M., Sinclair, R. 1992; 139 (3): 901-906
  • MODELING OF AGGLOMERATION IN POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN-FILMS - APPLICATION TO TISI2 ON A SILICON SUBSTRATE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Nolan, T. P., Sinclair, R., Beyers, R. 1992; 71 (2): 720-724
  • REACTIONS AT THE TITANIUM-SILICON INTERFACE STUDIED USING HOT-STAGE TEM SYMP ON ADVANCED METALLIZATION AND PROCESSING FOR SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES AND CIRCUITS - 2 Kirtikar, A., Sinclair, R. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1992: 227–231
  • Reaction and Stability at VLSI Contact Interfaces Ogawa, S., Sinclair, R. 1992
  • Two-Step Martensitic Transformations in TiNi (10% Cu) Shape Memory Alloys Moberly, W., J., Duerig, T., W., Proft, J., L., Sinclair, R. 1992
  • Reactions at Solid Interfaces Sinclair, R., Ko, D., H., Konno, T., J., Nolan, T., P. 1992
  • Study of Semiconductor Metallization Problems by High Resolution Electron Microscopy and Thermodynamic Analysis Sinclair, R. 1992
  • Crystallization of Amorphous Si in Al/Si Multilayers Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1992
  • Microstructure and Crystallography of Textured CoCrTa/Cr Sputtered Thin Film Media for Longitudinal Recording Ultramicroscopy Nolan, T., P., Sinclair, R., Ranjan, R.,  Yamashita, T. 1992; 47: 437-446
  • Structural Determination of Amorphous Ni-Ti Thin Films, Using Electron Diffraction Analysis Acta Metall. Moine, P., Delage, J., Pelton, A., R., Sinclair, R. 1992; 40: 1855-1863
  • Modeling of Agglomeration in Polycrystalline Thin Films: Application to TiSi2 on a Silicon Substrate J. Appl. Phys. Nolan, T., P., Sinclair, R., Beyers, R. 1992; 71: 720-724
  • SiO2/Si Interfaces Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy J. Electrochem. Soc. Niwa, M., Onoda, M., Matsumoto, M.,  Iwasaki, H., Sinclair, R. 1992; 139: 901-906
  • Amorphous Phase Formation and the Initial Reactions at Pt/GaAs Interfaces Ko, D., H., Sinclair, R. 1992
  • A Highly Reliable Sub-Half Micron Via and Interconnect Technology Using Al Alloy High-Temperature Sputter Filling Nishimura, H., Yamada, T., Sinclair, R., Ogawa, S. 1992
  • Reaction and Stability at VLSI Contact Interfaces Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. Ogawa, S., Sinclair, R. 1992: 1268
  • Crystallization of Silicon in Aluminum/Amorphous-Silicon Multilayers Philos. Mag. B Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1992; 66: 749-765
  • Epitaxial Pt (001), Pt (110) and Pt (111) Films on MgO (001), MgO (110), MgO (111) and Al2O3 (0001) Appl. Phys. Lett. Lairson, B., M., Visokay, M., R., Sinclair, R., Hagstrom, S., Clemens, B., M. 1992; 61: 1390-1392
  • Reaction and Stability at ULSI Circuit Interfaces Sinclair, R., Ogawa, S. 1992
  • Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon-Aluminum Thin Films: In-Situ Observation and Thermal Analysis Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1992
  • A Highly Reliable Sub-Half Micron Via and Interconnect Technology Using Al Alloy High-Temperature Sputter Filling VLSI Tech. Dig. Nishimura, H., Yamada, T., Sinclair, R., Ogawa, S. 1992: 74-75
  • 2-STEP MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATIONS IN TINI(10-PERCENT CU) SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS SYMP ON SHAPE-MEMORY MATERIALS AND PHENOMENA - FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS AND APPLICATIONS MOBERLY, W. J., Duerig, T. W., PROFT, J. L., Sinclair, R. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1992: 55–60
  • METASTABLE AND EQUILIBRIUM DEFECT STRUCTURE OF II-VI/GAAS INTERFACES SYMP AT THE 1991 ANNUAL MEETING OF THE MINERALS, METALS AND MATERIALS SOC : STRAIN RELAXATION IN EPITAXIAL FILMS Schwartzman, A. F., Sinclair, R. MINERALS METALS MATERIALS SOC. 1991: 805–14
  • STRUCTURE OF AN AMORPHOUS TI-SI ALLOY FORMED BY THERMAL-REACTION JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS Holloway, K., Moine, P., Delage, J., Sinclair, R. 1991; 134 (1-2): 133-140
  • INTERFACE MICROSTRUCTURE OF TITANIUM THIN-FILM SILICON SINGLE-CRYSTAL SUBSTRATE CORRELATED WITH ELECTRICAL BARRIER HEIGHTS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Ogawa, S., Kouzaki, T., Yoshida, T., Sinclair, R. 1991; 70 (2): 827-832
  • AMORPHOUS PHASE FORMATION IN AN AS-DEPOSITED PLATINUM-GAAS INTERFACE APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Ko, D. H., Sinclair, R. 1991; 58 (17): 1851-1853
  • LOW-TEMPERATURE REACTIONS AT METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES CONF ON MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS Sinclair, R., Konno, T., Ko, D. H., Ogawa, S. IOP PUBLISHING LTD. 1991: 283–287
  • EQUILIBRIUM DEFECT STRUCTURE OF ANNEALED II-VI/GAAS INTERFACES CONF ON MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS Schwartzman, A., Sinclair, R. IOP PUBLISHING LTD. 1991: 523–526
  • LOW-TEMPERATURE REACTIONS AT METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES Sinclair, R., Konno, T., Ko, D. H., Ogawa, S. 1991: 283-287
  • Reaction and Stability at Material Interfaces Sinclair, R. 1991
  • Structure and Thermodynamics of Amorphous Titanium-Silicon Produced by Solid- State Interdiffusion Holloway, K., Moine, P., Delage, J.,  , Bormann, R., Sinclair, R., Capuano, L. 1991
