Dr. Visser is a native of San Francisco, the youngest of eight children. He attended Deep Springs College in Eastern California and then went on to earn his BS at Cornell University in Ithaca NY. After receiving his MD degree at the University of California - San Francisco, he stayed at UCSF for his residency training in general surgery. He then completed specialized fellowship training in hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery (also called HPB surgery) at the University of Edinburgh in Ediburgh, UK. Dr. Visser is board certified in general surgery by the American Board of Surgery. His principle practice is at Stanford Hospital and the Stanford Cancer Center, but he is also a staff surgeon at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, serving our veteran patients.

Dr. Visser is actively involved in the General Surgery training program and is the program director for the Stanford Hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) Surgery fellowship program. Dr. Visser was honored in 2011 with the John Collins Memorial Teaching Award, an annual faculty recognition selected by the entire body of general surgery residents. He also received the Best Rotation Award in 2015, which is selected by Stanford chief residents in general surgery. He is the Medical Director of the GI Cancer Care Program at the Stanford Cancer Center.

Clinical Focus

  • Cancer > GI Oncology
  • Hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery
  • General Surgery

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Medical Director, Gastrointestinal Cancer Care Program, Stanford Cancer Center (2015 - Present)
  • Program Director, HPB Fellowship, Stanford HPB Program (2013 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • John Collins Memorial Teaching Award, Annual faculty teaching award selected by entire body of general surgery residents (2010-2011)
  • Best Rotation Award: Stanford Chief Residents 2015, Stanford General Surgery Residency (2014-2015)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Training @ Education Committee, International Hepatopancreatobiliary Association (IHPBA) (2015 - Present)
  • Editorial Board, HPB (2011 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Residency:Univ of California San Francisco (2005) CA
  • Medical Education:Univ of California San Francisco (1999) CA
  • Fellowship:University of Edinburgh; Edinburgh Royal (2006)
  • Board Certification: General Surgery, American Board of Surgery (2006)
  • MD, Univ. of Calif., San Francisco, Medicine (1999)
  • Resident, Univ. Of Calif., San Francisco, General Surgery (2005)
  • Fellow, Univ. of Edinburgh, UK, Hepatobiliary/Pancreatic Surgery (2006)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Dr. Visser's research interests span the breath of his clinical practice. Areas of active research include the multidisciplinary treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine cancers, technical aspects of minimally invasive pancreatic and liver surgery, and trends in the management of hepatobiliary cancers in California. He collaborates with numerous other physicians and scientists at Stanford, with active translational research collaborations in 3-dimensional culture of tumor cells (to allow more accurate prediction of response to medical therapy) (with Calvin Kuo, Hematology), pancreatic cystic tumor biomarker identification (with Walter Park, Gastroenterology), and prediction of microvascular invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma using computational image analysis in combination with next-generation genomic sequencing (with Nishita Kothary, Interventional Radiology)

Clinical Trials

  • Preoperative Biliary Drainage in Resectable Pancreatic or Periampullary Cancer Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that preoperative biliary drainage using self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) does not negatively impact overall surgical outcomes in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for treatment of pancreatic or periampullary cancer.

    View full details

  • Combination SBRT With TACE for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma Not Recruiting

    To determine the efficacy and toxicity of TACE combined with SBRT

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Laurie Ann Columbo, 650-736-0792.

    View full details

  • Phase II Gemcitabine + Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Unresectable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Not Recruiting

    This multi-institutional trial aims to evaluate the potential benefit and side effects of adding fractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy/surgery (SBRT) before and after chemotherapy with gemcitabine for locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Laurie Ann Columbo, 650-736-0792.

    View full details

  • Prognostic Value of Baseline Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion Parameters of Pancreatic Cancer for Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy or Surgical Resection Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is first, to determine whether baseline perfusion characteristics of pancreatic cancer, as characterized by CT perfusion studies, can predict tumor response to treatment by stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The second goal of this study is to determine whether baseline perfusion characteristics in those patients with resectable pancreatic cancer correlate with immunohistologic markers of angiogenesis such as microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Lindee Burton, (650) 725 - 4712.

    View full details

  • Transarterial Chemoembolization vs CyberKnife for Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma Not Recruiting

    Primary Objective: To compare the efficacy of TACE vs. CyberKnife SBRT in the treatment of locally recurrent HCC after initial TACE. Secondary Objectives: 1. To determine the progression-free survival of TACE vs. CyberKnife SBRT 2. To determine the overall survival of TACE vs. CyberKnife SBRT for locally recurrent HCC 3. To determine the toxicities associated with TACE or CyberKnife SBRT for the treatment of recurrent HCC.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Laurie Ann Columbo, (650) 736 - 0792.

    View full details

2017-18 Courses

Stanford Advisees

All Publications

  • Prospective Evaluation of Results of Reoperation in Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome. Annals of surgery Norton, J. A., Krampitz, G. W., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Fraker, D. L., Alexander, H. R., Jensen, R. T. 2018; 267 (4): 782–88


    OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of reoperation in patients with persistent or recurrent Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES).BACKGROUND: Approximately, 0% to 60% of ZES patients are disease-free (DF) after an initial operation, but the tumor may recur.METHODS: A prospective database was queried.RESULTS: A total of 223 patients had an initial operation for possible cure of ZES and then were subsequently evaluated serially with cross sectional imaging-computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, more recently octreoscan-and functional studies for ZES activity. The mean age at first surgery was 49 years and with an 11-year mean follow-up 52 patients (23%) underwent reoperation when ZES recurred with imageable disease. Results in this group are analyzed in the current report. Reoperation occurred on a mean of 6 years after the initial surgery with a mean number of reoperations of 1 (range 1-5). After reoperation 18/52 patients were initially DF (35%); and after a mean follow-up of 8 years, 13/52 remained DF (25%). During follow-up, 9/52 reoperated patients (17%) died, of whom 7 patients died a disease-related death (13%). The overall survival from first surgery was 84% at 20 years and 68% at 30 years. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 status did not affect survival, but DF interval and liver metastases did.CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that a significant proportion of patients with ZES will develop resectable persistent or recurrent disease after an initial operation. These patients generally have prolonged survival after reoperation and 25% can be cured with repeat surgery, suggesting all ZES patients postresection should have systematic imaging, and if tumor recurs, advise repeat operation.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SLA.0000000000002122

    View details for PubMedID 29517561

  • Incidence and Prognosis of Primary Gastrinomas in the Hepatobiliary Tract JAMA SURGERY Norton, J. A., Foster, D. S., Blumgart, L. H., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Fraker, D. L., Alexander, H., Jensen, R. T. 2018; 153 (3): e175083

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2017.5083

    View details for Web of Science ID 000427993200001

    View details for PubMedID 29365025

  • Management of Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Toesca, D. A., Koong, A. J., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Haraldsdottir, S., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2018; 100 (5): 1155–74


    With the rapid development of imaging modalities and surgical techniques, the clinical entity representing tumors that are intermediate between resectable and unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma has been identified has been termed "borderline resectable" (BR). These tumors are generally amenable for resection but portend an increased risk for positive margins after surgery and commonly necessitate vascular resection and reconstruction. Although there is a lack of consensus regarding the appropriate definition of what constitutes a BR pancreatic tumor, it has been demonstrated that this intermediate category carries a particular prognosis that is in between resectable and unresectable disease. In order to downstage the tumor and increase the probability of clear surgical margins, neoadjuvant therapy is being increasingly utilized and studied. There is a lack of high-level evidence to establish the optimal treatment regimen for BR tumors. When resection with negative margins is achieved after neoadjuvant therapy, the prognosis for BR tumors approaches and even exceeds that for resectable disease. This review presents the current definitions, different treatment approaches, and the clinical outcomes of BR pancreatic cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.12.287

    View details for PubMedID 29722658

  • When Lightning Strikes Twice. Digestive diseases and sciences Baiu, I., Charville, G. W., Visser, B. C. 2018

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-017-4888-0

    View details for PubMedID 29302877

  • Transgastric pancreatic necrosectomy-expedited return to prepancreatitis health JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH Dua, M. M., Worhunsky, D. J., Malhotra, L., Park, W. G., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2017; 219: 11–17


    The best operative strategy for necrotizing pancreatitis remains controversial. Traditional surgical necrosectomy is associated with significant morbidity; endoscopic and percutaneous strategies require repeated interventions with prolonged hospitalizations. We have developed a transgastric approach to pancreatic necrosectomy to overcome the shortcomings of the other techniques described.Patients with necrotizing pancreatitis treated from 2009 to 2016 at an academic center were retrospectively reviewed. Open or laparoscopic transgastric necrosectomy was performed if the area of necrosis was walled-off and in a retrogastric position on cross-sectional imaging. Study endpoints included postoperative complications and mortality.Forty-six patients underwent transgastric necrosectomy (nine open and 37 laparoscopic). Median (interquartile range) preoperative Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 6 (3-12). Seventy percent of patients had >30% necrosis on preoperative imaging; infected necrosis was present in 35%. Median total length of stay (LOS) was 6 (3-12) d. No patient required a second operative debridement; four patients (9%) had short-term postoperative percutaneous drainage for residual fluid collections. Median follow-up was 1 y; there were no fistula or wound complications. Six patients (13%) had postoperative bleeding; five patients received treatment by image-guided embolization. There was one death in the cohort.Transgastric pancreatic necrosectomy allows for effective debridement with a single definitive operation. When anatomically suitable, this operative strategy offers expedited recovery and avoids long-term morbidity associated with fistulas and prolonged drainage.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2017.05.089

    View details for Web of Science ID 000413775200004

    View details for PubMedID 29078869

  • Surgical Approaches to Chronic Pancreatitis: Indications and Techniques. Digestive diseases and sciences Dua, M. M., Visser, B. C. 2017


    There are a number of surgical strategies for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis. The optimal intervention should provide effective pain relief, improve/maintain quality of life, preserve exocrine and endocrine function, and manage local complications. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was once the standard operation for patients with chronic pancreatitis; however, other procedures such as the duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resections and its variants have been introduced with good long-term results. Pancreatic duct drainage via a lateral pancreaticojejunostomy continues to be effective in ameliorating symptoms and expediting return to normal lifestyle in many patients. This review summarizes operative indications and gives an overview of the different surgical strategies in treating chronic pancreatitis.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-017-4526-x

    View details for PubMedID 28281166

  • Fukuoka and AGA Criteria Have Superior Diagnostic Accuracy for Advanced Cystic Neoplasms than Sendai Criteria. Digestive diseases and sciences Sighinolfi, M., Quan, S. Y., Lee, Y., Ibaseta, A., Pham, K., Dua, M. M., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Park, W. G. 2017; 62 (3): 626-632


    The aim of this study was to compare the American Gastroenterological Association guidelines (AGA criteria), the 2012 (Fukuoka criteria), and 2006 (Sendai criteria) International Consensus Guidelines for the diagnosis of advanced pancreatic cystic neoplasms.All patients who underwent surgical resection of a pancreatic cyst from August 2007 through January 2016 were retrospectively analyzed at a single tertiary academic center. Relevant clinical and imaging variables along with pathology results were collected to determine appropriate classification for each guideline. Advanced pancreatic cystic neoplasms were defined by the presence of either high-grade dysplasia or cystic adenocarcinoma. Diagnostic accuracy was measured by ROC analysis.A total of 209 patients were included. Both the AGA and Fukuoka criteria had a higher diagnostic accuracy for advanced neoplastic cysts than the Sendai criteria: AGA ROC 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.81), Fukuoka ROC 0.78 (95% CI 0.74-0.82), and Sendai ROC 0.65 (95% CI 0.61-0.69) (p < 0.0001). There was no difference between the Fukuoka and the AGA criteria. While the sensitivity was higher in the Fukuoka criteria compared to the AGA criteria (97.7 vs. 88.6%), the specificity was higher in the AGA criteria compared to the Fukuoka criteria (62.4 vs. 58.2%).In a surgical series of patients with pancreatic cysts, the AGA and Fukuoka criteria had superior diagnostic accuracy for advanced neoplastic cysts compared to the original Sendai criteria.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-017-4460-y

    View details for PubMedID 28116593

  • Enumeration and targeted analysis of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations in CTCs captured by a label-free platform: Comparison to ctDNA and tissue in metastatic colorectal cancer ONCOTARGET Kidess-Sigal, E., Liu, H. E., Triboulet, M. M., Che, J., Ramani, V. C., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Longacre, T. A., Marziali, A., Vysotskaia, V., Wiggin, M., Heirich, K., Hanft, V., Keilholz, U., Tinhofer, I., Norton, J. A., Lee, M., Sollier-Christen, E., Jeffrey, S. S. 2016; 7 (51): 85349-85364


    Treatment of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) requires multimodal therapeutic approaches and need for monitoring tumor plasticity. Liquid biopsy biomarkers, including CTCs and ctDNA, hold promise for evaluating treatment response in real-time and guiding therapeutic modifications. From 15 patients with advanced CRC undergoing liver metastasectomy with curative intent, we collected 41 blood samples at different time points before and after surgery for CTC isolation and quantification using label-free Vortex technology. For mutational profiling, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA hotspot mutations were analyzed in CTCs and ctDNA from 23 samples, nine matched liver metastases and three primary tumor samples. Mutational patterns were compared. 80% of patient blood samples were positive for CTCs, using a healthy baseline value as threshold (0.4 CTCs/mL), and 81.4% of captured cells were EpCAM+ CTCs. At least one mutation was detected in 78% of our blood samples. Among 23 matched CTC and ctDNA samples, we found a concordance of 78.2% for KRAS, 73.9% for BRAF and 91.3% for PIK3CA mutations. In several cases, CTCs exhibited a mutation that was not detected in ctDNA, and vice versa. Complementary assessment of both CTCs and ctDNA appears advantageous to assess dynamic tumor profiles.

