Wu Tsai Human Performance Alliance
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Associate Professor of Bioengineering and of Medicine (Microbiology and Immunology)
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsThe human microbiome is linked to a range of phenotypes in the host, but it remains difficult to test causality and explore the mechanisms of these interactions. Our lab focuses on two research areas that share a common goal of studying host-microbiota interactions at the level of molecular mechanism:
1) Technology development. Much of what we know about biology has been learned by deleting individual genes from mice, worms, flies and yeast. The ability to do single-strain and single-gene deletion in the microbiome would be transformative but does not yet exist. We are developing technology in three areas to make this possible:
Synthetic ecology: There is a pressing need for model systems for the microbiome that are defined, but of an order of complexity that approaches the native state. Key experiments in the field often show that a host phenotype can be transferred to a germ-free mouse via fecal transplant. If these phenomena could be recapitulated with a defined, high-complexity community, then reductionist experiments to probe mechanism would be possible. We are developing the technology required to build highly complex defined communities (100-200 bacterial species), make them stable upon transplantation into mice, and probe their function in vitro and in vivo.
Genetics: It is difficult to probe mechanism without genetics, and genetic tools exist for only ~10% of the bacterial species in the gut and skin microbiome. We are developing technologies that will make it possible to delete and insert genes, and build mutant libraries, in many of the most common bacterial strains in the gut and skin microbiome.
Computation: In previous work from the lab, we have developed computational algorithms that identify small-molecule-producing genes in bacterial genomes. In current work, we are devising algorithms for genome mining that are specific to the microbiome, and new tools for predicting the chemical structures of small molecules from untargeted metabolomics data.
2) Molecular mechanisms. Many of the early findings in microbiome research are correlative or associative. We are applying the tools described above to explore the mechanisms underlying these phenomena:
Small molecules: Our lab has had a long-standing interest in small molecules from the microbiota. These include: 1) host-derived molecules metabolized by the microbiome, like bile acids; 2) characteristic components of the bacterial membrane and cell wall, including LPS and capsular polysaccharides; and 3) hundreds of other diffusible small molecules (e.g., the products of polysaccharide and amino acid metabolism) that are present in the bloodstream at high concentrations. Our work in this area seeks to establish the mechanisms by which these molecules modulate host biology, especially by deleting them one at a time in the background of a complex community; and to discover new microbiome-derived metabolites present in the bloodstream and host tissues.
Ecology of complex communities: Synthetic ecology at the 100+ strain scale is entirely unexplored, and the emergent properties of complex communities are not well understood. Our work in this area seeks to understand basic principles outlined by the following questions: How many meaningful interactions exist in a community of hundreds of strains? What constitutes a niche, molecularly and spatially, and how do strains map to niches? What are the molecular correlates of stability, and how does a community reconfigure in response to a perturbation? How rare or common are stable states, and how predictable is the process by which a consortium will evolve toward a stable state? To what extent do priority effects (early colonists and events) determine the outcome of ecosystem development? Can the results of ecosystem competition be predicted or engineered?
Michael Fredericson, MD
Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy research focuses on the etiology, prevention, and treatment of overuse sports injuries in athletes and lifestyle medicine practices for improved health and longevity.
Michael T. Freehill, MD, FAOA
Associate Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery
BioDr. Freehill is a board-certified, double fellowship-trained specialist in orthopaedic surgery with a sub-specialty certification in sports medicine. His concentration is in shoulder and elbow. Dr. Freehill is a team physician for the Stanford University athletics program and head physician for the Stanford University baseball team. Dr. Freehill also teaches in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Stanford University School of Medicine.
Dr. Freehill’s practice focuses on all shoulder conditions. He treats rotator cuff tears, shoulder instability, shoulder arthritis, sports shoulder, arthopathy, complex shoulder pathology, and sports-related shoulder injury. In addition, he is also passionate about sports- related elbow injuries, with an emphasis on thrower’s elbow.
Professional and amateur athletes, as well as non-athletes, come to Dr. Freehill for expert care. His sports medicine training and specialization in shoulder replacement procedures enable him to treat patients across the lifespan. Depending on factors including the patient’s condition and occupation, he may recommend treatment ranging from non-operative solutions (such as physical therapy) to cutting-edge biologics procedures or complex surgery.