  • An In Situ HREM Study of Crystal Nucleation in Amorphous Silicon Thin Films Kirtikar, A., S., Morgiel, J., Sinclair, R., Wu, I., W., Chiang, A. 1991
  • Amorphous-Phase Formation and Initial Reactions at Pt/GaAs Interfaces Ko, D., H., Sinclair, R. 1991
  • Evidence for a Grain Boundary Grooving Model of Agglomeration in Polycrystalline TiSi2 Thin Films Nolan, T., Beyers, R., Sinclair, R. 1991
  • Crystallization of Amorphous Si in Si/Al Multilayers Konno, T., J., Sinclair, R. 1991
  • Metastable and Equilibrium Defect Structure of II/VI GaAs Interfaces J. Electron. Mater.  Schwartzman, A., F., Sinclair, R. 1991; 20: 805-814
  • In Situ Heating Studies at High Resolution Sinclair, R. 1991
  • AN INSITU HREM STUDY OF CRYSTAL NUCLEATION IN AMORPHOUS-SILICON THIN-FILMS SYMP ON THE EVOLUTION OF THIN-FILM AND SURFACE MICROSTRUCTURE KIRTIKAR, A. S., Morgiel, J., Sinclair, R., Wu, I. W., Chiang, A. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1991: 627–632
  • Structure of an Amorphous Ti-Si Alloy Formed by Thermal Reaction J. Non-Cryst. Solids Holloway, K., Moine, P., Delage, J., Sinclair, R. 1991; 134: 133-140
  • THERMOMECHANICAL STRENGTHENING OF B2 INTERMETALLICS SYMP ON MODELING THE DEFORMATION OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS, AT THE 1991 ANNUAL MEETING OF THE MINERALS, METALS AND MATERIALS SOC MOBERLY, W. J., PROFT, J. L., Duerig, T. W., Pelton, A. R., Sinclair, R. MINERALS, METALS & MATERIALS SOC. 1991: 387–393
  • EQUILIBRIUM DEFECT STRUCTURE OF ANNEALED II-VI/GAAS INTERFACES INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES Schwartzman, A., Sinclair, R. 1991: 523-526
  • DEFORMATION, TWINNING AND THERMOMECHANICAL STRENGTHENING OF TI50NI47FE3 ACTA METALLURGICA ET MATERIALIA MOBERLY, W. J., PROFT, J. L., Duerig, T. W., Sinclair, R. 1990; 38 (12): 2601-2612
  • SIO2/SI INTERFACES STUDIED BY STM AND HRTEM .2. 3RD ( 2ND INTERNATIONAL ) MICROPROCESS CONF ( MPC 90 ) Niwa, M., Onoda, M., Matsumoto, M., Iwasaki, H., Sinclair, R. JAPAN J APPLIED PHYSICS. 1990: 2665–70
  • PHASE REACTIONS AT SEMICONDUCTOR METALLIZATION INTERFACES SYMP AT THE 1990 ANNUAL MEETING OF THE METALLURGICAL SOC : METALLIZATIONS FOR ELECTRONICS APPLICATIONS BHANSALI, A. S., Ko, D. H., Sinclair, R. MINERALS METALS MATERIALS SOC. 1990: 1171–75
  • A THERMODYNAMIC APPROACH FOR INTERPRETING METALLIZATION LAYER STABILITY AND THIN-FILM REACTIONS INVOLVING 4 ELEMENTS - APPLICATION TO INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT CONTACT METALLURGY JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS BHANSALI, A. S., Sinclair, R., Morgan, A. E. 1990; 68 (3): 1043-1049
  • STUDY OF INTERFACIAL REACTIONS IN METAL-SILICON AND RELATED SYSTEMS BY HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY AND THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS JIM Sinclair, R. 1990; 31 (7): 628-635
  • THICKNESS MEASUREMENTS AND GROWTH-KINETICS OF THIN SIO2 LAYERS JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Carim, A. H., Sinclair, R. 1990; 137 (1): 279-283
  • HRTEM and Nano-scale Microanalysis of the Titanium/Silicon Interfacial Reaction Correlated with Electrical Properties Ogawa, S., Kouzaki, T., Yoshida, T.,  , Sinclair, R. 1990
  • In Situ HREM Observations of Crystallization in LPCVD Amorphous Silicon Morgiel, J., Wu, I., W., Chiang, A.,  , Sinclair, R. 1990
  • Structure of the Ti-Single Crystal Si Interface Ogawa, S., Kouzaki, T., Yoshida, T., Sinclair, R. 1990
  • Thermodynamic Stability of PtAl Thin Films on GaAs Ko, D., H., Sinclair, R. 1990
  • Characterization of Metal Silicide/Silicon Interfaces Sinclair, R. 1990
  • A Phase Diagram Approach for Predicting Reactions in Al/TiW (-Nitride) Thin-Film Systems Bhansali, A., S., M. Raaijmakers, I., J.M., Sinclair, R., Morgan, A., E., Burrow, B., J., Arst, M. 1990
  • Interface Microstructure of Titanium Thin-Film / Silicon-Crystal Single Substrate, Correlated with Electrical Barrier Heights J. Appl. Phys. Ogawa, S., Yoshida, T., Kouzaki, T., Sinclair, R. 1990; 70: 827-832
  • SiO2/Si Interfaces Studied by STM and HRTEM (II) Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Niwa, M., Onoda, M.,  Matsumoto, M.,  Iwasaki, H., Sinclair, R. 1990; 29: 2665-2670
  • Study of Interfacial Reactions in Metal-Silicon and Related Interfacial Reactions by High Resolution Electron Microscopy and Thermodynamic Analysis Mater. Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met. Sinclair, R. 1990; 31: 628-635
  • A Thermodynamic Approach for Interpreting Metallization Layer Stability and Thin-Film Reactions Involving Four Elements: Application to Integrated Circuit Contact Metallurgy J. Appl. Phys. Bhansali, A., S., Sinclair, R., Morgan, A., E. 1990; 68: 1043-1049
  • Thickness Measurements and Growth Kinetics of Thin SiO2 Layers J. Electrochem. Soc. Carim, A., H., Sinclair, R. 1990; 137: 279-283
  • Microstructure-Property Studies for Semiconductor Interfaces Using High- Resolution Electron Microscopy Sinclair, R. edited by Craighead, H., G. , Gibson, J., M. 1990
  • Twinning in Ternary Ti50Ni(50-x)Mx Alloys Moberly, W., J., Sinclair, R., Duerig, T., W. 1990
  • High Resolution Electron Microscopy of Defects in Materials edited by Sinclair, R., Smith, D., J., Dahmen, U. 1990