    View details for DOI 10.18632/oncotarget.13350

    View details for Web of Science ID 000391353200125

    View details for PubMedID 27863403

  • Distinct biological subtypes and patterns of genome evolution in lymphoma revealed by circulating tumor DNA SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Scherer, F., Kurtz, D. M., Newman, A. M., Stehr, H., Craig, A. F., Esfahani, M. S., Lovejoy, A. F., Chabon, J. J., Klass, D. M., Liu, C. L., Zhou, L., Glover, C., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Advani, R. H., Maeda, L. S., Gupta, N. K., Levy, R., Ohgami, R. S., Kunder, C. A., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. 2016; 8 (364)


    Patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) exhibit marked diversity in tumor behavior and outcomes, yet the identification of poor-risk groups remains challenging. In addition, the biology underlying these differences is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that characterization of mutational heterogeneity and genomic evolution using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) profiling could reveal molecular determinants of adverse outcomes. To address this hypothesis, we applied cancer personalized profiling by deep sequencing (CAPP-Seq) analysis to tumor biopsies and cell-free DNA samples from 92 lymphoma patients and 24 healthy subjects. At diagnosis, the amount of ctDNA was found to strongly correlate with clinical indices and was independently predictive of patient outcomes. We demonstrate that ctDNA genotyping can classify transcriptionally defined tumor subtypes, including DLBCL cell of origin, directly from plasma. By simultaneously tracking multiple somatic mutations in ctDNA, our approach outperformed immunoglobulin sequencing and radiographic imaging for the detection of minimal residual disease and facilitated noninvasive identification of emergent resistance mutations to targeted therapies. In addition, we identified distinct patterns of clonal evolution distinguishing indolent follicular lymphomas from those that transformed into DLBCL, allowing for potential noninvasive prediction of histological transformation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ctDNA analysis reveals biological factors that underlie lymphoma clinical outcomes and could facilitate individualized therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.aai8545

    View details for Web of Science ID 000389448100006

    View details for PubMedID 27831904

  • Recurrent Pyogenic Cholangitis: Got Stones? Digestive diseases and sciences Gholami, S., Wood, L., Berry, G., Triadafilopoulos, G., Visser, B. C., Dua, M. M. 2016; 61 (11): 3147-3150

    View details for PubMedID 26602913

  • Laparoscopic hepatectomy in cirrhotics: safe if you adjust technique. Surgical endoscopy Worhunsky, D. J., Dua, M. M., Tran, T. B., Siu, B., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2016; 30 (10): 4307-4314


    Minimally invasive liver surgery is a growing field, and a small number of recent reports have suggested that laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) is feasible even in patients with cirrhosis. However, parenchymal transection of the cirrhotic liver is challenging due to fibrosis and portal hypertension. There is a paucity of data regarding the technical modifications necessary to safely transect the diseased parenchyma.Patients undergoing LLR by a single surgeon between 2008 and 2015 were reviewed. Patients with cirrhosis were compared to those without cirrhosis to examine differences in surgical technique, intraoperative characteristics, and outcomes (including liver-related morbidity and general postoperative complication rates).A total of 167 patients underwent LLR during the study period. Forty-eight (29 %) had cirrhosis, of which 43 (90 %) had hepatitis C. Most had Child-Pugh class A disease (85 %). Compared to noncirrhotics, patients with cirrhosis were older, had more comorbidities, and were more likely to have hepatocellular carcinoma. Precoagulation before parenchymal transection was used more frequently in cirrhotics (65 vs. 15 %, P < 0.001), and mean portal triad clamping time was longer (32 vs. 22 min, P = 0.002). There were few conversions to open surgery, though hand-assisted laparoscopy was used as an alternative to converting to open in three patients with cirrhosis. Blood loss was relatively low for both groups. Although there were more postoperative complications among cirrhotics (38 vs. 13 %, P = 0.001), this was almost entirely due to a higher rate of minor (Clavien-Dindo I or II) complications. Liver-related morbidity, major complications, and mortality rates were similar.LLR is safe for selected patients with cirrhosis. The added complexity associated with the division of diseased liver parenchyma may be overcome with some form of technique modification, including more liberal use of precoagulation, portal triad clamping, or a hand-assist port.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00464-016-4748-6

    View details for PubMedID 26895906

  • The significance of underlying cardiac comorbidity on major adverse cardiac events after major liver resection. HPB Tran, T. B., Worhunsky, D. J., Spain, D. A., Dua, M. M., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2016; 18 (9): 742-747


    The risk of postoperative adverse events in patients with underlying cardiac disease undergoing major hepatectomy remains poorly characterized.The NSQIP database was used to identify patients undergoing hemihepatectomy and trisectionectomy. Patient characteristics and postoperative outcomes were evaluated.From 2005 to 2012, 5227 patients underwent major hepatectomy. Of those, 289 (5.5%) had prior major cardiac disease: 5.6% angina, 3.1% congestive heart failure, 1% myocardial infarction, 54% percutaneous coronary intervention, and 46% cardiac surgery. Thirty-day mortality was higher in patients with cardiac comorbidity (6.9% vs. 3.7%, P = 0.008), including the incidence of postoperative cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (3.8% vs. 1.2%, P = 0.001) and myocardial infarction (1.7% vs. 0.4%, P = 0.011). Multivariate analysis revealed that functional impairment, older age, and malnutrition, but not cardiac comorbidity, were significant predictors of 30-day mortality. However, prior percutaneous coronary intervention was independently associated with postoperative cardiac arrest (OR 2.999, P = 0.008).While cardiac comorbidity is not a predictor of mortality after major hepatectomy, prior percutaneous coronary intervention is independently associated with postoperative cardiac arrest. Careful patient selection and preoperative optimization is fundamental in patients with prior percutaneous coronary intervention being considered for major hepatectomy as restrictive fluid management and low central venous pressure anesthesia may not be tolerated well by all patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hpb.2016.06.012

    View details for PubMedID 27593591

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5011082

  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas: Degree of cystic component predicts prognosis. Surgery Cloyd, J. M., Kopecky, K. E., Norton, J. A., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Visser, B. C., Dua, M. M., Park, W. G., Poultsides, G. A. 2016; 160 (3): 708-713


    Although most pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are solid, approximately 10% are cystic. Some studies have suggested that cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are associated with a more favorable prognosis.A retrospective review of all patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors who underwent operative resection between 1999 and 2014 at a single academic medical center was performed. Based on cross-sectional imaging performed before operation, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors were classified according to the size of the cystic component relative to the total tumor size: purely cystic (100%), mostly cystic (≥50%), mostly solid (<50%), and purely solid (0%). Clinicopathologic characteristics and recurrence-free survival were assessed between groups.In the study, 214 patients met inclusion criteria: 8 with purely cystic tumors, 7 with mostly cystic tumors, 15 with mostly solid tumors, and 184 with purely solid tumors. The groups differed in terms of tumor size (1.5 ± 0.5, 3.0 ± 1.7, 3.7 ± 2.6, and 4.0 ± 3.5 cm), lymph node positivity (0%, 0%, 26.7%, and 34.2%), intermediate or high grade (0%, 16.7%, 20.0%, and 31.0%), synchronous liver metastases (0%, 14.3%, 20.0%, and 26.6%) and need for pancreaticoduodenectomy (0%, 0%, 6.7%, and 25.0%), respectively. No cases of purely cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors were associated with synchronous liver or lymph node metastasis, intermediate/high grade, recurrence, or death due to disease. Among patients presenting without metastatic disease, 10-year recurrence-free survival was 100% in patients with purely and mostly cystic tumors versus 53.0% in patients with purely and mostly solid tumors; however, this difference did not reach statistical significance.Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors demonstrate a spectrum of biologic behavior with an increasing cystic component being associated with more favorable clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Purely cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors may represent 1 subset that can be safely observed without immediate resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2016.04.005

    View details for PubMedID 27216830

  • Green Sludge: Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Bile Duct Presenting with Intermittent Biliary Obstruction Due to Abundant Mucus. Digestive diseases and sciences Choudhary, A., Barakat, M. T., Leal, J. N., Louie, C. Y., Visser, B. C., Banerjee, S. 2016: -?

    View details for PubMedID 27423887

  • Biliary Cystadenoma: A Suggested "Cystamatic" Approach? DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Dua, M. M., Gerry, J., Salles, A., Tran, T. B., Triadafilopoulos, G., Visser, B. C. 2016; 61 (7): 1835-1838

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-015-3943-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379013300011

    View details for PubMedID 26514678

  • An economic analysis of pancreaticoduodenectomy: should costs drive consumer decisions? AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY Tran, T. B., Dua, M. M., Worhunsky, D. J., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2016; 211 (6): 991-?


    Consumer groups campaign for cost transparency believing that patients will select hospitals accordingly. We sought to determine whether the cost of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) should be considered in choosing a hospital.Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, we analyzed charges for patients who underwent PD from 2000 to 2010. Outcomes were stratified by hospital volume.A total of 15,599 PDs were performed in 1,186 hospitals. The median cost was $87,444 (interquartile range $16,015 to $144,869). High volume hospitals (HVH) had shorter hospital stay (11 vs 15 days, P < .001) and mortality (3% vs 7.6%, P < .001). PD performed at low volume hospitals had higher charges compared with HVH ($97,923 vs $81,581, P < .001). On multivariate analysis, HVH was associated with a lower risk of mortality, while extremes in hospital costs, cardiac comorbidity, and any complication were significant predictors of mortality.Although PDs performed at HVH are associated with better outcomes and lower hospital charges, costs should not be the primary determinant when selecting a hospital.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2015.10.028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000375795200004

    View details for PubMedID 26902956

  • The First Decade of Laparoscopic Pancreaticoduodenectomy in the United States: Costs and Outcomes Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES Tran, T. B., Dua, M. M., Worhunsky, D. J., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2016; 30 (5): 1778-1783


    Minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) remains an uncommon procedure, and the safety and efficacy remain uncertain beyond single institution case series. The aim of this study is to compare outcomes and costs between laparoscopic (LPD) and open PD (OPD) using a large population-based database.The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (a sample of approximately 20 % of all hospital discharges) was analyzed to identify patients who underwent PD from 2000 to 2010. Patient demographics, comorbidities, hospital characteristics, inflation-adjusted total charges, and complications were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Hospitals were categorized as high-volume hospitals (HVH) if more than 20 PD (open and laparoscopic) were performed annually, while those performing fewer than 20 PD were classified as low-volume hospitals.Of the 15,574 PD identified, 681 cases were LPD (4.4 %). Compared to OPD, patients who underwent LPD were slightly older (65 vs. 67 years; p = 0.001) and were more commonly treated at HVH (56.6 vs. 66.1 %; p < 0.001). Higher rates of complications were observed in OPD than LPD (46 vs. 39.4 %; p = 0.001), though mortality rates were comparable (5 vs. 3.8 %, p = 0.27). Inflation-adjusted median hospital charges were similar between OPD and LPD ($87,577 vs. $81,833, p = 0.199). However, hospital stay was slightly longer in the OPD group compared to LPD group (12 vs. 11 days, p < 0.001). Stratifying outcomes by hospital volume, LPD at HVH resulted in shorter hospital stays (9 vs. 13 days, p < 0.001), which translated into significantly lower median hospital charges ($76,572 vs. $106,367, p < 0.001).Contrary to fears regarding the potential for compromised outcomes early in the learning curve, LPD morbidity in its first decade is modestly reduced, while hospital costs are comparable to OPD. In high-volume pancreatic hospitals, LPD is associated with a reduction in length of stay and hospital costs.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00464-015-4444-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000375087100010

    View details for PubMedID 26275542

  • Identification of tumorigenic cells and therapeutic targets in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Krampitz, G. W., George, B. M., Willingham, S. B., Volkmer, J., Weiskopf, K., Jahchan, N., Newman, A. M., Sahoo, D., Zemek, A. J., Yanovsky, R. L., Nguyen, J. K., Schnorr, P. J., Mazur, P. K., Sage, J., Longacre, T. A., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Weissman, I. L. 2016; 113 (16): 4464-4469


    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are a type of pancreatic cancer with limited therapeutic options. Consequently, most patients with advanced disease die from tumor progression. Current evidence indicates that a subset of cancer cells is responsible for tumor development, metastasis, and recurrence, and targeting these tumor-initiating cells is necessary to eradicate tumors. However, tumor-initiating cells and the biological processes that promote pathogenesis remain largely uncharacterized in PanNETs. Here we profile primary and metastatic tumors from an index patient and demonstrate that MET proto-oncogene activation is important for tumor growth in PanNET xenograft models. We identify a highly tumorigenic cell population within several independent surgically acquired PanNETs characterized by increased cell-surface protein CD90 expression and aldehyde dehydrogenase A1 (ALDHA1) activity, and provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for their stem-like properties. We performed proteomic profiling of 332 antigens in two cell lines and four primary tumors, and showed that CD47, a cell-surface protein that acts as a "don't eat me" signal co-opted by cancers to evade innate immune surveillance, is ubiquitously expressed. Moreover, CD47 coexpresses with MET and is enriched in CD90(hi)cells. Furthermore, blocking CD47 signaling promotes engulfment of tumor cells by macrophages in vitro and inhibits xenograft tumor growth, prevents metastases, and prolongs survival in vivo.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1600007113

    View details for Web of Science ID 000374393800063

    View details for PubMedID 27035983

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4843455

  • Duodenal adenocarcinoma: Advances in diagnosis and surgical management. World journal of gastrointestinal surgery Cloyd, J. M., George, E., Visser, B. C. 2016; 8 (3): 212-221


    Duodenal adenocarcinoma is a rare but aggressive malignancy. Given its rarity, previous studies have traditionally combined duodenal adenocarcinoma (DA) with either other periampullary cancers or small bowel adenocarcinomas, limiting the available data to guide treatment decisions. Nevertheless, management primarily involves complete surgical resection when technically feasible. Surgery may require pancreaticoduodenectomy or segmental duodenal resection; either are acceptable options as long as negative margins are achievable and an adequate lymphadenectomy can be performed. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation are important components of multi-modality treatment for patients at high risk of recurrence. Further research would benefit from multi-institutional trials that do not combine DA with other periampullary or small bowel malignancies. The purpose of this article is to perform a comprehensive review of DA with special focus on the surgical management and principles.