In addition to his positions within the Stanford University athletics program, Dr. Freehill serves as assistant team physician for the Oakland A’s. Previously, he was a team physician for the Detroit Tigers and the Winston-Salem Dash (affiliated with the Chicago White Sox); he assisted with the Baltimore Orioles. He has also served as Director of Sports Medicine for Wake Forest University Athletics.
As director of the imminent Stanford Performance and Pitching Lab, Dr. Freehill draws on his previous experience as a professional baseball player to help athletes of all skill levels. In the lab, he conducts cutting edge research on the biomechanics of overhead throwers in order to support advances in throwing performance. He has conducted a study on pitch counts in adolescent players funded by Major League Baseball. Dr. Freehill was also awarded a research grant from the National Institutes of Health to investigate stromal vascular fractionated mesenchymal cells and their potential for healing rotator cuff tendon tears.
Dr. Freehill has pioneered the use of some of the latest techniques and technology for leading-edge care. Among the advanced technologies he utilizes is a virtual reality (VR) system that enables him to perform a simulated shoulder arthroplasty procedure prior to entering the operating room with a patient. The system also enables him to predict and order customized implants if needed, which is believed to enable a more positive outcome for patients.
Peer-reviewed articles authored by Dr. Freehill explore rotator cuff injuries, shoulder arthroplasty, baseball-related injuries and performance interests, and more. His work has been featured in the American Journal of Sports Medicine, the Orthopedic Journal of Sports Medicine, Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, Arthroscopy, and elsewhere. He has written numerous book chapters and made over 200 presentations at conferences around the world.
Dr. Freehill’s honors include an Orthopaedic Residency Research Award while at Johns Hopkins University. He is also a Neer Award winner, denoting the highest research award selected annually by the American Shoulder and Elbow Society.
Currently, he serves on the Medical Publishing Board of Trustees for the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. He is a member of the American Orthopaedic Association, and the Major League Baseball Team Physician Association. He is a committee member for the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Society, International Congress of Arthroscopy and Sports Traumatology, the Arthroscopy Association of North America, and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsHow do we design biological systems as “smart medicine” that sense patients’ states, process the information, and respond accordingly? To realize this vision, we will tackle fundamental challenges across different levels of complexity, such as (1) protein components that minimize their crosstalk with human cells and immunogenicity, (2) biomolecular circuits that function robustly in different cells and are easy to deliver, (3) multicellular consortia that communicate through scalable channels, and (4) therapeutic modules that interface with physiological inputs/outputs. Our engineering targets include biomolecules, molecular circuits, viruses, and cells, and our approach combines quantitative experimental analysis with computational simulation. The molecular tools we build will be applied to diverse fields such as neurobiology and cancer therapy.
Rehnborg Farquhar Professor
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsThe role of nutrition in individual and societal health, with particular interests in: plant-based diets, differential response to low-carb vs. low-fat weight loss diets by insulin resistance status, chronic disease prevention, randomized controlled trials, human nutrition, community based studies, Community Based Participatory Research, sustainable food movement (animal rights and welfare, global warming, human labor practices), stealth health, nutrition policy, nutrition guidelines
Associate Professor of Psychology
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsHow does neural activity in the human cortex create our sense of visual perception? We use a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging, computational modeling and analysis, and psychophysical measurements to link human perception to cortical brain activity.
Clinical Professor, Neurosurgery
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsPrincipal Investigator,
“Concussion Definition Consortium – An Evidence Based Project”. Department of Defense. There are over 40 definitions of concussion but none are evidence based- i.e. come from well done studies. We will extract the most salient data from well run studies that are designed to give us a "snapshot" of what concussion is.
“Multi-Dimensional Model for Brain Trauma”. The goal is to develop a dynamic model for concussion, validate it on a retrospective dataset, and design a second study to validate it on a prospective dataset. Department of Defense.
“EYE-TRAC Advance”. Testing 10,000 subjects with normal and post concussive eye tracking. Military and civilian athletes are included. Department of Defense.
B-TEC (Brain Trauma Evidence-based Consortium). Combines Stanford B-TEC clinical trials coordinating center with the Brain Trauma Foundation's B-TEC evidence-based center to promote and coordinate an evidence-based approach to the spectrum of brain trauma from concussion to coma.
Nicholas Giori MD, PhD
Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsOsteoarthritis
Medical Device Development
Stanford Medicine Professor of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy primary focus is application of new MR imaging technology to musculoskeletal problems. Current projects include: Rapid MRI for Osteoarthritis, Weight-bearing cartilage imaging with MRI, and MRI-based models of muscle. We are studying the application of new MR imaging techniques such as rapid imaging, real-time imaging, and short echo time imaging to learn more about biomechanics and pathology of bones and joints. I am also interested in functional imaging approaches using PET-MRI.