  • Metastable Phase Formation in Thin Films and Multilayers MRS Bull. Clemens, B., M., Sinclair, R. 1990; 2 (15): 19-28
  • SiO2/Si Interfaces Studied by STM and HRTEM Niwa, M., Onoda, M., Iwasaki, H., Sinclair, R. 1990
  • Mechanical Twinning and Plasticity in Ti-Ni-Fe(3%) Moberly, W., J., Duerig, T., W., Proft, J., L. , Sinclair, R. edited by Muddle, B., C. 1990
  • In Situ High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Sinclair, R. 1990
  • Deformation, Twinning and Thermo-Mechanical Strengthening of Ti50Ni47Fe3 Acta Metall. Moberly, W., J., Proft, J., L., Duerig, T., W., Sinclair, R. 1990; 38: 2601-2612
  • AMORPHOUS SILICIDE FORMATION BY THERMAL-REACTION - A COMPARISON OF SEVERAL METAL-SILICON SYSTEMS JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY A Holloway, K., Sinclair, R., Nathan, M. 1989; 7 (3): 1479-1483
  • MORPHOLOGY OF THE SILICON IMPLANTED INTERFACE OF A POLYSILICON SINGLE-CRYSTAL SILICON STRUCTURE NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Okuda, S., Ogawa, S., Kouzaki, T., Yoshida, T., Toujou, F., Sinclair, R. 1989; 39 (1-4): 334-337
  • A HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY STUDY OF THE FINE-STRUCTURE IN A TRENCH CAPACITOR JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Sinclair, R., Kim, K. B., SHIPPOU, O., Iwasaki, H. 1989; 136 (2): 511-518
  • STRUCTURE AND ELECTRICAL-PROPERTIES OF INTERFACES BETWEEN SILICON FILMS AND N+ SILICON-CRYSTALS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Ogawa, S., Okuda, S., Yoshida, T., Kouzaki, T., Tsukamoto, K., Sinclair, R. 1989; 65 (2): 668-671
  • INTERFACIAL REACTIONS ON ANNEALING MOLYBDENUM-SILICON MULTILAYERS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Holloway, K., DO, K. B., Sinclair, R. 1989; 65 (2): 474-480
  • REACTION AND STRUCTURE AT METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES CONF ON MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS Sinclair, R., Holloway, K., Kim, K. B., Ko, D. H., BHANSALI, A. S., Schwartzman, A. F., Ogawa, S. IOP PUBLISHING LTD. 1989: 599–607
  • REACTION AND STRUCTURE AT METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES Sinclair, R., Holloway, K., Kim, K. B., Ko, D. H., BHANSALI, A. S., Schwartzman, A. F., Ogawa, S. 1989: 599-607
  • Amorphous Silicide Formation by Thermal Reaction: A Comparison of Several Metal-Silicon Systems J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Holloway, K., Sinclair, R., Nathan, M. 1989; 7: 1479-1483
  • Twinless Martensite in TiNiCu Shape Memory Alloys Moberly, W., J., Duerig, T., W., Proft, J., L. , Sinclair, R. 1989
  • Structure and Reaction at Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces Sinclair, R., Ogawa, S. 1989
  • Reactions at Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces Sinclair, R. 1989
  • Morphology of the Silicon Implanted Interface of a Polysilicon/Single Crystal Silicon Structure Jpn. Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B Okuda, S., Ogawa, S., Kouzaki, T., Yoshida, T., Toujou, F., Sinclair, R. 1989; 39: 334-337
  • Quaternary Phase Equilibria in the Ti-Si-N-O System: Stability of Metallization Layers and Prediction of Thin Film Reactions Bhansali, A., S., Sinclair, R. 1989
  • HREM In Situ Annealing of the CdTe/GaAs Heterojunction Schwartzman, A., F., Sinclair, R. 1989
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy and High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy of Co-Ni-Pt Thin Film Magnetic Recording Media Chan, L., Yamashita, T., Sinclair, R. 1989
  • Phase Equilibria at Semiconductor Interfaces Sinclair, R., Bhansali, A., S., Schwartzman, A., F. edited by Smith, F., W. 1989
  • Structure and Electrical Properties of Interfaces Between Silicon Films and n+ Silicon Crystals J. Appl. Phys. Ogawa, S., Okuda, S., Yoshida, T., Kouzaki, T., Tsukamoto, K., Sinclair, R. 1989; 65: 668-671
  • A High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of the Fine Structure in a Trench Capacitor J. Electrochem. Soc. Sinclair, R., Kim, K., B., Shippou, O., Iwasaki, H. 1989; 136: 511-518
  • In Situ Annealing Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Study of Ti/GaAs and Ni/GaAs Interfacial Reactions Kim, K., B., Sinclair, R. 1989
  • Structure and Reaction at Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys., Catalog No. AP892228 Sinclair, R., Ogawa, S. 1989: 29-33
  • In Situ High Resolution Electron Microscopy Sinclair, R. 1989
  • COMPRESSIVE DEFORMATION AND FRACTURE IN WC MATERIALS MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING Rowcliffe, D. J., Jayaram, V., HIBBS, M. K., Sinclair, R. 1988; 106: 299-303
  • PHASE-DIAGRAMS IN SEMICONDUCTOR METALLIZATION Sinclair, R. MINERALS METALS MATERIALS SOC. 1988: 44–44
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSITU HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION A Sinclair, R., Yamashita, T., Parker, M. A., Kim, K. B., Holloway, K., Schwartzman, A. F. 1988; 44: 965-975
  • HIGH-RESOLUTION AND INSITU TEM STUDIES OF ANNEALING OF TI-SI MULTILAYERS JOURNAL OF THE LESS-COMMON METALS Holloway, K., Sinclair, R. 1988; 140: 139-148