    View details for DOI 10.4240/wjgs.v8.i3.212

    View details for PubMedID 27022448

  • Management of Postoperative Hepatic Failure JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Qadan, M., Garden, O. J., Corvera, C. U., Visser, B. C. 2016; 222 (2): 195-208
  • Statin and Metformin Use Prolongs Survival in Patients With Resectable Pancreatic Cancer. Pancreas Kozak, M. M., Anderson, E. M., von Eyben, R., Pai, J. S., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2016; 45 (1): 64-70


    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of statin and metformin therapy on disease outcome for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).This retrospective study included 171 PDAC patients who underwent surgical resection at the Stanford Cancer Institute between 1998 and 2013. No patients received neoadjuvant therapy. Statin and metformin use was defined as use during initial consult and continuing upon discharge from the hospital after surgery. Dose of each medication was recorded, as was the type of statin taken.The median follow-up for all patients was 11.23 months (range, 0.2-105.0 months). Among the 171 patients included in our analysis, 18 patients (10.5%) took metformin and 34 patients (19.9%) took statins. Statin use was associated with better overall survival (OS) in patients with PDAC (P = 0.011). Metformin use was also associated with better OS (P = 0.035). The use of statins remained significant on multivariate analysis for OS (P = 0.014; hazards ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.139-0.799), but metformin use did not (P = 0.33; hazards ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval, 0.211-1.675).Statin and metformin use is associated with improved OS in patients with resectable PDAC. These medications should be further investigated for possible long-term use in the general population.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MPA.0000000000000470

    View details for PubMedID 26474429

  • Missing the obvious: psychosocial obstacles in Veterans with hepatocellular carcinoma HPB Hwa, K. J., Dua, M. M., Wren, S. M., Visser, B. C. 2015; 17 (12): 1124-1129


    Socioeconomic disparities in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) influence medical treatment. In addition to socioeconomic barriers, the Veteran population suffers from significant psychosocial obstacles. This study identifies the social challenges that Veterans face while undergoing treatment for HCC.One hundred Veterans at the Palo Alto VA treated for HCC from 2009 to 2014 (50 consecutive patients who underwent a surgical procedure; 50 treated with intra-arterial therapy) were retrospectively reviewed.Substance abuse history was identified in 96%, and half were unemployed. Most patients survived on a limited income [median $1340, interquartile range (IQR) 900-2125]; 36% on ≤ $1000/month, 37% between $1001-2000/month and 27% with >$2000/month. A history of homelessness was found in 30%, more common in those of the lowest income (57% of ≤$1K/month group, 23% of $1-2K/month group and 9% of >$2K/month group, P < 0.01). Psychiatric illness was present in 64/100 patients; among these the majority received ongoing psychiatric treatment. Transportation was provided to 23% of patients who would otherwise have been unable to attend medical appointments.Psychiatric disease and substance abuse are highly prevalent among Veterans with HCC. Most patients survive on a very meager income. These profound socioeconomic and psychosocial problems must be recognized when providing care for HCC to this population to provide adequate treatment and surveillance.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/hpb.12508

    View details for Web of Science ID 000368291100010

  • Image-guided surgery. Current problems in surgery Azagury, D. E., Dua, M. M., Barrese, J. C., Henderson, J. M., Buchs, N. C., Ris, F., Cloyd, J. M., Martinie, J. B., Razzaque, S., Nicolau, S., Soler, L., Marescaux, J., Visser, B. C. 2015; 52 (12): 476-520

    View details for DOI 10.1067/j.cpsurg.2015.10.001

    View details for PubMedID 26683419

  • Severe acute pancreatitis in the community: confusion reigns JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH Dua, M. M., Worhunsky, D. J., Tran, T. B., Rumma, R. T., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Park, W. G., Visser, B. C. 2015; 199 (1): 44-50


    The management of acute pancreatitis (AP) has evolved through enhanced understanding of the disease. Despite several evidence-based practice guidelines for AP, our hypothesis is that many hospitals still use historical treatments rather than adhere to the current guidelines, which have demonstrated shorter hospital stays, decreased infectious complications, decreased morbidity, and decreased mortality.Seventy-eight patients transferred to our institution with AP from 2010-2014 were retrospectively studied to compare pretransfer versus posttransfer adherence to current practice guidelines. Primary measures included use of antibiotics (abx), enteral nutrition, drainage of asymptomatic pseudocysts, and interventions for necrosis in the early phase (<4 wk).Pretransfer, abx were given to 51 patients; however, posttransfer, abx were discontinued in 33 patients and started in 6 patients within 24 h of admission (pretransfer versus posttransfer abx, 51 versus 24, P < 0.001). Empiric abx for AP were used in 36 patients pretransfer versus 9 patients posttransfer (P < 0.001). Patients were initially nil per os or on total parenteral nutrition in 89%; this was reduced to 17% within 72 h by starting a diet or enteric feeds (pretransfer versus posttransfer feeding, 9 versus 65 patients, P < 0.001). Fifteen transfer patients had pseudocysts that were believed to "require drainage"; five patients received intervention but >4 wk from initial episode of AP. Pretransfer, five patients had pancreatic debridement in the early phase, which resulted in prolonged postoperative length of stay compared with eight patients requiring debridement, which were delayed (early versus late, 56 versus 16 d, P < 0.05).There is still great confusion in the treatment of AP in community hospitals. Primary principles in the care of these patients are not routinely followed despite established guidelines. Increased dissemination is required to prevent lengthy hospitalizations and long-term morbidity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2015.04.054

    View details for Web of Science ID 000362879900008

    View details for PubMedID 25972313

  • Primary Gastric Hodgkin's Lymphoma: An Extremely Rare Entity and A Diagnostic Challenge. Digestive diseases and sciences Sethi, S., Higgins, J. P., Arber, D. A., Visser, B., Banerjee, S. 2015; 60 (10): 2923-2926

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-015-3616-x

    View details for PubMedID 25761826

  • Sarcoma Resection With and Without Vascular Reconstruction: A Matched Case-control Study ANNALS OF SURGERY Poultsides, G. A., Tran, T. B., Zambrano, E., Janson, L., Mohler, D. G., Mell, M. W., Avedian, R. S., Visser, B. C., Lee, J. T., Ganjoo, K., Harris, E. J., Norton, J. A. 2015; 262 (4): 632-640


    To examine the impact of major vascular resection on sarcoma resection outcomes.En bloc resection and reconstruction of involved vessels is being increasingly performed during sarcoma surgery; however, the perioperative and oncologic outcomes of this strategy are not well described.Patients undergoing sarcoma resection with (VASC) and without (NO-VASC) vascular reconstruction were 1:2 matched on anatomic site, histology, grade, size, synchronous metastasis, and primary (vs. repeat) resection. R2 resections were excluded. Endpoints included perioperative morbidity, mortality, local recurrence, and survival.From 2000 to 2014, 50 sarcoma patients underwent VASC resection. These were matched with 100 NO-VASC patients having similar clinicopathologic characteristics. The rates of any complication (74% vs. 44%, P = 0.002), grade 3 or higher complication (38% vs. 18%, P = 0.024), and transfusion (66% vs. 33%, P < 0.001) were all more common in the VASC group. Thirty-day (2% vs. 0%, P = 0.30) or 90-day mortality (6% vs. 2%, P = 0.24) were not significantly higher. Local recurrence (5-year, 51% vs. 54%, P = 0.11) and overall survival after resection (5-year, 59% vs. 53%, P = 0.67) were similar between the 2 groups. Within the VASC group, overall survival was not affected by the type of vessel involved (artery vs. vein) or the presence of histology-proven vessel wall invasion.Vascular resection and reconstruction during sarcoma resection significantly increases perioperative morbidity and requires meticulous preoperative multidisciplinary planning. However, the oncologic outcome appears equivalent to cases without major vascular involvement. The anticipated need for vascular resection and reconstruction should not be a contraindication to sarcoma resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SLA.0000000000001455

    View details for Web of Science ID 000367999800009

  • Hepato-pancreatectomy: how morbid? Results from the national surgical quality improvement project HPB Tran, T. B., Dua, M. M., Spain, D. A., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2015; 17 (9): 763-769


    Simultaneous resection of both the liver and the pancreas carries significant complexity. The objective of this study was to investigate peri-operative outcomes after a synchronous hepatectomy and pancreatectomy (SHP).The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database was queried to identify patients who underwent SHP. Resections were categorized as '< hemihepatectomy', '≥ hemihepatectomy' (hemihepatectomy and trisectionectomy), 'PD' (pancreaticoduodenectomy and total pancreatectomy) and 'distal' (distal pancreatectomy and enucleation).From 2005 to 2013, 480 patients underwent SHP. Patients were stratified based on the extent of resection: '< hemihepatectomy + distal (n = 224)', '≥ hemihepatectomy + distal' (n = 49), '< hemihepatectomy + PD' (n = 83) and '≥ hemihepatectomy + PD' (n = 24). Although the first three groups had a reasonable and comparable safety profile (morbidity 33-51% and mortality 0-6.6%), the '≥ hemihepatectomy + PD' group was associated with an 87.5% morbidity (organ space infection 58.3%, re-intubation 12.5%, reoperation 25% and septic shock 25%), 8.3% 30-day mortality and 18.2% in-hospital mortality.A synchronous hemihepatectomy (or trisectionectomy) with PD remains a highly morbid combination and should be reserved for patients who have undergone extremely cautious selection.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/hpb.12426

    View details for Web of Science ID 000359853800004

  • Hepato-pancreatectomy: how morbid? Results from the national surgical quality improvement project. HPB Tran, T. B., Dua, M. M., Spain, D. A., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2015; 17 (9): 763-769


    Simultaneous resection of both the liver and the pancreas carries significant complexity. The objective of this study was to investigate peri-operative outcomes after a synchronous hepatectomy and pancreatectomy (SHP).The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database was queried to identify patients who underwent SHP. Resections were categorized as '< hemihepatectomy', '≥ hemihepatectomy' (hemihepatectomy and trisectionectomy), 'PD' (pancreaticoduodenectomy and total pancreatectomy) and 'distal' (distal pancreatectomy and enucleation).From 2005 to 2013, 480 patients underwent SHP. Patients were stratified based on the extent of resection: '< hemihepatectomy + distal (n = 224)', '≥ hemihepatectomy + distal' (n = 49), '< hemihepatectomy + PD' (n = 83) and '≥ hemihepatectomy + PD' (n = 24). Although the first three groups had a reasonable and comparable safety profile (morbidity 33-51% and mortality 0-6.6%), the '≥ hemihepatectomy + PD' group was associated with an 87.5% morbidity (organ space infection 58.3%, re-intubation 12.5%, reoperation 25% and septic shock 25%), 8.3% 30-day mortality and 18.2% in-hospital mortality.A synchronous hemihepatectomy (or trisectionectomy) with PD remains a highly morbid combination and should be reserved for patients who have undergone extremely cautious selection.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/hpb.12426

    View details for PubMedID 26058463

  • Pancreatectomy with vein reconstruction: technique matters. HPB Dua, M. M., Tran, T. B., Klausner, J., Hwa, K. J., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2015; 17 (9): 824-831


    A variety of techniques have been described for portal vein (PV) and/or superior mesenteric vein (SMV) resection/reconstruction during a pancreatectomy. The ideal strategy remains unclear.Patients who underwent PV/SMV resection/reconstruction during a pancreatectomy from 2005 to 2014 were identified. Medical records and imaging were retrospectively reviewed for operative details and outcomes, with particular emphasis on patency.Ninety patients underwent vein resection/reconstruction with one of five techniques: (i) longitudinal venorrhaphy (LV, n = 17); (ii) transverse venorrhaphy (TV, n = 9); (iii) primary end-to-end (n = 28); (iv) patch venoplasty (PV, n = 17); and (v) interposition graft (IG, n = 19). With a median follow-up of 316 days, thrombosis was observed in 16/90 (18%). The rate of thrombosis varied according to technique. All patients with primary end-to-end or TV remained patent. LV, PV and IG were all associated with significant rates of thrombosis (P = 0.001 versus no thrombosis). Comparing thrombosed to patent, there were no differences with respect to pancreatectomy type, pre-operative knowledge of vein involvement and neoadjuvant therapy. Prophylactic aspirin was used in 69% of the total cohort (66% of patent, 81% of thrombosed) and showed no protective benefit.Primary end-to-end and TV have superior patency than the alternatives after PV/SMV resection and should be the preferred techniques for short (<3 cm) reconstructions.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/hpb.12463

    View details for PubMedID 26223388

  • Pancreatectomy with vein reconstruction: technique matters HPB Dua, M. M., Tran, T. B., Klausner, J., Hwa, K. J., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2015; 17 (9): 824-831

    View details for DOI 10.1111/hpb.12463

    View details for Web of Science ID 000359853800013

  • Stereotactic body radiation therapy and central liver toxicity: A case report. Practical radiation oncology Shaffer, J. L., Osmundson, E. C., Visser, B. C., Longacre, T. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2015; 5 (5): 282-285

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.prro.2015.04.011

    View details for PubMedID 26127008

  • Prognostic relevance of lymph node ratio and total lymph node count for small bowel adenocarcinoma SURGERY Tran, T. B., Qadan, M., Dua, M. M., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C. 2015; 158 (2): 486-493


    Nodal metastasis is a known prognostic factor for small bowel adenocarcinoma. The goals of this study were to evaluate the number of lymph nodes (LNs) that should be retrieved and the impact of lymph node ratio (LNR) on survival.Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results was queried to identify patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma who underwent resection from 1988 to 2010. Survival was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis identified predictors of survival.A total of 2,772 patients underwent resection with at least one node retrieved, and this sample included equal numbers of duodenal (n = 1,387) and jejunoileal (n = 1,386) adenocarcinomas. There were 1,371 patients with no nodal metastasis (N0, 49.4%), 928 N1 (33.5%), and 474 N2 (17.1%). The median numbers of LNs examined for duodenal and jejunoileal cancers were 9 and 8, respectively. Cut-point analysis demonstrated that harvesting at least 9 for jejunoileal and 5 LN for duodenal cancers resulted in the greatest survival difference. Increasing LNR at both sites was associated with decreased overall median survival (LNR = 0, 71 months; LNR 0-0.02, 35 months; LNR 0.21-0.4, 25 months; and LNR >0.4, 16 months; P < .001). Multivariate analysis confirmed number of LNs examined, T-stage, LN positivity, and LNR were independent predictors of survival.LNR has a profound impact on survival in patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma. To achieve adequate staging, we recommend retrieving a minimum of 5 LN for duodenal and 9 LN for jejunoileal adenocarcinomas.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2015.03.048

    View details for Web of Science ID 000358108500023

  • Noninvasive monitoring of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma by immunoglobulin high-throughput sequencing. Blood Kurtz, D. M., Green, M. R., Bratman, S. V., Scherer, F., Liu, C. L., Kunder, C. A., Takahashi, K., Glover, C., Keane, C., Kihira, S., Visser, B., Callahan, J., Kong, K. A., Faham, M., Corbelli, K. S., Miklos, D., Advani, R. H., Levy, R., Hicks, R. J., Hertzberg, M., Ohgami, R. S., Gandhi, M. K., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. 2015; 125 (24): 3679-3687


    Recent studies have shown limited utility of routine surveillance imaging for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients achieving remission. Detection of molecular disease by immunoglobulin high-throughput sequencing (Ig-HTS) from peripheral blood provides an alternate strategy for surveillance. We prospectively evaluated the utility of Ig-HTS within 311 blood and 105 tumor samples from 75 patients with DLBCL, comparing Ig-HTS from the cellular (circulating leukocytes) and acellular (plasma cell-free DNA) compartments of peripheral blood to clinical outcomes and (18)fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT; n = 173). Clonotypic immunoglobulin rearrangements were detected in 83% of patients with adequate tumor samples to enable subsequent monitoring in peripheral blood. Molecular disease measured from plasma, compared with circulating leukocytes, was more abundant and better correlated with radiographic disease burden. Before treatment, molecular disease was detected in the plasma of 82% of patients compared with 71% in circulating cells (P = .68). However, molecular disease was detected significantly more frequently in the plasma at time of relapse (100% vs 30%; P = .001). Detection of molecular disease in the plasma often preceded PET/CT detection of relapse in patients initially achieving remission. During surveillance time points before relapse, plasma Ig-HTS demonstrated improved specificity (100% vs 56%, P < .0001) and similar sensitivity (31% vs 55%, P = .4) compared with PET/CT. Given its high specificity, Ig-HTS from plasma has potential clinical utility for surveillance after complete remission.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2015-03-635169

    View details for PubMedID 25887775

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4463733

  • More with Less: Pancreas-Preserving Total Duodenectomy DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Qadan, M., Dua, M., Worhunsky, D., Triadafilopoulos, G., Visser, B. 2015; 60 (6): 1565-1568

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-014-3331-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355580800009

    View details for PubMedID 25138905

  • Predictive Factors for Surgery Among Patients with Pancreatic Cysts in the Absence of High-Risk Features for Malignancy JOURNAL OF GASTROINTESTINAL SURGERY Quan, S. Y., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Chen, A. M., Banerjee, S., Friedland, S., Park, W. G. 2015; 19 (6): 1101-1105


    Without a reliable biopsy technique for pancreatic cysts, consensus-based guidelines are used to guide surgical utilization. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the proportion of operations performed outside of these guidelines.A 5-year retrospective review between July 1, 2007, and June 30, 2012, was performed of consecutive patients seen at a single tertiary medical center for a pancreatic cyst. Manual chart review for relevant clinical variables and cyst characteristics was performed.During this period, 148 patients underwent surgery, and of these, 23 (16 %) patients had no high-risk criteria by the 2006 Sendai criteria. None of these harbored high-grade dysplastic or cancerous lesions. A high cyst carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level (35 %), patient anxiety (26 %), and physician concern (22 %) were explicit reasons to proceed to surgery. An elevated cyst CEA level >192 ng/ml was the most significant predictor (OR 5.14 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.47-18.0) for surgery without high-risk criteria.A high cyst CEA level was significantly associated with the decision to operate outside of consensus-based guidelines. The misuse of cyst CEA in the management of pancreatic cysts negatively impacts patient anxiety, increases physician uncertainty, and leads to surgery with minimal benefit.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-015-2786-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355344300016

    View details for PubMedID 25749855

  • Extracorporeal Pringle for laparoscopic liver resection SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES Dua, M. M., Worhunsky, D. J., Hwa, K., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2015; 29 (6): 1348-1355


    A primary concern during laparoscopic liver resection (lapLR) is hemorrhage during parenchymal transection. Intermittent pedicle clamping is an effective method to minimize blood loss during open liver surgery; however, inflow occlusion techniques are challenging to reproduce during laparoscopy. The purpose of this study is to describe the safety and efficacy of a facile method for Pringle maneuver during lapLR.154 patients who underwent lapLR from 2007 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. For Pringle, the hepatoduodenal ligament is encircled with an umbilical tape which is externalized through a flexible Rumel tourniquet running alongside a port used for the operation. The internal end of the catheter is close to the pedicle and the external end is extracorporeal, allowing for easy external occlusion. Patients who underwent Pringle Maneuver (PM, n = 88) were compared to patients who had "No Occlusion" (NO, n = 66) with respect to patient characteristics, operative outcomes, changes in postoperative liver function, and complications.Annual placement of the tourniquet and vascular occlusion increased from 35.7 to 82.8 % (p = 0.004) and 21.4 to 62.1 % (p = 0.02), respectively. Median occlusion time was 24 min (IQR 15-34.3, min 5, max 70). Peak transaminase levels were comparable between groups (AST 298 ± 32 vs 405 ± 47 U/L, p = 0.15; ALT 272 ± 27 vs 372 ± 34 U/L, p = 0.14, NO and PM, respectively). Postoperative transaminase and bilirubin levels for both groups were not significantly different with similar recovery to baseline. Subgroup analysis of cirrhotic patients who underwent Pringle demonstrated similar transaminase profiles compared to non-cirrhotic patients. There were two conversions (1.3 %) and postoperative 30-day mortality was 0.65 %.Extracorporeal tourniquet placement in lapLR is a quick and safe method of gaining control for inflow occlusion. Routine adoption of laparoscopic Pringle maneuver facilitates low conversion rates without liver injury.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00464-014-3801-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354130200013

    View details for PubMedID 25159645

  • Leiomyosarcoma: One Disease or Distinct Biologic Entities Based on Site of Origin? JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Worhunsky, D. J., Gupta, M., Gholami, S., Tran, T. B., Ganjoo, K. N., van de Rijn, M., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2015; 111 (7): 808-812


    Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) can originate from the retroperitoneum, uterus, extremity, and trunk. It is unclear whether tumors of different origin represent discrete entities. We compared clinicopathologic features and outcomes following surgical resection of LMS stratified by site of origin.Patients with LMS undergoing resection at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Clinicopathologic variables were compared across sites. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank and Cox regression analyses.From 1983 to 2011, 138 patients underwent surgical resection for LMS. Retroperitoneal and uterine LMS were larger, higher grade, and more commonly associated with synchronous metastases. However, disease-specific survival, recurrence-free survival, and recurrence patterns were not significantly different across the four sites. Synchronous metastases (HR 3.20, P < 0.001), but not site of origin, size, grade, or margin status, were independently associated with worse DSS. A significant number of recurrences and disease-related deaths were noted beyond 5 years.Although larger and higher grade, retroperitoneal and uterine LMS share similar survival and recurrence patterns with their trunk and extremity counterparts. LMS of various anatomic sites may not represent distinct disease processes based on clinical outcomes. The presence of metastatic disease remains the most important prognostic factor for LMS.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.23904

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353996400003

    View details for PubMedID 25920434

  • Cyst Fluid Glucose is Rapidly Feasible and Accurate in Diagnosing Mucinous Pancreatic Cysts. American journal of gastroenterology Zikos, T., Pham, K., Bowen, R., Chen, A. M., Banerjee, S., Friedland, S., Dua, M. M., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Park, W. G. 2015; 110 (6): 909-914


    Better diagnostic tools are needed to differentiate pancreatic cyst subtypes. A previous metabolomic study showed cyst fluid glucose as a potential marker to differentiate mucinous from non-mucinous pancreatic cysts. This study seeks to validate these earlier findings using a standard laboratory glucose assay, a glucometer, and a glucose reagent strip.Using an IRB-approved prospectively collected bio-repository, 65 pancreatic cyst fluid samples (42 mucinous and 23 non-mucinous) with histological correlation were analyzed.Median laboratory glucose, glucometer glucose, and percent reagent strip positive were lower in mucinous vs. non-mucinous cysts (P<0.0001 for all comparisons). Laboratory glucose<50 mg/dl had a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 57% (LR+ 2.19, LR- 0.08). Glucometer glucose<50 mg/dl had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 78% (LR+ 4.05, LR- 0.15). Reagent strip glucose had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 74% (LR+ 3.10, LR- 0.26). CEA had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 83% (LR+ 4.67, LR- 0.27). The combination of having either a glucometer glucose<50 mg/dl or a CEA level>192 had a sensitivity of 100% but a low specificity of 33% (LR+ 1.50, LR- 0.00).Glucose, whether measured by a laboratory assay, a glucometer, or a reagent strip, is significantly lower in mucinous cysts compared with non-mucinous pancreatic cysts.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ajg.2015.148

    View details for PubMedID 25986360

  • Non-MalIg(G4)nant Biliary Obstruction: When the Pill Is Mightier than the Knife DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Dua, M. M., Qadan, M., Lutchman, G. A., Park, W. G., Triadafilopoulos, G., Visser, B. C. 2015; 60 (5): 1178-1182

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-014-3329-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355570200011

    View details for PubMedID 25138904

  • Compliance With Gastric Cancer Guidelines is Associated With Improved Outcomes. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Worhunsky, D. J., Ma, Y., Zak, Y., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Rhoads, K. F., Visser, B. C. 2015; 13 (3): 319-325


    Limited data are available on the implementation and effectiveness of NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Gastric Cancer.We sought to assess rates of compliance with NCCN Guidelines, specifically stage-specific therapy during the initial episode of care, and to determine its impact on outcomes.The California Cancer Registry was used to identify cases of gastric cancer from 2001 to 2006. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used to predict guideline compliance and the adjusted hazard ratio for mortality. Patients with TNM staging or summary stage (SS) were also analyzed separately.Compliance with NCCN Guidelines occurred in just 45.5% of patients overall. Patients older than 55 years were less likely to receive guideline-compliant care, and compliance was associated with a median survival of 20 versus 7 months for noncompliant care (P<.001). Compliant care was also associated with a 55% decreased hazard of mortality (P<.001). Further analysis revealed that 50% of patients had complete TNM staging versus an SS, and TNM-staged patients were more likely to receive compliant care (odds ratio, 1.59; P<.001). TNM-staged patients receiving compliant care had a median survival of 25.3 months compared with 15.1 months for compliant SS patients.Compliance with NCCN Guidelines and stage-specific therapy at presentation for the treatment of patients with gastric cancer was poor, which was a significant finding given that compliant care was associated with a 55% reduction in the hazard of death. Additionally, patients with TNM-staged cancer were more likely to receive compliant care, perhaps a result of having received more intensive therapy. Combined with the improved survival among compliant TNM-staged patients, these differences have meaningful implications for health services research.

    View details for PubMedID 25736009

  • Mutation profiling of tumor DNA from plasma and tumor tissue of colorectal cancer patients with a novel, high-sensitivity multiplexed mutation detection platform ONCOTARGET Kidess, E., Heirich, K., Wiggin, M., Vysotskaia, V., Visser, B. C., Marziali, A., Wiedenmann, B., Norton, J. A., Lee, M., Jeffrey, S. S., Poultsides, G. A. 2015; 6 (4): 2549-2561


    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) holds promise as a non-invasive means for tumor monitoring in solid malignancies. Assays with high sensitivity and multiplexed analysis of mutations are needed to enable broad application.We developed a new assay based on sequence-specific synchronous coefficient of drag alteration (SCODA) technology, which enriches for mutant DNA to achieve high sensitivity and specificity. This assay was applied to plasma and tumor tissue from non-metastatic and metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, including patients undergoing surgical resection for CRC liver metastases.Across multiple characterization experiments, the assay demonstrated a limit of detection of 0.001% (1 molecule in 100,000) for the majority of the 46 mutations in the panel. In CRC patient samples (n=38), detected mutations were concordant in tissue and plasma for 93% of metastatic patients versus 54% of non-metastatic patients. For three patients, ctDNA identified additional mutations not detected in tumor tissue. In patients undergoing liver metastatectomy, ctDNA anticipated tumor recurrence earlier than carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) value or imaging.The multiplexed SCODA mutation enrichment and detection method can be applied to mutation profiling and quantitation of ctDNA, and is likely to have particular utility in the metastatic setting, including patients undergoing metastatectomy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352691800047

    View details for PubMedID 25575824

  • Does the extent of resection impact survival for duodenal adenocarcinoma? Analysis of 1,611 cases. Annals of surgical oncology Cloyd, J. M., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A. 2015; 22 (2): 573-580


    Because duodenal adenocarcinoma (DA) is relatively rare, few studies have investigated the impact of resection type on long-term outcomes.The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify all patients between 1988 and 2010 with DA. Patients were divided into two groups based on the type of surgery received: simple resection (SR), defined as a simple removal of the primary site, and radical resection (RR), defined as removal of the primary site with a resection in continuity with other organs. Differences in disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were compared.Of the 1,611 patients included, 746 (46.3 %) underwent SR and 865 (53.7 %) underwent RR. As expected, patients undergoing RR were more likely to present with poorly differentiated and large tumors, as well as advanced stage disease. Despite greater lymph node (LN) retrieval (11.0 vs. 6.8; p < 0.0001), RR was not associated with improved survival (5-year DSS and OS rates of 52.8 and 41.3 % for SR vs. 48.8 and 37.6 % for RR; p > 0.05). On univariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, the type of surgery was not associated with OS (odds ratio [OR] 0.98; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.87-1.11). Increasing TNM stages, tumor grade, fewer LNs removed, LN ratio, and absence of radiation were associated with worse survival. After controlling for confounding factors, type of surgery still did not influence OS (OR 1.11; 95 % CI 0.97-1.27).Radical resection (e.g., in the form of pancreaticoduodenectomy) does not appear to impact survival compared with simple segmental resection for DA.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-014-4020-z

    View details for PubMedID 25160736

  • Single-versus Multifraction Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Outcomes and Toxicity INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Pollom, E. L., Alagappan, M., von Eyben, R., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. A., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Kamaya, A., Cox, V. L., Columbo, L. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. 2014; 90 (4): 918-925


    We report updated outcomes of single- versus multifraction stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma.We included 167 patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated at our institution from 2002 to 2013, with 1-fraction (45.5% of patient) or 5-fraction (54.5% of patients) SBRT. The majority of patients (87.5%) received chemotherapy.Median follow-up was 7.9 months (range: 0.1-63.6). The 6- and 12-month cumulative incidence rates (CIR) of local recurrence for patients treated with single-fraction SBRT were 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2%-10.4%) and 9.5% (95% CI, 2.7%-16.2%), respectively. The 6- and 12-month CIR with multifraction SBRT were 3.4% (95% CI, 0.0-7.2%) and 11.7% (95% CI, 4.8%-18.6%), respectively. Median survival from diagnosis for all patients was 13.6 months (95% CI, 12.2-15.0 months). The 6- and 12- month survival rates from SBRT for the single-fraction group were 67.0% (95% CI, 57.2%-78.5%) and 30.8% (95% CI, 21.9%-43.6%), respectively. The 6- and 12- month survival rates for the multifraction group were 75.7% (95% CI, 67.2%-85.3%) and 34.9% (95% CI, 26.1%-46.8%), respectively. There were no differences in CIR or survival rates between the single- and multifraction groups. The 6- and 12-month cumulative incidence rates of gastrointestinal toxicity grade ≥3 were 8.1% (95% CI, 1.8%-14.4%) and 12.3% (95% CI, 4.7%-20.0%), respectively, in the single-fraction group, and both were 5.6% (95% CI, 0.8%-10.5%) in the multifraction group. There were significantly fewer instances of toxicity grade ≥2 with multifraction SBRT (P=.005). Local recurrence and toxicity grade ≥2 were independent predictors of worse survival.Multifraction SBRT for pancreatic cancer significantly reduces gastrointestinal toxicity without compromising local control.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.06.066