  • INTERFACIAL REACTIONS IN THE TI GAAS SYSTEM JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY A Kim, K. B., KNIFFIN, M., Sinclair, R., Helms, C. R. 1988; 6 (3): 1473-1477
  • STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION OF SMALL AMORPHOUS VOLUMES BY ELECTRON-DIFFRACTION JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS Moine, P., Pelton, A. R., Sinclair, R. 1988; 101 (2-3): 213-222
  • DISORDERED INTERMIXING AT THE PLATINUM-SILICON INTERFACE DEMONSTRATED BY HIGH-RESOLUTION CROSS-SECTIONAL TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY, AUGER-ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY, AND MEV ION CHANNELING JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Abelson, J. R., Kim, K. B., Mercer, D. E., Helms, C. R., Sinclair, R., Sigmon, T. W. 1988; 63 (3): 689-692
  • Interfacial Reactions in the Ti/GaAs System J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Kim, K., B., Kniffin, M., Sinclair, R., Helms, C., R. 1988; 6: 1473-1477
  • Microstructures of Polysilicon Sinclair, R., Carim, A., H., Morgiel, J., Bravman, J., C. 1988
  • High-resolution and In Situ TEM Studies of Annealing of Ti-Si Multilayers J. Less Common Metals Holloway, K., Sinclair, R. 1988; 140: 139-148
  • Disordered Intermixing at the Platinum-Silicon Interface Demonstrated by High-resolution Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy, Auger Electron Spectroscopy and MeV Ion Channeling J. Appl. Phys. Abelson, J., R., Kim, K., B., Mercer, D., E., Helms, C., R., Sinclair, R., Sigmon, T., W. 1988; 63: 689-692
  • Structural Determination of Small Amorphous Volumes by Electron Diffraction J. Non-Cryst. Solids Moine, P., Pelton, A., R., Sinclair, R. 1988; 101: 213-222
  • In-Situ and High-Resolution TEM Observation of Interfacial Reactions in Metal- Silicon Multilayers Holloway, K., Do, K., B., Sinclair, R. 1988
  • The Development of In Situ High Resolution Electron Microscopy Sinclair, R., Yamashita, T., Parker, M., A., Kim, K., B., Holloway, K., Schwartzman, A., F. 1988; 44: 965-975
  • PHASE-DIAGRAMS AND INSITU HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY OF METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR SYSTEMS Kim, K. B., Bhansali, A., Holloway, K. C., Sinclair, R. MINERALS METALS MATERIALS SOC. 1987: A7–A8
  • KINETICS AND OXIDE COMPOSITION FOR THERMAL-OXIDATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Wang, F., Schwartzman, A., FAHRENBRUCH, A. L., Sinclair, R., BUBE, R. H., Stahle, C. M. 1987; 62 (4): 1469-1476
  • HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY AND SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY OF NATIVE OXIDES ON SILICON SCIENCE Carim, A. H., DOVEK, M. M., Quate, C. F., Sinclair, R., VORST, C. 1987; 237 (4815): 630-633

    Abstract

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy have been combined to examine the structure of the thin "native" oxide that forms on silicon surfaces at room temperature. Differences in the cleaning procedures for silicon wafers may affect the morphology of this oxide and critically influence further processing on the silicon substrates. An etch that ended with a dip in hydrofluoric acid provided a thinner oxide and a lower interface step density than did a sulfuric peroxide treatment. The availability of complementary information from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy is discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987J472200024

    View details for PubMedID 17758564

  • PHASE-EQUILIBRIA IN METAL-GALLIUM-ARSENIC SYSTEMS - THERMODYNAMIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR METALLIZATION MATERIALS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Beyers, R., Kim, K. B., Sinclair, R. 1987; 61 (6): 2195-2202
  • THE EVOLUTION OF SI/SIO2 INTERFACE ROUGHNESS JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Carim, A. H., Sinclair, R. 1987; 134 (3): 741-746
  • AMORPHOUS TI-SI ALLOY FORMED BY INTERDIFFUSION OF AMORPHOUS SI AND CRYSTALLINE TI MULTILAYERS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Holloway, K., Sinclair, R. 1987; 61 (4): 1359-1364
  • HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY OF STRUCTURAL FEATURES AT THE SI/SIO2 INTERFACE MATERIALS LETTERS Carim, A. H., Sinclair, R. 1987; 5 (3): 94-98
  • Kinetics & Oxide Composition for Thermal Oxidation of Cadmium Telluride J. Appl. Phys. Wang, F., Schwartzman, A., Fahrenbruch, A., L., Sinclair, R., Bube, R., H., Stahle, C., M. 1987; 62: 1469-1476
  • INSITU HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY REACTIONS IN SEMICONDUCTORS ULTRAMICROSCOPY Sinclair, R., Parker, M. A., Kim, K. B. 1987; 23 (3-4): 383-395
  • Phase Equilibria in Metal-Gallium-Arsenic Systems: Thermodynamic Considerations for Metallization Materials J. Appl. Phys. Beyers, R., Kim, K., B., Sinclair, R. 1987; 61: 2195-2202
  • In Situ High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Interface Studies Parker, M., A., Sinclair, R. 1987
  • Interfacial Reactions in Titanium-Silicon Multilayers Holloway, K., Sinclair, R. 1987
  • In Situ HREM of Interface Reactions in Semiconductors Ultramicroscopy Sinclair, R., Parker, M., A., Kim, K., B. 1987; 23: 383-396
  • Characterization of Defects in Materials edited by Siegel, R., W., Weertman, J., R., Sinclair, R. 1987