    View details for Web of Science ID 000344734300029

  • Early Vein Reconstruction and Right-to-Left Dissection for Left-Sided Pancreatic Tumors with Portal Vein Occlusion Annual Meeting of the Americas-Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary-Association Cloyd, J. M., Dua, M. M., Visser, B. C. SPRINGER. 2014: 2034–37
  • Laparoscopic Transgastric Necrosectomy for the Management of Pancreatic Necrosis JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Worhunsky, D. J., Qadan, M., Dua, M. M., Park, W. G., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2014; 219 (4): 735-743
  • Getting the dead out: modern treatment strategies for necrotizing pancreatitis. Digestive diseases and sciences Dua, M. M., Worhunsky, D. J., Amin, S., Louie, J. D., Park, W. G., Triadafilopoulos, G., Visser, B. C. 2014; 59 (9): 2069-2075

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-014-3153-z

    View details for PubMedID 24748229

  • Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy: the technique must suit the lesion. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery Worhunsky, D. J., Zak, Y., Dua, M. M., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2014; 18 (8): 1445-1451


    Splenic preservation is currently recommended during minimally invasive surgery for benign tumors of the distal pancreas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy, with particular attention paid to the technique used for spleen preservation (splenic vessel ligation vs preservation). A review of consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with the intention of splenic preservation was conducted. Patient demographics, operative data, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Fifty-five consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with the intention of splenic preservation; 5 required splenectomy (9 %). Of the remaining 50 patients, 31 (62 %) had splenic vessel ligation, and 19 (38 %) had vessel preservation. Patient demographics and tumor size were similar. The vessel ligation group had significantly more pancreas removed (95 vs 52 mm, P < 0.001) and longer operative times (256 vs 201 min, P = 0.008). Postoperative outcomes, complication rates, and splenic viability were similar between groups. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy is a safe operation with a high rate of success (91 %). Vessel ligation was the chosen technical strategy for lesions that required resection of a greater length of pancreas. We found no advantage to either technique with respect to outcomes and splenic preservation. Operative approach should reflect technical considerations including location in the pancreas.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-014-2561-x

    View details for PubMedID 24939598

  • Man with hypoechoic lesion abutting the pancreas. JAMA surgery Krampitz, G. W., Mills, A. M., Visser, B. C. 2014; 149 (4): 393-394

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2013.778

    View details for PubMedID 24522561

  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: hypoenhancement on arterial phase computed tomography predicts biological aggressiveness. HPB Worhunsky, D. J., Krampitz, G. W., Poullos, P. D., Visser, B. C., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2014; 16 (4): 304-311


    Contrary to pancreatic adenocarcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNET) are commonly hyperenhancing on arterial phase computed tomography (APCT). However, a subset of these tumours can be hypoenhancing. The prognostic significance of the CT appearance of these tumors remains unclear.From 2001 to 2012, 146 patients with well-differentiated PNET underwent surgical resection. The degree of tumour enhancement on APCT was recorded and correlated with clinicopathological variables and overall survival.APCT images were available for re-review in 118 patients (81%). The majority had hyperenhancing tumours (n = 80, 68%), 12 (10%) were isoenhancing (including cases where no mass was visualized) and 26 (22%) were hypoenhancing. Hypoenhancing PNET were larger, more commonly intermediate grade, and had higher rates of lymph node and synchronous liver metastases. Hypoenhancing PNET were also associated with significantly worse overall survival after a resection as opposed to isoenhancing and hyperenhancing tumours (5-year, 54% versus 89% versus 93%). On multivariate analysis of factors available pre-operatively, only hypoenhancement (HR 2.32, P = 0.02) was independently associated with survival.Hypoenhancement on APCT was noted in 22% of well-differentiated PNET and was an independent predictor of poor outcome. This information can inform pre-operative decisions in the multidisciplinary treatment of these neoplasms.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/hpb.12139

    View details for PubMedID 23991643

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3967881

  • Does chronic kidney disease affect outcomes after major abdominal surgery? Results from the national surgical quality improvement program. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery Cloyd, J. M., Ma, Y., Morton, J. M., Kurella Tamura, M., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C. 2014; 18 (3): 605-612


    The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease on outcomes following major abdominal surgery is not well defined.The 2008 NSQIP database was queried to identify adult patients undergoing complex abdominal surgery (major colorectal, hepatobiliary, pancreatic, gastric, and esophageal operations). Thirty-day morbidity and mortality in patients on hemodialysis (HD) versus patients not on HD were compared. The impact of preoperative renal insufficiency, measured by glomerular filtration rate (GFR), on morbidity and mortality was then assessed in non-dialysis patients.Of 24,572 patients who underwent major abdominal operations, excluding emergency cases, only 149 (0.6 %) were on HD preoperatively. Thirty-day mortality in the HD group was 12.8 % compared to 1.8 % for those not on HD (p < 0.0001). Overall complication rate was 23.5 versus 12.3 % (p < 0.0001). In particular, rates of pneumonia (6.7 vs 3.0 %, p < 0.05) and sepsis (12.8 vs 5.3 %, p < 0.001) were higher in patients on HD. In patients not on HD, GFR was significantly predictive of postoperative mortality after controlling for age, gender, race, emergency status, and comorbidities. Compared to patients with normal preoperative kidney function (GFR, 75-90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), even modest CKD (GFR, 45-60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) was associated with increased postoperative mortality (odds ratio (OR), 1.62). With greater impairment in kidney function, postoperative mortality was even more marked (GFR, 30-45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and OR, 2.84; GFR, 15-30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and OR, 5.56). In addition, CKD was independently associated with increased postoperative complications.Any degree of preoperative kidney impairment, even mild asymptomatic disease, is associated with clinically significant increases in 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality following major abdominal surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-013-2390-3

    View details for PubMedID 24241964

  • Locally advanced gastric cancer complicated by mesenteric invasion and intestinal malrotation. Digestive diseases and sciences Huang, R. J., Visser, B. C., Chen, A. M., Ladabaum, U. 2014; 59 (2): 267-269

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-013-2869-5

    View details for PubMedID 24036993

  • Reassessment of the Current American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging System for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Qadan, M., Ma, Y., Visser, B. C., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2014; 218 (2): 188-195


    Adopting a unified staging system for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) has been challenging. Currently, the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) recommends use of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma staging system for PNETs. We sought to explore the prognostic usefulness of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma staging system for PNETs.The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program data were used to identify patients with PNETs who underwent curative-intent surgical resection from 1983 to 2008. The discriminatory ability of the AJCC system was examined and a new TNM system was devised using extent of disease variables.In 1,202 patients identified, lymph node metastasis was associated with worse 10-year overall survival after resection (51% vs 63%; p < 0.0001), as was the presence of distant metastatic disease (35% vs 62%; p < 0.0001). The current AJCC system (recorded by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program in 412 patients since 2004) distinguished 5-year overall survival only between stages I and II (p = 0.01), but not between stages II and III (p = 0.97), or stages III and IV (p = 0.36). By modifying the T stage to be based on size alone (0.1 to 1.0 cm, 1.1 to 2.0 cm, 2.1 to 4.0 cm, and >4.0 cm) and revising the TNM subgroups, we propose a novel TNM system with improved discriminatory ability between disease stages (stages I vs II; p = 0.16; II vs III; p < 0.0001; and III vs IV; p = 0.008).In this study evaluating the current AJCC staging system for PNETs, there were no significant differences detected between stages II and III or stages III and IV. We propose a novel TNM system that might better discriminate between outcomes after surgical resection of PNETs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2013.11.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329763900008

    View details for PubMedID 24321190

  • Postoperative serum amylase predicts pancreatic fistula formation following pancreaticoduodenectomy. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery Cloyd, J. M., Kastenberg, Z. J., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A. 2014; 18 (2): 348-353


    Early identification of patients at risk for developing pancreatic fistula (PF) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) may facilitate prevention or treatment strategies aimed at reducing its associated morbidity.A retrospective review of 176 consecutive PD performed between 2006 and 2011 was conducted in order to analyze the association between the serum amylase on postoperative day 1 (POD1) and the development of PF.Serum amylase was recorded on POD1 in 146 of 176 PD cases (83.0 %). Twenty-seven patients (18.5 %) developed a postoperative PF: 6 type A, 19 type B, and 2 type C. Patients with a PF had a mean serum amylase on POD1 of 659 ± 581 compared to 246 ± 368 in those without a fistula (p < 0.001). On logistic regression, a serum amylase >140 U/L on POD1 was strongly associated with developing a PF (OR, 5.48; 95 % CI, 1.94-15.44). Sensitivity and specificity of a postoperative serum amylase >140 U/L was 81.5 and 55.5 %, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 29.3 and 93.0 %, respectively.An elevated serum amylase on POD1 may be used, in addition to other prognostic factors, to help stratify risk for developing PF following PD.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11605-013-2293-3

    View details for PubMedID 23903930

  • Cardiac metastases and tumor embolization: A rare sequelae of primary undifferentiated liver sarcoma. International journal of surgery case reports Dua, M. M., Cloyd, J. M., Haddad, F., Beygui, R. E., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C. 2014; 5 (12): 927-931


    Primary hepatic sarcomas are uncommon malignant neoplasms; prognostic features, natural history, and optimal management of these tumors are not well characterized.This report describes the management of a 51-year-old patient that underwent a right trisectionectomy for a large hepatic mass found to be a liver sarcoma on pathology. He subsequently developed tumor emboli to his lungs and was discovered to have cardiac intracavitary metastases from his primary tumor. The patient underwent cardiopulmonary bypass and resection of the right-sided heart metastases to prevent further pulmonary sequela of tumor embolization.The lack of distinguishing symptoms or imaging characteristics that clearly define hepatic sarcomas makes it challenging to achieve a diagnosis prior to pathologic examination. Metastatic spread is frequently to the lung or pleura, but very rarely seen within the heart. Failure to recognize cardiac metastatic disease will ultimately lead to progressive tumor embolization and cardiac failure if left untreated.The most effective therapy for primary liver sarcomas is surgery; radical resection should be performed if possible given the aggressive nature of these tumors to progress and metastasize.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.10.004

    View details for PubMedID 25460438

  • Gallstone pancreatitis: why not cholecystectomy? JAMA surgery Worhunsky, D. J., Visser, B. C. 2013; 148 (9): 872-?

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2013.3063

    View details for PubMedID 23884335

  • Metabolomic-derived novel cyst fluid biomarkers for pancreatic cysts: glucose and kynurenine. Gastrointestinal endoscopy Park, W. G., Wu, M., Bowen, R., Zheng, M., Fitch, W. L., Pai, R. K., Wodziak, D., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Banerjee, S., Chen, A. M., Friedland, S., Scott, B. A., Pasricha, P. J., Lowe, A. W., Peltz, G. 2013; 78 (2): 295-302 e2


    BACKGROUND: Better pancreatic cyst fluid biomarkers are needed. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metabolomic profiling of pancreatic cyst fluid would yield clinically useful cyst fluid biomarkers. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary-care referral center. PATIENTS: Two independent cohorts of patients (n = 26 and n = 19) with histologically defined pancreatic cysts. INTERVENTION: Exploratory analysis for differentially expressed metabolites between (1) nonmucinous and mucinous cysts and (2) malignant and premalignant cysts was performed in the first cohort. With the second cohort, a validation analysis of promising identified metabolites was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Identification of differentially expressed metabolites between clinically relevant cyst categories and their diagnostic performance (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve). RESULTS: Two metabolites had diagnostic significance-glucose and kynurenine. Metabolomic abundances for both were significantly lower in mucinous cysts compared with nonmucinous cysts in both cohorts (glucose first cohort P = .002, validation P = .006; and kynurenine first cohort P = .002, validation P = .002). The ROC curve for glucose was 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-1.00) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.72-1.00) in the first and validation cohorts, respectively. The ROC for kynurenine was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.81-1.00) and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.76-1.00) in the first and validation cohorts, respectively. Neither could differentiate premalignant from malignant cysts. Glucose and kynurenine levels were significantly elevated for serous cystadenomas in both cohorts. LIMITATIONS: Small sample sizes. CONCLUSION: Metabolomic profiling identified glucose and kynurenine to have potential clinical utility for differentiating mucinous from nonmucinous pancreatic cysts. These markers also may diagnose serous cystadenomas.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gie.2013.02.037

    View details for PubMedID 23566642

  • Metabolomic-derived novel cyst fluid biomarkers for pancreatic cysts: glucose and kynurenine GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY Park, W. G., Wu, M., Bowen, R., Zheng, M., Fitch, W. L., Pai, R. K., Wodziak, D., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Banerjee, S., Chen, A. M., Friedland, S., Scott, B. A., Pasricha, P. J., Lowe, A. W., Peltz, G. 2013; 78 (2): 295-?

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gie.2013.02.037

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321825200015

    View details for PubMedID 23566642

  • Colorectal cancer diagnostics: biomarkers, cell-free DNA, circulating tumor cells and defining heterogeneous populations by single-cell analysis. Expert review of molecular diagnostics Kin, C., Kidess, E., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Jeffrey, S. S. 2013; 13 (6): 581-599


    Reliable biomarkers are needed to guide treatment of colorectal cancer, as well as for surveillance to detect recurrence and monitor therapeutic response. In this review, the authors discuss the use of various biomarkers in addition to serum carcinoembryonic antigen, the current surveillance method for metastatic recurrence after resection. The clinical relevance of mutations including microsatellite instability, KRAS, BRAF and SMAD4 is addressed. The role of circulating tumor cells and cell-free DNA with regards to their implementation into clinical use is discussed, as well as how single-cell analysis may fit into a monitoring program. The detection and characterization of circulating tumor cells and cell-free DNA in colorectal cancer patients will not only improve the understanding of the development of metastasis, but may also supplant the use of other biomarkers.

    View details for DOI 10.1586/14737159.2013.811896

    View details for PubMedID 23895128

  • Seventh Edition (2010) of the AJCC/UICC Staging System for Gastric Adenocarcinoma: Is there Room for Improvement? ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Patel, M. I., Rhoads, K. F., Ma, Y., Ford, J. M., Visser, B. C., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Chang, D. T., Koong, A., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2013; 20 (5): 1631-1638


    The gastric cancer AJCC/UICC staging system recently underwent significant revisions, but studies on Asian patients have reported a lack of adequate discrimination between various consecutive stages. We sought to validate the new system on a U.S. population database.California Cancer Registry data linked to the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development discharge abstracts were used to identify patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (esophagogastric junction and gastric cardia tumors excluded) who underwent curative-intent surgical resection in California from 2002 to 2006. AJCC/UICC stage was recalculated based on the latest seventh edition. Overall survival probabilities were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.Of 1905 patients analyzed, 54 % were males with a median age of 70 years. Median number of pathologically examined lymph nodes was 12 (range, 1-90); 40 % of patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, and 31 % received adjuvant radiotherapy. The seventh edition AJCC/UICC system did not distinguish outcome adequately between stages IB and IIA (P = 0.40), or IIB and IIIA (P = 0.34). By merging stage II into 1 category and moving T2N1 to stage IB and T2N2, T1N3 to stage IIIA, we propose a new grouping system with improved discriminatory abilityIn this first study validating the new seventh edition AJCC/UICC staging system for gastric cancer on a U.S. population with a relatively limited number of lymph nodes examined, we found stages IB and IIA, as well as IIB and IIIA to perform similarly. We propose a revised stage grouping for the AJCC/UICC staging system that better discriminates between outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-012-2724-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317308200032

    View details for PubMedID 23149854

  • Complete resection of a rare intrahepatic variant of a choledochal cyst JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC SURGERY Salles, A., Kastenberg, Z. J., Wall, J. K., Visser, B. C., Bruzoni, M. 2013; 48 (3): 652-654


    The vast majority of choledochal cysts occur as either saccular or diffuse fusiform dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct. We describe the complete resection of a rare single intrahepatic choledochal cyst communicating with the extrahepatic biliary tree. While previous reports describe partial resection with enteral drainage, we performed a complete resection of this rare choledochal cyst.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.12.016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316470100037

    View details for PubMedID 23480926

  • Hospital readmission after a pancreaticoduodenectomy: an emerging quality metric? HPB Kastenberg, Z. J., Morton, J. M., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2013; 15 (2): 142-148


    Hospital readmission has attracted attention from policymakers as a measure of quality and a target for cost reduction. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency and patterns of rehospitalization after a pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).The records of all patients undergoing a PD at an academic medical centre for malignant or benign diagnoses between January 2006 and September 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence, aetiology and predictors of subsequent readmission(s) were analysed.Of 257 consecutive patients who underwent a PD, 50 (19.7%) were readmitted within 30 days from discharge. Both the presence of any post-operative complication (P = 0.049) and discharge to a nursing/rehabilitation facility or to home with health care services (P = 0.018) were associated with readmission. The most common reasons for readmission were diet intolerance (36.0%), pancreatic fistula/abscess (26.0%) and superficial wound infection (8.0%). Nine (18.0%) readmissions had lengths of stay of 2 days or less and in four of those (8.0%) diagnostic evaluation was eventually negative.Approximately one-fifth of patients require hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge after a PD. A small fraction of these readmissions are short (2 days or less) and may be preventable or manageable in the outpatient setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1477-2574.2012.00563.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313548400009

    View details for PubMedID 23297725

  • The Epidemiology of Idiopathic Acute Pancreatitis, Analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample From 1998 to 2007 PANCREAS Chen, Y., Zak, Y., Hernandez-Boussard, T., Park, W., Visser, B. C. 2013; 42 (1): 1-5


    The study aimed to better define the epidemiology of idiopathic acute pancreatitis (IAP).We identified admissions with primary diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) in Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 1998 and 2007. Idiopathic AP was defined as all cases after excluding International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes for other causes of AP (including biliary, alcoholic, trauma, iatrogenic, hyperparathyroidism, hyperlipidemia, etc).Among the primary admissions for AP, 26.9% had biliary pancreatitis, 25.1% alcoholic, and 36.5% idiopathic. Idiopathic AP had estimated 81,8025 admissions with a mean hospitalization of 5.6 days. Patients with IAP accounted for almost half of the fatalities among the cases of AP (48.2%) and had a higher mortality rate than both patients with biliary pancreatitis and patients with alcoholic pancreatitis (1.9%, 1.5%, and 1.0%, respectively, P < 0.01). Forty-six percent of patients with biliary pancreatitis underwent cholecystectomy during the index hospitalization, compared with 0.42% of patients with IAP. Patients with IAP had a demographic distribution similar to that of patients with biliary AP (female predominant and older), which was distinct from patients with alcoholic pancreatitis (male predominant and younger). There was a gradual but steady decrease in the incidence of IAP, from 41% in 1998 to 30% in 2007.Despite improving diagnostics, IAP remains a common clinical problem with a significant mortality. Standardization of the clinical management of these patients warrants further investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MPA.0b013e3182572d3a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312560200001

    View details for PubMedID 22750972

  • Neoadjuvant Imatinib for Borderline Resectable GIST JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL COMPREHENSIVE CANCER NETWORK Koontz, M. Z., Visser, B. M., Kunz, P. L. 2012; 10 (12): 1477-1482


    A 36-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with black stools and syncope. Her hemoglobin was 7.0 and her red blood cells were microcytic. Upper endoscopy did not identify a clear source of bleeding, but a bulge in the third portion of the duodenum was noted. A CT scan showed a large extraintestinal mass, and follow-up esophagogastroduodenoscopy/endoscopic ultrasound with biopsy revealed a spindle cell neoplasm, consistent with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Because of the size of the lesion and association with the superior mesenteric vein and common bile duct, she was referred to medical oncology for consideration of neoadjuvant imatinib. Neoadjuvant tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for GISTs is emerging as a viable treatment strategy for borderline resectable tumors, although the dose, duration, and optimal imaging modalities have not been clearly established. Recent pathologic and radiographic data have provided insight into the mechanism and kinetics of this approach. This case report presents a patient for whom surgery was facilitated using neoadjuvant imatinib.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312114200004

    View details for PubMedID 23221786

  • Diagnostic Utility of Metabolomic-Derived Biomarkers for Pancreatic Cysts Park, W. G., Wu, M., Bowen, R., Zheng, M., Fitch, W. L., Pai, R. K., Wodziak, D., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., NORTON, J. A., Banerjee, S., Chen, A. M., Friedland, S., Pasricha, P. J., Lowe, A. W., Peltz, G. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2012: 1394–94
  • Changes in spleen volume after resection of hepatic colorectal metastases CLINICAL RADIOLOGY Jacobs, K. E., Visser, B. C., Gayer, G. 2012; 67 (10): 982-987


    To identify and describe changes in spleen volume occurring in patients with colorectal metastases to the liver after partial hepatectomy.Forty-one consecutive patients (20 men, 21 women) with histopathology-proven colorectal liver metastases who underwent partial hepatectomy between August 2007 and April 2011 were included. Liver and spleen volumes were measured by computed tomography (CT) volumetry on the most recent CT prior to surgery and on all CTs obtained within a year after partial hepatectomy. Patients were carefully evaluated for and excluded if they had co-morbid conditions known to cause splenomegaly or risk factors for portal hypertension such as underlying liver disease and portal vein thrombosis.Thirty-two (78%) patients demonstrated an increase in spleen volume on the first post-operative CT, with more than a double increase in volume amongst five patients. Spleen volume increased by an average of 43% within 3 months of partial hepatectomy (p < 0.0001) and remained increased through 6 months after surgery, returning to near baseline thereafter. In the remaining nine (22%) patients, the spleen was observed to decrease an average of 11% in volume on first postoperative CT (p < 0.005).Splenic enlargement after partial hepatectomy of colorectal metastases is a common finding on CT. Increased familiarity amongst radiologists of this phenomenon as likely reflecting physiological changes is important in order to avoid unnecessary evaluation for underlying conditions causing interval enlargement of the spleen.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.crad.2012.03.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309094900007

    View details for PubMedID 22608244

  • Lymph Nodes and Survival in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors ARCHIVES OF SURGERY Krampitz, G. W., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A., Visser, B. C., Sun, L., Jensen, R. T. 2012; 147 (9): 820-827


    Lymph node metastases decrease survival in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs).Prospective database searches.National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Stanford University Hospital (SUH).A total of 326 patients underwent surgical exploration for pNETs at the NIH (n = 216) and SUH (n = 110).Overall survival, disease-related survival, and time to development of liver metastases.Forty patients (12.3%) underwent enucleation and 305 (93.6%) underwent resection. Of the patients who underwent resection, 117 (35.9%) had partial pancreatectomy and 30 (9.2%) had a Whipple procedure. Forty-one patients also had liver resections, 21 had wedge resections, and 20 had lobectomies. Mean follow-up was 8.1 years (range, 0.3-28.6 years). The 10-year overall survival for patients with no metastases or lymph node metastases only was similar at 80%. As expected, patients with liver metastases had a significantly decreased 10-year survival of 30% (P < .001). The time to development of liver metastases was significantly reduced for patients with lymph node metastases alone compared with those with none (P < .001). For the NIH cohort with longer follow-up, disease-related survival was significantly different for those patients with no metastases, lymph node metastases alone, and liver metastases (P < .001). Extent of lymph node involvement in this subgroup showed that disease-related survival decreased as a function of the number of lymph nodes involved (P = .004).As expected, liver metastases decrease survival of patients with pNETs. Patients with lymph node metastases alone have a shorter time to the development of liver metastases that is dependent on the number of lymph nodes involved. With sufficient long-term follow-up, lymph node metastases decrease disease-related survival. Careful evaluation of number and extent of lymph node involvement is warranted in all surgical procedures for pNETs.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308883700011

    View details for PubMedID 22987171

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3448121

  • Preoperative embolization of replaced right hepatic artery prior to pancreaticoduodenectomy JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Cloyd, J. M., Chandra, V., Louie, J. D., Rao, S., Visser, B. C. 2012; 106 (4): 509-512


    Aberrancy of the hepatic arterial anatomy is common. Because of its course directly adjacent to the head of the pancreas, a replaced right hepatic artery (RHA) is vulnerable to invasion by peri-pancreatic malignancies. Division of the RHA at the time of pancreaticoduodenectomy, however, may result in hepatic infarction and/or bilioenteric anastomotic complications. We report two cases of patients undergoing preoperative embolization of tumor encased replaced RHAs to allow for sufficient collateralization prior to pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.23082

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307550900026

    View details for PubMedID 22374866

  • Failure to comply with NCCN guidelines for the management of pancreatic cancer compromises outcomes HPB Visser, B. C., Ma, Y., Zak, Y., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Rhoads, K. F. 2012; 14 (8): 539-547


    There are little data available regarding compliance with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. We investigated variation in the management of pancreatic cancer (PC) among large hospitals in California, USA, specifically to evaluate whether compliance with NCCN guidelines correlates with patient outcomes.The California Cancer Registry was used to identify patients treated for PC from 2001 to 2006. Only hospitals with ≥ 400 beds were included to limit evaluation to centres possessing resources to provide multimodality care (n= 50). Risk-adjusted multivariable models evaluated predictors of adherence to stage-specific NCCN guidelines for PC and mortality.In all, 3706 patients were treated for PC in large hospitals during the study period. Compliance with NCCN guidelines was only 34.5%. Patients were less likely to get recommended therapy with advanced age and low socioeconomic status (SES). Using multilevel analysis, controlling for patient factors (including demographics and comorbidities), hospital factors (e.g. size, academic affiliation and case volume), compliance with NCCN guidelines was associated with a reduced risk of mortality [odds ratio (OR) for death 0.64 (0.53-0.77, P < 0.0001)].There is relatively poor overall compliance with the NCCN PC guidelines in California's large hospitals. Higher compliance rates are correlated with improved survival. Compliance is an important potential measure of the quality of care.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1477-2574.2012.00496.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305993800007

    View details for PubMedID 22762402

  • Sump Syndrome as a Complication of Choledochoduodenostomy DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Qadan, M., Clarke, S., Morrow, E., Triadafilopoulos, G., Visser, B. 2012; 57 (8): 2011-2015

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-011-2020-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306930100007

    View details for PubMedID 22167692

  • Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Radiographic Calcifications Correlate with Grade and Metastasis ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Poultsides, G. A., Huang, L. C., Chen, Y., Visser, B. C., Pai, R. K., Jeffrey, R. B., Park, W. G., Chen, A. M., Kunz, P. L., Fisher, G. A., Norton, J. A. 2012; 19 (7): 2295-2303


    Studies to identify preoperative prognostic variables for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) have been inconclusive. Specifically, the prevalence and prognostic significance of radiographic calcifications in these tumors remains unclear.From 1998 to 2009, a total of 110 patients with well-differentiated PNET underwent surgical resection at our institution. Synchronous liver metastases present in 31 patients (28%) were addressed surgically with curative intent. Patients with high-grade PNET were excluded. The presence of calcifications in the primary tumor on preoperative computed tomography was recorded and correlated with clinicopathologic variables and overall survival.Calcifications were present in 16% of patients and were more common in gastrinomas and glucagonomas (50%), but never encountered in insulinomas. Calcified tumors were larger (median size 4.5 vs. 2.3 cm, P=0.04) and more commonly associated with lymph node metastasis (75 vs. 35%, P=0.01), synchronous liver metastasis (62 vs. 21%, P<0.01), and intermediate tumor grade (80 vs. 31%, P<0.01). On multivariate analysis of factors available preoperatively, calcifications (P=0.01) and size (P<0.01) remained independent predictors of lymph node metastasis. Overall survival after resection was significantly worse in the presence of synchronous liver metastasis (5-year, 64 vs. 86%, P=0.04), but not in the presence of radiographic calcifications.Calcifications on preoperative computed tomography correlate with intermediate grade and lymph node metastasis in well-differentiated PNET. This information is available preoperatively and supports the routine dissection of regional lymph nodes through formal pancreatectomy rather than enucleation in calcified PNET.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-012-2305-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305558000030

    View details for PubMedID 22396008

  • Video-assisted thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES Cloyd, J. M., Visser, B. C. 2012; 26 (6): 1772-1776