  • High-Resolution Electron Microscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy of Native Oxides on Silicon Science Carim, A., H., Dovek, M., M., Quate, C., F., Sinclair, R., Vorst, C. 1987; 237: 630-633
  • High-Resolution Electron Microscopy of Structural Features at the Si/SiO2 Interface MateR. Letts. Carim, A., H., Sinclair, R. 1987; 5: 94-98
  • HIGH-RESOLUTION TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY OF SILICON REGROWTH AT CONTROLLED ELEVATED-TEMPERATURES NATURE Sinclair, R., Parker, M. A. 1986; 322 (6079): 531-533
  • PLASTIC-DEFORMATION OF WC-CO AT HIGH CONFINING PRESSURE SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Jayaram, V., Kronenberg, A., Kirby, S. H., Rowcliffe, D. J., Sinclair, R. 1986; 20 (5): 701-705
  • DEFORMATION ENHANCED DECARBURIZATION OF WC-CO SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Jayaram, V., Sinclair, R., Rowcliffe, D. J. 1986; 20 (1): 55-60
  • NEUTRON-DIFFRACTION AND EXAFS EVIDENCE FOR TIO5 UNITS IN VITREOUS K2O.TIO2.2SIO2 JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS YARKER, C. A., JOHNSON, P. A., Wright, A. C., Wong, J., Greegor, R. B., Lytle, F. W., Sinclair, R. N. 1986; 79 (1-2): 117-136
  • Crystalline-To-Amorphous Transitions in Ti-Ni Alloys Pelton, A., R., Moine, P., Noak, M., A., Sinclair, R. 1986
  • The Evolution of Si/SiO Interface Roughness Carim, A., H., Sinclair, R. edited by Huff, H., R., Abe, T., Kolbesen, B. 1986
  • Electron Microscope in 1987 Yearbook of Science and Technology Sinclair, R. McGraw-Hill, New York. 1986: 173–176
  • High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope Observations of Silicon Regrowth at Controlled Elevated Temperatures Nature Sinclair, R., Parker, M., A. 1986; 322: 531-533
  • Plastic Deformation of WC-Co at High Confining Pressure Scripta Met. Jayaram, V., Kronenberg, A., Kirby, S., H., Rowcliffe, D., J., Sinclair, R. 1986; 20: 701-705
  • In Situ HREM and HVEM Studies of Silicon Epitaxial Regrowth Parker, M., A. , Sinclair, R. 1986
  • METASTABLE PHASE FORMATION IN TITANIUM-SILICON THIN-FILMS JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Beyers, R., Sinclair, R. 1985; 57 (12): 5240-5245
  • TERNARY PHASE-DIAGRAMS IN SEMICONDUCTOR SYSTEMS Sinclair, R., Beyers, R., Kim, K. B. MINERALS METALS MATERIALS SOC. 1985: A115–A115
  • Characterization of Emitter-Collector Shorts by Anodization, Voltage Contrast SEM and TEM Carim, A., H., Sinclair, R., Stacy, W., T. 1985
  • THE B2 TO R TRANSFORMATION IN TI50NI47FE3 AND TI49.5NI50.5 ALLOYS ACTA METALLURGICA Goo, E., Sinclair, R. 1985; 33 (9): 1717-1723
  • In-Situ High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy of Dynamic Events During the Amorphous to Crystalline Phase Transformation in Silicon Parker, M., A., Sigmon, T., W., Sinclair, R. 1985
  • Morphological Studies of Polysilicon Emitter Contacts Bravman, J., C., Patton, G., L., Sinclair, R., Plummer, J., D. 1985
  • Silicon on Sapphire of Single Crystal Quality Obtained by Double Solid Phase Expitaxial Regrowth Parker, M., A., Sigmon, T., W., Sinclair, R. 1985
  • Precipitation of Phosphorus and Tin in Temper Embrittled Low Alloy Steel Scripta Met. Wittig, J., E., Sinclair, R., Viswanathan, R. 1985; 19: 111-116
  • In Situ TEM Study of Martensitic NiTi Amorphization by Ni Ion Implantation Nucl. Instrum. Methods B Moine, P., Riviere, J., P., Ruault, M., O., Chaumont, J., Pelton, A., Sinclair, R. 1985; 7/8: 20-25
  • Direct Observation of Defect Motion in Silicon By High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Parker, M., A., Sinclair, R. 1985
  • Silicon Nitride Joining J. Am. Ceram. Soc. Mecartney, M., L., Sinclair, R., E. Loehman, R. 1985; 68: 472-478
  • Metastable Phase Formation in Titanium-Silicon Thin Films J. Appl. Phys. Beyers, R., Sinclair, R. 1985; 57: 5240-5245
  • DISPLACEMENT BOUNDARIES IN TINI ALLOYS SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Goo, E., Sinclair, R. 1985; 19 (10): 1257-1259
  • Lattice Images of Defect Free Silicon-On-Sapphire Prepared by Ion Implantation Appl. Phys. Lett. Parker, M., A., Sinclair, R., Sigmon, T., W. 1985; 47: 626-628
  • Delineation of Emitter-Collector Shorts in Bipolar Test Structures by Voltage Contrast Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM Carim, A., H., Sinclair, R., Stacy, W., T. 1985; III: 1047-1053
  • MECHANICAL TWINNING IN TI50NI47FE3 AND TI49NI51 ALLOYS ACTA METALLURGICA Goo, E., Duerig, T., Melton, K., Sinclair, R. 1985; 33 (9): 1725-1733
  • PRECIPITATION OF PHOSPHORUS AND TIN IN TEMPER EMBRITTLED LOW-ALLOY STEEL SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Wittig, J. E., Sinclair, R., Viswanathan, R. 1985; 19 (1): 111-116
  • LATTICE IMAGES OF DEFECT-FREE SILICON ON SAPPHIRE PREPARED BY ION-IMPLANTATION APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Parker, M. A., Sinclair, R., Sigmon, T. W. 1985; 47 (6): 626-628
  • DELINEATION OF EMITTER-COLLECTOR SHORTS IN BIPOLAR TEST STRUCTURES BY VOLTAGE CONTRAST SCANNING ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY Carim, A. H., Sinclair, R., STACY, W. T. 1985: 1047-1053
  • INSITU TEM STUDY OF MARTENSITIC NITI AMORPHIZATION BY NI ION-IMPLANTATION NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Moine, P., Riviere, J. P., Ruault, M. O., Chaumont, J., Pelton, A., Sinclair, R. 1985; 7-8 (MAR): 20-25