    Because of technical complexity, concern for vascular control, and uncertainty in regard to oncologic outcome, the application of minimally invasive techniques to liver surgery has been slower than in most other abdominal procedures. This is despite well-known advantages with respect to postoperative pain, length of hospitalization, and recovery time. Although laparoscopic liver surgery has recently become more common, the majority of laparoscopic liver resections comprise anterolateral wedge resections and left lateral sectorectomies. Laparoscopic resections of the posterosuperior segments are more difficult and few reports are available in the literature. Compared to laparoscopy, gaining access to tumors in the dome of the liver may be more easily obtained via thoracoscopy, thereby preserving the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. This technical report describes two cases of hepatocellular carcinoma in segments VII and VIII resected via a video-assisted thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic approach.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00464-011-2062-x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304161500042

    View details for PubMedID 22179452

  • Abdominal Mass, Anemia, Diabetes Mellitus, and Necrolytic Migratory Erythema DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Qadan, M., Visser, B., Kim, J., Pai, R., Triadafilopoulos, G. 2012; 57 (6): 1465-1468

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-011-1967-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304396700007

    View details for PubMedID 22089253

  • Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma 51st Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Radiation-Oncology (ASTRO) Abelson, J. A., Murphy, J. D., Minn, A. Y., Chung, M., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Kunz, P., Norton, J. A., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2012: E595–E601


    To report the outcomes and toxicities in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Forty-seven patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were treated with IMRT between 2003 and 2008. Of these 47 patients, 29 were treated adjuvantly and 18 definitively. All received concurrent 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. The treatment plans were optimized such that 95% of the planning target volume received the prescription dose. The median delivered dose for the adjuvant and definitive patients was 50.4 and 54.0 Gy, respectively.The median age at diagnosis was 63.9 years. For adjuvant patients, the 1- and 2-year overall survival rate was 79% and 40%, respectively. The 1- and 2-year recurrence-free survival rate was 58% and 17%, respectively. The local-regional control rate at 1 and 2 years was 92% and 80%, respectively. For definitive patients, the 1-year overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and local-regional control rate was 24%, 16%, and 64%, respectively. Four patients developed Grade 3 or greater acute toxicity (9%) and four developed Grade 3 late toxicity (9%).Survival for patients with pancreatic cancer remains poor. A small percentage of adjuvant patients have durable disease control, and with improved therapies, this proportion will increase. Systemic therapy offers the greatest opportunity. The present results have demonstrated that IMRT is well tolerated. Compared with those who received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in previously reported prospective clinical trials, patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with IMRT in our series had improved acute toxicity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.09.035

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300980300003

    View details for PubMedID 22197234

  • Diagnostic accuracy of cyst fluid amphiregulin in pancreatic cysts BMC GASTROENTEROLOGY Tun, M. T., Pai, R. K., Kwok, S., Dong, A., Gupta, A., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A., Banerjee, S., Van Dam, J., Chen, A. M., Friedland, S., Scott, B. A., Verma, R., Lowe, A. W., Park, W. G. 2012; 12


    Accurate tests to diagnose adenocarcinoma and high-grade dysplasia among mucinous pancreatic cysts are clinically needed. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of amphiregulin (AREG) as a pancreatic cyst fluid biomarker to differentiate non-mucinous, benign mucinous, and malignant mucinous cysts.A single-center retrospective study to evaluate AREG levels in pancreatic cyst fluid by ELISA from 33 patients with a histological gold standard was performed.Among the cyst fluid samples, the median (IQR) AREG levels for non-mucinous (n = 6), benign mucinous (n = 15), and cancerous cysts (n = 15) were 85 pg/ml (47-168), 63 pg/ml (30-847), and 986 pg/ml (417-3160), respectively. A significant difference between benign mucinous and malignant mucinous cysts was observed (p = 0.025). AREG levels greater than 300 pg/ml possessed a diagnostic accuracy for cancer or high-grade dysplasia of 78% (sensitivity 83%, specificity 73%).Cyst fluid AREG levels are significantly higher in cancerous and high-grade dysplastic cysts compared to benign mucinous cysts. Thus AREG exhibits potential clinical utility in the evaluation of pancreatic cysts.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-230X-12-15

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301923400002

    View details for PubMedID 22333441

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3305641

  • Adult Intestinal Malrotation: When Things Turn the Wrong Way DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Palmer, O. P., Rhee, H. H., Park, W. G., Visser, B. C. 2012; 57 (2): 284-287

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-011-1818-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299487500005

    View details for PubMedID 21805171

  • Single-cell dissection of transcriptional heterogeneity in human colon tumors NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY Dalerba, P., Kalisky, T., Sahoo, D., Rajendran, P. S., Rothenberg, M. E., Leyrat, A. A., Sim, S., Okamoto, J., Johnston, D. M., Qian, D., Zabala, M., Bueno, J., Neff, N. F., Wang, J., Shelton, A. A., Visser, B., Hisamori, S., Shimono, Y., Van De Wetering, M., Clevers, H., Clarke, M. F., Quake, S. R. 2011; 29 (12): 1120-U11


    Cancer is often viewed as a caricature of normal developmental processes, but the extent to which its cellular heterogeneity truly recapitulates multilineage differentiation processes of normal tissues remains unknown. Here we implement single-cell PCR gene-expression analysis to dissect the cellular composition of primary human normal colon and colon cancer epithelia. We show that human colon cancer tissues contain distinct cell populations whose transcriptional identities mirror those of the different cellular lineages of normal colon. By creating monoclonal tumor xenografts from injection of a single (n = 1) cell, we demonstrate that the transcriptional diversity of cancer tissues is largely explained by in vivo multilineage differentiation and not only by clonal genetic heterogeneity. Finally, we show that the different gene-expression programs linked to multilineage differentiation are strongly associated with patient survival. We develop two-gene classifier systems (KRT20 versus CA1, MS4A12, CD177, SLC26A3) that predict clinical outcomes with hazard ratios superior to those of pathological grade and comparable to those of microarray-derived multigene expression signatures.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.2038

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298038700023

    View details for PubMedID 22081019

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3237928

  • Ruptured Biliary Cystadenoma Managed by Angiographic Embolization and Interval Partial Hepatectomy DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Ghole, S. A., Bakhtary, S., Staudenmayer, K., Sze, D. Y., Pai, R. K., Visser, B. C., Norton, J. A., Poultsides, G. A. 2011; 56 (7): 1949-1953

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-011-1677-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291481800006

    View details for PubMedID 21445579

  • Predictors of Surgical Intervention for Hepatocellular Carcinoma ARCHIVES OF SURGERY Zak, Y., Rhoads, K. F., Visser, B. C. 2011; 146 (7): 778-784


    To define current use of surgical therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluate the correlation of various patient and hospital characteristics with the receipt of these interventions.Retrospective cohort.California Cancer Registry data linked to the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development patient discharge abstracts between 1996 and 2006.Patients with primary HCC.Receipt of liver transplant, hepatic resection, or local ablation.Of 12,148 HCC cases, 2390 (20%) underwent surgical intervention. Three hundred eleven (2.56%) received a liver transplant, 1307 (10.8%) underwent resection, and 772 (6.35%) had local ablation. There were wide variations in treatment by race and hospital type. African American and Hispanic patients were less likely than white patients to undergo transplant (P < .05). African American and Hispanic patients were less likely than white and Asian/Pacific Islander patients to have hepatectomy or ablation (P < .05). In multivariable analysis, the apparent differences in surgical intervention by race/ethnicity were decreased when adjusting for the patients' socioeconomic and insurance statuses. Patients with lower socioeconomic status and no private insurance were less likely to receive any surgery (P < .01). Hospital characteristics also explained some variations. Disproportionate Share Hospitals and public, rural, and nonteaching hospitals were less likely to offer surgical treatment (P < .01).There are significant racial, socioeconomic, and hospital-type disparities in surgical treatment of HCC.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/archsurg.2011.37

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292877800002

    View details for PubMedID 21422327

  • Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors With Major Vascular Abutment, Involvement, or Encasement and Indication for Resection ARCHIVES OF SURGERY Norton, J. A., Harris, E. J., Chen, Y., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Kunz, P. C., Fisher, G. A., Jensen, R. T. 2011; 146 (6): 724-732


    Surgery for pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) with blood vessel involvement is controversial.Resection of PETs with major blood vessel involvement can be beneficial.The combined databases of the National Institutes of Health and Stanford University hospitals were queried.Operation, pathologic condition, complications, and disease-free and overall survival.Of 273 patients with PETs, 46 (17%) had preoperative computed tomography evidence of major vascular involvement. The mean size for the primary PET was 5.0 cm. The involved major vessel was as follows: portal vein (n = 20), superior mesenteric vein or superior mesenteric artery (n = 16), inferior vena cava (n = 4), splenic vein (n = 4), and heart (n = 2). Forty-two of 46 patients had a PET removed: 12 (27%) primary only, 30 (68%) with lymph nodes, and 18 (41%) with liver metastases. PETs were removed by either enucleation (n = 7) or resection (n = 35). Resections included distal or subtotal pancreatectomy in 23, Whipple in 10, and total in 2. Eighteen patients had concomitant liver resection: 10 wedge resection and 8 anatomic resections. Nine patients had vascular reconstruction: each had reconstruction of the superior mesenteric vein and portal vein, and 1 had concomitant reconstruction of the superior mesenteric artery. There were no deaths, but 12 patients had complications. Eighteen patients (41%) were immediately disease free, and 5 recurred with follow-up, leaving 13 (30%) disease-free long term. The 10-year overall survival was 60%. Functional tumors were associated with a better overall survival (P < .001), and liver metastases decreased overall survival (P < .001).These findings suggest that surgical resection of PETs with vascular abutment/invasion and nodal or distant metastases is indicated.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291851500018

    View details for PubMedID 21690450

  • Expression of p16(INK4A) But Not Hypoxia Markers or Poly Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose Polymerase Is Associated With Improved Survival in Patients With Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma 51st Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Radiation-Oncology (ASTRO) Chang, D. T., Chapman, C. H., Norton, J. A., Visser, B., Fisher, G. A., Kunz, P., Ford, J. M., Koong, A. C., Pai, R. K. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2010: 5179–87


    Pancreatic cancer is associated with mutations in the tumor suppressor gene cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16(INK4A) ), a regulator of the cell cycle and apoptosis. This study investigates whether immunohistochemical expression of p16(INK4A) as well as hypoxia markers and poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP) correlates with survival in patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Seventy-three patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who underwent curative resection at Stanford University were included. From the surgical specimens, a tissue microarray was constructed using triplicate tissue cores from the primary tumor and used for immunohistochemical staining for the following markers: carbonic anhydrase IX, dihydrofolate reductase, p16(INK4A) , and PARP1/2. Staining was scored as either positive or negative and percentage positive staining. Staining score was correlated with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).Of the markers tested, only immunohistochemical expression of p16(INK4A) correlated with clinical outcome. On univariate analysis, p16(INK4A) expression in the tumor was associated with improved OS (P = .038) but not PFS (P = .28). The median survival for patients with positive versus negative p16(INK4A) staining was 28.8 months versus 18 months. On multivariate analysis, p16(INK4A) expression was associated with improved OS (P = .026) but not PFS (P = .25). Age (P = .0019) and number of nodes involved (P = .025) were also significant for OS. Adjuvant chemotherapy and margin status did not correlate with OS or PFS.Expression of p16(INK4A) is associated with improved OS in patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Further investigation is needed for validation, given conflicting data in the published literature. .

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.25481

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284047400009

    View details for PubMedID 20665497

  • Comparison of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy as Adjuvant Therapy for Gastric Cancer 51st Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Radiation-Oncology (ASTRO) Minn, A. Y., Hsu, A., La, T., Kunz, P., Fisher, G. A., Ford, J. M., Norton, J. A., Visser, B., Goodman, K. A., Koong, A. C., Chang, D. T. JOHN WILEY & SONS INC. 2010: 3943–52


    The current study was performed to compare the clinical outcomes and toxicity in patients treated with postoperative chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT).Fifty-seven patients with gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer were treated postoperatively: 26 with 3D CRT and 31 with IMRT. Concurrent chemotherapy was capecitabine (n=31), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (n=25), or none (n=1). The median radiation dose was 45 Gy. Dose volume histogram parameters for kidney and liver were compared between treatment groups.The 2-year overall survival rates for 3D CRT versus IMRT were 51% and 65%, respectively (P=.5). Four locoregional failures occurred each in the 3D CRT (15%) and the IMRT (13%) patients. Grade>or=2 acute gastrointestinal toxicity was found to be similar between the 3D CRT and IMRT patients (61.5% vs 61.2%, respectively) but more treatment breaks were needed (3 vs 0, respectively). The median serum creatinine from before radiotherapy to most recent creatinine was unchanged in the IMRT group (0.80 mg/dL) but increased in the 3D CRT group from 0.80 mg/dL to 1.0 mg/dL (P=.02). The median kidney mean dose was higher in the IMRT versus the 3D CRT group (13.9 Gy vs 11.1 Gy; P=.05). The median kidney V20 was lower for the IMRT versus the 3D CRT group (17.5% vs 22%; P=.17). The median liver mean dose for IMRT and 3D CRT was 13.6 Gy and 18.6 Gy, respectively (P=.19). The median liver V30 was 16.1% and 28%, respectively (P<.001).Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was well tolerated. IMRT was found to provide sparing to the liver and possibly renal function.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.25246

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280677100025

    View details for PubMedID 20564136



    To delineate the genetic and phenotypic features of Carney complex in a family with multiple cases of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD).Detailed clinical, laboratory, genetic, radiologic, and pathologic findings are presented, and the pertinent literature is reviewed.A 17-year-old girl presented with symptoms and physical findings suggestive of hypercortisolemia, in addition to facial lentigines. She was found to have adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushing syndrome. The adrenal glands appeared normal on computed tomographic scanning. Bilateral surgical adrenalectomy revealed PPNAD. Evaluation of her 14-year-old sister revealed ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome as well as facial lentigines, and adrenalectomy revealed PPNAD as well. Genetic testing of the 2 sisters and their mother (who also had multiple facial lentigines but did not have Cushing syndrome) revealed a novel mutation in the PRKAR1A gene.We describe a novel mutation in the PRKAR1A gene in a family with Carney complex and multiple members with PPNAD. PPNAD should be suspected in cases of ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome, and screening for Carney complex and its complications is recommended in all cases of PPNAD, including first-degree relatives.