  • DEFECT INTERACTIONS IN DEFORMED WC ACTA METALLURGICA HIBBS, M. K., Sinclair, R., Rowcliffe, D. J. 1984; 32 (6): 941-947
  • Thin Foil Artifacts Observed in Electron Diffraction on a TiNi Alloy Scripta Met. Moine, P., Goo, E., Sinclair, R. 1984; 18: 1143-1147
  • Structural Determination of Amorphous Ti-Ni Alloys Pelton, A., R., Moine, P., Sinclair, R. 1984
  • High Resolution Electron Microscopy in Quantitative Electron Microscopy Sinclair, R. edited by Chapman, J., N., Craven, A., J. SUSSP Publications, Edinburgh. 1984: 341–350
  • Phase Equilibria in Thin-Film Metallizations J. Vac. Sci. Technol., Beyers, R., Sinclair, R., Thomas, M., E. 1984; B2: 781-784
  • The Morphology of the Polysilicon-SiO2 Interface Bravman, J., C., Sinclair, R. 1984
  • The Preparation of Cross-Section Specimens for Transmission Electron Microscopy J. Electron Microsc. Tech. Bravman, J., C., Sinclair, R. 1984; 1: 53-61
  • Cadmium Telluride Films and Solar Cells IEEE Trans. Electron Devices Bube, R., H., Fahrenbruch, A., Sinclair, R., Anthony, T., C., Fortmann, C., Huber, W. 1984; ED-31: 528-538
  • CADMIUM TELLURIDE FILMS AND SOLAR-CELLS IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES BUBE, R. H., FAHRENBRUCH, A. L., Sinclair, R., Anthony, T. C., FORTMANN, C., Huber, W., Lee, C. T., Thorpe, T., Yamashita, T. 1984; 31 (5): 528-538
  • THIN FOIL ARTIFACTS OBSERVED IN ELECTRON-DIFFRACTION ON A TI49.5NI50.5 ALLOY SCRIPTA METALLURGICA Moine, P., Goo, E., Sinclair, R. 1984; 18 (10): 1143-1147
  • PHASE-EQUILIBRIA IN THIN-FILM METALLIZATIONS JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B Beyers, R., Sinclair, R., Thomas, M. E. 1984; 2 (4): 781-784
  • INTERGRANULAR CRACKING IN WC-6-PERCENT CO - AN APPLICATION OF THE VONMISES CRITERION ACTA METALLURGICA Jayaram, V., Sinclair, R., Rowcliffe, D. J. 1983; 31 (3): 373-378
  • HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY OF II-VI-COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES Sinclair, R., Ponce, F. A., Yamashita, T., SMITH, D. J. 1983: 103-108
  • TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY OF ANNEALED ZRO2+8 MOL PERCENT SC2O3 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY MOGHADAM, F. K., Yamashita, T., Sinclair, R., Stevenson, D. A. 1983; 66 (3): 213-216
  • Defect Structure of WC Deformed at Room and High Temperatures Hibbs, M., K., Rowcliffe, D., J., Sinclair, R. edited by Viswanathan, R., K., Rowcliffe, D., J., Gurland, J. 1983
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies of the Polycrystalline Silicon – SiO2 Interface Thin Solid Films Bravman, J., C., Sinclair, R. 1983; 104: 153-161
  • Lattice Imaging of CdS/CdTe Solar Cell Interface Yamashita, T., Werthen, J., G., Bube, R., H., Sinclair, R. edited by Bailey, G., W. 1983
  • HREM of Interfaces and Defects in Semiconductors Sinclair, R. 1983
  • Detection of Thin Intergranular Cobalt Layers in WC-Co Composites by Lattice Imaging J. Am. Ceram. Soc. Jayaram, V., Sinclair, R. 1983; 66: C137-C139
  • Observation of Dislocation Reactions in CdTe at Lattice Resolution Yamashita, T., Sinclair, R. 1983
  • High Voltage High Resolution Electron Microscopy of Compound Semiconductors Sinclair, R., Ponce, F., A., Yamashita, T., Smith, David, J. 1983
  • Microstructural Characterization of Deformation and Precipitation in (W, Ti)C Shinde, S., L., Jayaram, V., Sinclair, R. edited by Viswanathan, R., K., Rowcliffe, D., J., Gurland, J. 1983
  • High Resolution Electron Microscopy II-VI Compound Semiconductors Sinclair, R., Ponce, F., A., Yamashita, T., Smith, David, J. 1983
  • Intergranular Cracking in WC-6%Co: An Application of the von Mises Criterion Acta Metall. Jayaram, V., Sinclair, R., Rowcliffe, D., J. 1983; 31: 373-378
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy of Annealed ZrO2+8Mol%Sc2O3 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. Moghadam, F., K., Yamashita, T., Sinclair, R., Stevenson, D., A. 1983; 66: 213-217
  • CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LATTICE DISPLACEMENT WAVES IN PRE-MARTENSITIC TINI ACTA METALLURGICA Michal, G. M., Moine, P., Sinclair, R. 1982; 30 (1): 124-138
  • HIGH-RESOLUTION LATTICE IMAGING OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE A-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STRUCTURE DEFECTS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Yamashita, T., Ponce, F. A., Pirouz, P., Sinclair, R. 1982; 45 (4): 693-711
  • Lattice Resolution Movie of Defect Modification in Cadmium Telluride Sinclair, R., Smith, D., J., Erasmus, S., J., Ponce, F., A. 1982
  • The Effect of Oxygen in Cosputtered (Titanium + Silicon) Films Beyers, R., Sinclair, R., Thomas, M., E. edited by Corbett, J., W., Mahajan, S. 1982
  • Applications of the 2 1/2 D TEM Technique Sinclair, R. 1982
  • DYNAMIC OBSERVATION OF DEFECT ANNEALING IN CDTE AT LATTICE RESOLUTION NATURE Sinclair, R., Ponce, F. A., Yamashita, T., SMITH, D. J., Camps, R. A., Freeman, L. A., Erasmus, S. J., Nixon, W. C., Smith, K. C., Catto, C. J. 1982; 298 (5870): 127-131
  • Dynamic Observation of Atomic-Level Events in Cadmium Telluride by High Resolution TEM Yamashita, T., Sinclair, R. edited by Corbett, J., W., Mahajan, S. 1982