    View details for DOI 10.4158/EP09245.OR

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277497400011

    View details for PubMedID 19833579

  • Death After Colectomy It's Later Than We Think 79th Annual Meeting of the Pacific-Coast-Surgical-Association Visser, B. C., Keegan, H., Martin, M., Wren, S. M. AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. 2009: 1021–27


    Clinical outcomes are increasingly subject to objective assessment and professional accountability. Informed consent relies on accurate estimation of operative risk. Current scoring systems for assessment of operative mortality after colorectal surgery (CRS) almost uniformly report 30-day mortality and may not represent true risk.Prospective cohort.University-affiliated Veterans Affairs Medical Center.All patients who underwent resections of the colon and/or rectum (as the principal operation) at a single hospital whose data are captured in the Veterans Affairs National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VA-NSQIP) database from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2006.Mortality at 30 days and 90 days.The VA-NSQIP cohort included 186 patients who underwent CRS, including 148 patients who underwent elective procedures (79.6%) and 38 patients who underwent emergency procedures (20.4%). All but 8 patients were men, with a median age of 67 years (range, 26-92 years). Laparoscopic operations comprised 24.2% and open operations comprised 75.8%. Most (60.8%) were performed for neoplasms. The actual 30-day mortality rates (all, elective, and emergency procedures) were 4.3%, 1.4%, and 15.8%, respectively. These rates closely mirrored the calculated VA-NSQIP risk-adjusted observed-to-expected ratio for 30-day mortality (4.8%, 1.8%, and 18.2%, respectively). However, mortality at 90 days increased substantially to 9.1%, 4.1%, and 28.9%, respectively.The 30-day mortality significantly underreports the true risk of death after CRS. The 90-day mortality rate should be included as a standard outcome measure after CRS because it serves as a better estimation of risk for counseling patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271890500009

    View details for PubMedID 19917938

  • Development of a transillumination infrared modality for differential vasoactive optical imaging Biomedical Topical Meeting Dixit, S. S., Kim, H., Visser, B., Faris, G. W. OPTICAL SOC AMER. 2009: D178–D186


    We present the development and implementation of a new near infrared transillumination imaging modality for tissue imaging. Exogenous inhaled hyperoxic and hypercarbic gases are used as "vasoactive contrast agents" via the production of changes in concentration of the endogenous HbO(2) and Hb in blood. This vasoactive differential imaging method is employed to acquire data and for subsequent image analysis. Spectroscopic changes obtained from transillumination measurements on the palms of healthy volunteers demonstrate the functionality of the imaging platform. This modality is being developed to monitor suspect breast lesions in a clinical setting based on the hypothesis that the atypical tumor vascular environment will yield sufficient contrast for differential optical imaging between diseased and healthy tissue.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265443700022

    View details for PubMedID 19340107

  • Diagnostic evaluation of cystic pancreatic lesions HPB Visser, B. C., Muthusamy, V. R., Yeh, B. M., Coakley, F. V., Way, L. W. 2008; 10 (1): 63-69


    Cystic pancreatic neoplasms (CPNs) present a unique challenge in preoperative diagnosis. We investigated the accuracy of diagnostic methods for CPN.This retrospective cases series includes 70 patients who underwent surgery at a university hospital for presumed CPNs between 1997 and 2003, and for whom a definitive diagnosis was established. Variables examined included symptoms, preoperative work-up (including endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in 22 cases and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in 12), and operative and pathological findings. Preoperative computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans (n=50 patients; CT=48; MRI=13) were independently reviewed by two blinded GI radiologists.The final histopathologic diagnoses were mucinous cystic neoplasm (n=13), mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (10), serous cystadenoma (11), IPMN (14), simple cyst (3), cystic neuroendocrine tumor (5), pseudocyst (4), and other (10). Overall, 25 of 70 were malignant (37%), 21 premalignant (30%), and 24 benign (34%). The attending surgeon's preoperative diagnosis was correct in 31% of cases, incorrect in 29%, non-specific "cystic tumor" in 27%, and "pseudocyst vs. neoplasm" in 11%. Eight had been previously managed as pseudocysts, and 3 pseudocysts were excised as presumed CPN. In review of the CT and MRI, a multivariate analysis of the morphologic features did not identify predictors of specific pathologic diagnoses. Both radiologists were accurate with their preferred (no. 1) diagnosis in <50% of cases. MRI demonstrated no additional utility beyond CT.The diagnosis of CPN remains challenging. Cross-sectional imaging methods do not reliably give an accurate preoperative diagnosis. Surgeons should continue to err on the side of resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/13651820701883155

    View details for Web of Science ID 000207813300012

    View details for PubMedID 18695762

  • Open cholecystectomy in the laparoendoscopic era AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY Visser, B. C., Parks, R. W., Garden, O. J. 2008; 195 (1): 108-114


    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has all but replaced the traditional open approach. Hence open cholecystectomy (OC) is principally reserved for cases in which laparoscopy fails, leaving fewer surgeons with experience in the procedure required for the most challenging cases. This review of OC includes discussion of the indications for a primary open approach, conversion from laparoscopy, technical aspects of OC, and alternatives (cholecystostomy and subtotal cholecystectomy). Strategies for safe OC must be formally addressed in residency programs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2007.04.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251968300022

    View details for PubMedID 18082551

  • Characterization of cystic pancreatic masses: Relative accuracy of CT and MRI AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Visser, B. C., Yeh, B. M., Qayyum, A., Way, L. W., McCulloch, C. E., Coakley, F. V. 2007; 189 (3): 648-656


    The objective of our study was to determine the role and relative accuracy of CT and MRI in the characterization of cystic pancreatic masses.We retrospectively identified 58 patients with histopathologically proven cystic pancreatic masses at our institution who underwent preoperative CT (n = 40), MRI (n = 6), or both (n = 12). Two radiologists independently recorded their leading diagnoses with levels of diagnostic certainty (0-100%), their estimates of overall likelihood of malignancy (0-100%), and the morphologic characteristics of the tumors. Data were analyzed to determine relative accuracy in the diagnosis of malignancy, relationship between diagnostic certainty and accuracy, and frequency of malignancy in unilocular thin-walled cysts smaller than 4 cm.Twenty-one (36%) of 58 masses were malignant. CT and MRI were equally accurate in establishing the diagnosis of malignancy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [A(z)] = 0.91 and 0.85 for reviewers 1 and 2 at MRI vs 0.82 and 0.76 at CT, respectively; p > 0.05). The leading diagnosis given by reviewers 1 and 2 was correct in 46% (32/70) and 43% (30/70) of the studies, respectively. When reviewer diagnostic certainty was 90% or more, the corresponding values were not significantly (p > 0.05) improved at 55% (12/22) and 48% (10/21), respectively. Two (15%) of 13 unilocular thin-walled cysts smaller than 4 cm were frankly malignant.CT and MRI are reasonably and similarly accurate in the characterization of cystic pancreatic masses as benign or malignant; limitations include a substantial rate of misdiagnosis even when reviewer certainty is high and a moderate frequency of malignancy in small morphologically benign-appearing cysts.

    View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.07.2365

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249038000026

    View details for PubMedID 17715113

  • The influence of portoenterostomy on transplantation for biliary atresia LIVER TRANSPLANTATION Visser, B. C., Suh, I., Hirose, S., Rosenthal, P., LEE, H., Roberts, J. P., Hirose, R. 2004; 10 (10): 1279-1286


    After portoenterostomy (PE) for biliary atresia (BA), many patients suffer progressive deterioration of liver function and ultimately require liver transplantation. We retrospectively reviewed a single center's experience with pediatric liver transplantation for BA from 1988 to 2002. Sixty-six patients underwent 69 liver transplants for BA. Forty-two (63%) patients had previously undergone Kasai PE, 11 (17%) biliary appendicoduodenostomy (BAD), and 13 (20%) had no prior biliary drainage (NBD). The BAD procedure offered only short-term biliary drainage--the mean interval between PE and transplant was more than twice that for Kasai patients than for BAD patients (132 versus 49 weeks). The transplants included 11 cadaveric partial, 27 cadaveric whole, and 31 living related transplants. Three patients required retransplant. Prior PE did not increase the incidence of major perioperative complications or unplanned reexploration. After transplant, the 1-, 5-, and 10-year actuarial graft survival rates were 87%, 86%, and 80%, respectively. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year actuarial patient survival rates were 91%, 89%, and 83%. PE remains an important bridge to transplant. In conclusion, transplantation for BA offers excellent long-term graft and patient survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lt.20234

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224109300010

    View details for PubMedID 15376306

  • Congenital choledochal cysts in adults 75th Annual Meeting of the Pacific-Coast-Surgical-Associaton Visser, B. C., Suh, I., Way, L. W., Kang, S. M. AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. 2004: 855–60


    Excision of the extrahepatic portion of congenital choledochal cysts (CCs) avoids the risk of cancer. The standard classification scheme is out of date.Retrospective case series and literature review.Tertiary care university hospital.Thirty-eight adult patients diagnosed as having CC from 1990 to 2004.Clinical and radiographic imaging findings, operative treatment, pathologic features, and clinical outcome.Thirty-nine adult patients were treated for CCs (mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 31 [17] years, and mean [SD] age at surgery 37 [14] years). The primary report was abdominal pain (36 of 39 patients). Eight patients had cholangitis, 5 had jaundice, and 6 had pancreatitis. Radiographic imaging studies and operative findings showed that the abnormality predominantly involved the extrahepatic bile duct in 30 patients, the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts in 7 patients; and 2 were diverticula attached to the common bile duct. Surgical treatment in 29 (90%) of 31 patients with benign cysts (regardless of intrahepatic changes) consisted of resection of the enlarged extrahepatic bile duct and gallbladder and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. Eight patients (21%) were initially seen with associated cancer (cholangiocarcinoma of the extrahepatic duct in 6; gallbladder cancer in 2). Seven of 8 patients had a prior diagnosis of CC but had undergone a drainage operation (3 patients), expectant treatment (3 patients), or incomplete excision (1patient). In none of the patients with cancer was surgery not curative. Nine patients had previously undergone a cystoduodenostomy and/or cystojejunostomy as children. Four of them had cancer on presentation as adults. There were no postoperative deaths. Cancer subsequently developed in no patient whose benign extrahepatic cyst was excised, regardless of the extent of enlargement of the intrahepatic bile duct.Congenital CCs consist principally of congenital dilation of the extrahepatic bile duct with a variable amount of intrahepatic involvement. We believe that the standard classification scheme is confusing, unsupported by evidence, misleading, and serves no purpose. The distinction between type I and type IV CCs has to be arbitrary, for the intrahepatic ducts were never completely normal. Although Caroli disease may resemble CCs morphologically, with respect to cause and clinical course, the 2 are unrelated. The other rare anomalies (gallbladderlike diverticula; choledochocele) are also unrelated to CC. Therefore, the term "congential choledochal cyst" should be exclusively reserved for congenital dilation of the extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts apart from Caroli disease, and the other conditions should be referred to by their names, for example, choledochocele, and should no longer be thought of as subtypes of CC. Our data demonstrate once again a persistent tendency to recommend expectant treatment in patients without symptoms and the extreme risk of nonexcisional treatment. The entire extrahepatic biliary tree should be removed when CC is diagnosed whether or not symptoms are present. The outcome of that approach was excellent.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223118400014

    View details for PubMedID 15302695

  • Diagnostic imaging of cystic pancreatic neoplasms SURGICAL ONCOLOGY-OXFORD Visser, B. C., Muthusamay, V. R., Mulvihill, S. J., Coakley, F. 2004; 13 (1): 27-39


    Cystic pancreatic neoplasms are being diagnosed with growing frequency due to improving imaging technologies and increasing clinician awareness. Distinguishing cystic neoplasms from pseudocysts and discriminating among the various cystic neoplasms is essential to appropriate management. The backbone of diagnosis of these tumors continues to be cross-sectional imaging by CT and MRI. Despite refinements in technology and significant progress in characterizing these lesions, the overall accuracy of CT and MR is limited. EUS, especially as means of FNA, will have an increasing role in the evaluation of selected cases as experience grows. No radiologic investigation can reliably distinguish cystic neoplasms from pseudocysts nor differentiate among cystic neoplasms in all cases. For uncertain lesions, surgeons should favor either careful observation with serial imaging or surgical resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.suronc.2004.01.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221771200004

    View details for PubMedID 15145031

  • Adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer: a critical reappraisal SURGICAL ONCOLOGY-OXFORD Visser, B. C., Venook, A. P., Patti, M. G. 2003; 12 (1): 1-7


    Despite important refinements of surgical technique and significant progress in perioperative care, esophageal cancer remains highly lethal. Therefore, hope for improvement in the prognosis of esophageal cancer lies largely in the use of additional therapy. Promising data from numerous Phase II trials and a single Phase III trial led to the widespread adoption of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. However, subsequent randomized trials did not conclusively demonstrate a survival benefit with any of the current neoadjuvant protocols for patients with resectable esophageal cancer. Benefit, if any, exists only for complete pathologic responders. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation should not be used in patients with resectable esophageal cancer outside of the clinical trials. Future investigation must focus on the development of new biologic or chemotherapeutic agents, and the identification of biologic markers that might predict response to chemoradiation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0960-7404(02)00072-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182503800001

    View details for PubMedID 12689665

  • Safety and timing of nonobstetric abdominal surgery in pregnancy DIGESTIVE SURGERY Visser, B. C., Glasgow, R. E., Mulvihill, K. K., Mulvihill, S. J. 2001; 18 (5): 409-417


    Abdominal disorders occurring during pregnancy pose special difficulties in diagnosis and management to the obstetrician and surgeon. The advisability of nonobstetric abdominal surgery during pregnancy is uncertain. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and timing of abdominal surgery during pregnancy.We retrospectively reviewed 77 consecutive gravid patients undergoing nonobstetric abdominal surgery from 1989 to 1996 at an urban academic medical center and a large affiliated community teaching hospital. Medical records were evaluated for clinical presentation, perioperative management, preterm labor, and maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.The rate of nonobstetric abdominal surgery during pregnancy was 1 in every 527 births. Among the 77 patients, the indications for surgery were adnexal mass (42%), acute appendicitis (21%), gallstone disease (17%) and other (21%). There was no maternal or fetal loss or identifiable neonatal birth defect. Preterm labor occurred in 26% of the second-trimester patients and 82% of the third-trimester patients. Preterm labor was most common in patients with appendicitis and after adnexal surgery. Preterm delivery occurred in 16% of the patients, but appeared to be directly related to the abdominal surgery in only 5%.Surgery during the first or second trimester is not associated with significant preterm labor, fetal loss or risk of teratogenicity. Surgery during the third trimester is associated with preterm labor, but not fetal loss.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172650500013

    View details for PubMedID 11721118