  • High Resolution Lattice Imaging of Cadmium Telluride Philos. Mag. Yamashita, T., Ponce, F., A., Pirouz, P., Sinclair, R. 1982; A45: 693-711
  • Characterization of the Lattice Displacement Waves in Premartensitic TiNi Acta Metall. Michal, G., M., Moine, P., Sinclair, R. 1982; 30: 125-138
  • A Morphological Study of ’Premartensitic’ Effects in TiNi Acta Metall. Moine, P., Michal, G., M.,  Sinclair, R. 1982; 30: 109-123
  • Electron Irradiation Induced Crystalline Amorphous Transitions in Ni-Ti Alloys Scripta Met. Thomas, G., Mori, H., Fujita, H., Sinclair, R. 1982; 15: 589-592
  • MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATIONS IN A TINI THIN FOIL JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Moine, P., Goo, E., Sinclair, R. 1982; 43 (NC-4): 243-248
  • A MORPHOLOGICAL-STUDY OF PRE-MARTENSITIC EFFECTS IN TINI ACTA METALLURGICA Moine, P., Michal, G. M., Sinclair, R. 1982; 30 (1): 109-123
  • ROOM-TEMPERATURE DEFORMATION MECHANISMS AND THE DEFECT STRUCTURE OF TUNGSTEN CARBIDE ACTA METALLURGICA HIBBS, M. K., Sinclair, R. 1981; 29 (9): 1645-1654
  • THE EFFECT OF ORIENTATION, GRAIN-SIZE AND POLYMORPHISM ON MAGNETIC-PROPERTIES OF SPUTTERED CO-RE THIN-FILM MEDIA IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS Chen, T., Yamashita, T., Sinclair, R. 1981; 17 (6): 3187-3189
  • Room Temperature Deformation Mechanisms and the Defect Structure of Tungsten Carbide Acta Metall. Hibbs, M., K., Sinclair, R. 1981; 29: 1645-1654
  • ATOMIC MOTION ON THE SURFACE OF A CADMIUM TELLURIDE SINGLE-CRYSTAL NATURE Sinclair, R., Yamashita, T., Ponce, F. A. 1981; 290 (5805): 386-388
  • Metallurgical Applications of the 2 1/2 D TEM Technique Met. Trans. Sinclair, R., Michal, G., M., Yamashita, T. 1981; 12A: 1503-1512
  • The Premartensitic State in TiNi Sinclair, R., Moine, P., Michal, G., M. 1981
  • High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy of Semiconductor Materials Sinclair, R., Ponce, F., A., Bravman, J., C., Yamashita, T., Pirouz, P. 1981
  • Imaging of Defects in Cadmium Telluride Using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Ponce, F., A., Yamashita, T., Bube, R., H., Sinclair, R. edited by Narayan, J., Tan, T., Y. 1981
  • Recent Developments in Lattice Imaging of Materials in Annual Reviews of Materials Science Sinclair, R. edited by Huggins, R., A. Annual Reviews, Inc., Palo Alto, California. 1981: 427–439
  • Atomic Motion on the Surface of a Cadmium Telluride Single Crystal Nature Sinclair, R., Yamashita, T., Ponce, F., A. 1981; 290: 386-388
  • High Resolution Imaging of Semiconductor Interfaces Sinclair, R., Ponce, F., A., Yamashita, T., Bravman, J., C. 1981
  • Native Tellurium Dioxide Layer on Cadmium Telluride: A High Resolution Electron Microscopy Study Appl. Phys. Lett. Ponce, F., A., Sinclair, R., Bube, R., H. 1981; 39: 951-953
  • METALLURGICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE 21/2D TEM TECHNIQUE METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Sinclair, R., Michal, G. M., Yamashita, T. 1981; 12 (8): 1503-1512
  • THE STRUCTURE OF TINI MARTENSITE ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION B-STRUCTURAL SCIENCE Michal, G. M., Sinclair, R. 1981; 37 (OCT): 1803-1807
  • Chemical and Microstructural Analyses of Grain Boundaries in BaTiO-Based Dielectrics Mecartney, M., L., Sinclair, R., Ewell, G., J. edited by Levinson, L., M. 1981
  • The Effect of Orientation, Grain Size and Polymorphism on Magnetic Properties of Sputtered Co-Re Thin Film Media IEEE Trans. Magn Chen, T., Yamashita, T., Sinclair, R. 1981; MAG-17: 3187-3189
  • NATIVE TELLURIUM DIOXIDE LAYER ON CADMIUM TELLURIDE - A HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY STUDY APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Ponce, F. A., Sinclair, R., BUBE, R. H. 1981; 39 (12): 951-953
  • Physical Properties of Ion-Implanted SEM-Annealed Silicon Regolini, J., L., Johnson, N., M., Sinclair, R., Sigmon, T., W., Gibbons, J., F. edited by White, C., W., Percey, P., S. 1980
  • ABNORMAL GRAINS IN MA753 Gregory, J. K., Sinclair, R., Nix, W. D. MINERALS METALS MATERIALS SOC. 1980: 11–11
  • Analytical Electron Microscopy of Ferroelectric BaTiO3 Mecartney, M., L., Sinclair, R. 1980
  • A Transmission Electron Microscopical Investigation of Phase Transformations in TiNi Moine, P., Michal, G., M., Sinclair, R. 1980
  • Defect Structure of Deformed WC Hibbs, M., K., Sinclair, R. 1980
  • Structure Imaging of Defects in Cadmium Telluride Ponce, F., Yamashita, T., Sinclair, R. 1980
  • Comments on ’The Early Stages of the Transformation in Dilute Alloys of Titanium in Nickel Scripta Met. Laughlin, D., E., Sinclair, R., Tanner, L., E. 1980; 14: 373-376
  • Combined High Resolution and Analytical TEM Studies of Phase-Separated Alloys Wu, C., K., Marshall, A., F., Thomas, G., Sinclair, R. 1980
  • A Quantitative Assessment of the Capabilities of 2 1/2 D Microscopy for Analyzing Crystalline Solids Philos. Mag. Michal, G., M., Sinclair, R. 1980; A42: 691-704
  • A QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE CAPABILITIES OF 21/2D MICROSCOPY FOR ANALYZING CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE A-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STRUCTURE DEFECTS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Michal, G. M., Sinclair, R. 1980; 42 (6): 691-704
  • High Resolution Imaging of Cadmium Telluride Sinclair, R., Ponce, F., Yamashita, T., Pirouz, P. 1980
  • Microanalysis by Lattice Imaging in Analytical Electron Microscopy Sinclair, R. edited by Hren, J., J., Goldstein, J., I., Joy, D., C. Plenum Press, New York. 1979: 507–534
  • Lattice Fringe Imaging of Alloys Sinclair, R. 1979
  • In-Situ Observations of Diffusionless Transformations in NiTi Michal, G., M., Sinclair, R. 1979
  • Growth Relationships in NbSn-Cu Superconducting Composites Sinclair, R. edited by Kuhlman-Wilsdorf, D., Harrigan, W., C. 1979
  • Origin of Stacking Faults in NiTi Martensite Sinclair, R. edited by Cowley, J., M., Cohen, J., B., Salamon, M., B. 1979
  • Determination of Local Composition by Lattice Imaging Met. Trans.  Sinclair, R., Thomas, G. 1978; 9A: 373-380
  • Aspects of Microanalysis in a TEM Sinclair, R., Jacobson, B., E. 1978
  • Modulated Substitutional-Intersitial Solute-Atom Clustering in Nitrided Austenitic Fe-34 Ni-V Alloys Driver, J., H., Sinclair, R., Jack, K., H. 1978
  • Applications of Lattice Fringe Imaging Sinclair, R. 1978
  • Lattice Imaging and Optical Microanalysis of a Cu-Ni-Cr Spinodal Alloy Met. Trans. Wu, C.,  K., Sinclair, R.,  Thomas, G. 1978; 9A: 381-387
  • Lattice Imaging Study of a Martensite-Austenite Interface Acta Metall. Sinclair, R., Mohamed, H., A. 1978; 26: 623-628
  • Fine Structure of Interfaces as Revealed by Lattice Fringe Imaging Sinclair, R. 1977
  • A Preliminary Lattice Image Investigation of Nickel-Titanium Martensite J. Phys. Sinclair, R. 1977; C7 (38): 453-456
  • Structure of Ordered Alloys J. Phys.  Sinclair, R., Thomas, G. 1977; C7 (38): 165-171
  • Lattice Image Studies of B19 Ordering and Interfacial Structures in Mg3Cd Acta Metall. Sinclair, R., Dutkiewicz, J. 1977; 25: 235-249
  • Direct Observation and Characterization of Lattice Defects in Materials in Treatise on Materials Science and Technology Sinclair, R. edited by McCrone, R., K. Academic Press, New York. 1977: 1–45
  • The Importance of Electron Diffraction to Transmission Electron Imaging Trans. Am. Cryst. Soc. Sinclair, R. 1977; 13: 101-126
  • Discussion of An Electron Diffraction Study of Short-Range Order in Quenched Ni4Mo Alloy Acta Metall. Thomas, G., Sinclair, R. 1977; 25: 101-126
  • Preliminary Observations of Electron Irradiation Damage in Short-Range Ordered Ni4Mo Sinclair, R., Gelles, D., S., Thomas, G. 1976
  • Applications of High Resolution Electron Microscopy in Materials Science Report of Workshop on High Resolution Electron Microscopy edited by Thomas, G., Glaeser, R., M., Cowley, J., M. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Special Publication. 1976: 71–79
  • Applications of High Resolution Electron Microscopy in Materials Science edited by Thomas, G., Glaeser, R., M., Cowley, J., M. 1976
  • Optical Diffraction from Lattice Images of Alloys Acta Metall. Sinclair, R., Gronsky, R., Thomas, G. 1976; 24: 789-795
  • Applications of High Resolution Electron Microscopy in Materials Science edited by Thomas, G., Glaeser, R., M., Cowley, J., M. 1976
  • Lattice Image and Optical Diffraction Studies of Alloys Thomas, G., Sinclair, R., Gronsky, R. 1976
  • Optical Microdiffraction in Lattice Image Analysis Gronsky, R., Sinclair, R., Thomas, G. 1976
  • Observations of B19 Order ing in Mg3Cd Thin Foils Scripta Met. Dutkiewicz, J., Sinclair, R. 1976; 10: 489-493
  • Analysis of Ordering in Cu3Au, Utilizing Lattice Imaging Techniques Acta Metall. Sinclair, R., Schneider, K.,  Thomas, G. 1975; 23: 873-883
  • Antiphase Domains and Diffraction Spot Splitting in Cu3Au J. Appl. Crystallography Sinclair, R., Thomas, G. 1975; 8: 206-211
  • Lattice Image Studies of Ordered Alloys Sinclair, R., Dutkiewicz, J. 1975
  • On the Lattice Parameter of Non-Random Solid Solutions Philos. Mag. Krawitz, A., Sinclair, R. 1975; 31: 697-712
  • Lattice Imaging of Spinodal Alloys Gronsky, R., Okada, M., Sinclair, R., Thomas, G. 1975
  • Studies of Atomic Scattering Factors from the Critical Voltage in Ordered Alloys: Applications to Cu3Au Rocher, A., Sinclair, R., Thomas, G. 1975
  • Applications of the Critical Voltage Effect for the Study of Ordering Philos. Mag. Sinclair, R., Goringe, M., J., Thomas, G. 1975; 32: 501-512
  • Lattice Image Contrast of Ordered Domains in CuAu Sinclair, R., Thomas, G. 1974
  • Spinodal Decomposition of a Nickel-Titanium Alloy Phys. Status Solidi A Sinclair, R., Leake, J., A., Ralph, B. 1974; 26: 285-298
  • Lattice Imaging of Ordered Alloys Sinclair, R., Scheider, K., Thomas, G. 1974
  • A New 1000C Double Tilt Stage for the Hitachi 650 kV Microscope Worthington, W., Kosel, T., Sinclair, R. 1974
  • High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Sinclair, R. 1973
  • Measurement of Relative Bond Energies in Some Ordered Nickel-Based Alloys by Field-Ion Microscopy Phys. Status Solidi A Taunt, R., J., Sinclair, R., Ralph, B. 1973; 16: 469-484
  • On the Determination of a Local Order Parameter in a Nickel-Titanium Alloy Philos. Mag. Sinclair, R., Ralph, B., Leake, J., A. 1973; 28: 1111-1123