Assistant Professor (Research) of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (Sleep Medicine)
BioDr. Goldstein-Piekarski directs the Computational Psychiatry, Neuroscience, and Sleep Laboratory (CoPsyN Sleep Lab) as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University School of Medicine and PI within the Sierra-Pacific Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC) at the Palo Alto VA. She received her PhD in 2014 at the University of California, Berkeley where she studied the consequences of sleep on emotional brain function. She then completed a Postdoctoral fellowship at Stanford focusing on understanding the brain basis of anxiety and depression.
As the director of the CoPsyN Sleep Lab she is developing a translational, interdisciplinary research program that combines human neuroimaging, high-density EEG sleep recording, and computational modeling to understand the neural mechanisms through which sleep disruption contributes to affective disorders, particularly depression, across the lifespan. The ultimate goals of this research are to (1) develop mechanistically-informed interventions that directly target aspects of sleep and brain function to prevent and treat affective disorders and (2) identify novel biomarkers which can identify which individuals are most likely to experience improved mood following targeted sleep interventions.
This work is currently supported by The KLS Foundation, a R01 from National Institute of Mental Health, and a R61 from the National Institute of Mental Health.
Gerald Grant, MD, FACS
Botha Chan Endowed Professor
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. Grant directs a Blood-brain Barrier Translational Laboratory focusing on enhancing drug delivery to brain tumors in children.
Eric R. Gross
Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsA part of the laboratory studies organ injury and how common genetic variants may affect the response to injury caused by surgery; particularly aldehydes. Aldehyde accumulation can cause many post-operative complications that people experience during surgery- whether it be reperfusion injury, post-operative pain, cognitive dysfunction, or nausea. The other part of the lab studies the impact of e-cigarettes and alcohol, when coupled with genetics, on the cardiopulmonary system.
Ernest R. Hilgard Professor and Professor of Psychology
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsI am interested in emotion and emotion regulation. My research employs behavioral, physiological, and brain measures to examine emotion-related personality processes and individual differences. My current interests include emotion coherence, specific emotion regulation strategies (reappraisal, suppression), automatic emotion regulation, and social anxiety.
Associate Professor of Psychology
BioHyowon (Hyo) Gweon (she/her) is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology. As a leader of the Social Learning Lab, Hyo is broadly interested in how humans learn from others and help others learn: What makes human social learning so powerful, smart, and distinctive? Taking an interdisciplinary approach that combines developmental, computational, and neuroimaging methods, her research aims to explain the cognitive underpinnings of distinctively human learning, communication, and prosocial behaviors.
Hyo received her PhD in Cognitive Science (2012) from MIT, where she continued as a post-doc before joining Stanford in 2014. She has been named as a Richard E. Guggenhime Faculty Scholar (2020) and a David Huntington Dean's Faculty Scholar (2019); she is a recipient of the APS Janet Spence Award for Transformative Early Career Contributions (2020), Jacobs Early Career Fellowship (2020), James S. McDonnell Scholar Award for Human Cognition (2018), APA Dissertation Award (2014), and Marr Prize (best student paper, Cognitive Science Society 2010).
Assistant Professor of Education and, by courtesy, of Computer Science
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsI use AI models of of exploratory and social learning in order to better understand early human learning and development, and conversely, I use our understanding of early human learning to make robust AI models that learn in exploratory and social ways. Based on this, I develop AI-powered learning tools for children, geared in particular towards the education of those with developmental issues such as the Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, in the mold of my work on the Autism Glass Project. My formal graduate training in pure mathematics involved extending partial differential equation theory in cases involving the propagation of waves through complex media such as the space around a black hole. Since then, I have transitioned to the use of machine learning in developing both learning tools for children with developmental disorders and AI and cognitive models of learning.
Clinical Professor, Medicine - Cardiovascular Medicine
BioDr. Francois Haddad, MD is a Clinical Professor of Medicine that specializes in the field of cardio-vascular imaging, pulmonary hypertension, advanced heart failure and transplantation. Dr. Haddad has over 18 years of practice in the field of cardiology. He directs Stanford Cardiovascular Institute Biomarker and Phenotypic Core Laboratory dedicated to translational studies in cardiovascular medicine. The laboratory focuses on (1) identifying early biomarkers of heart failure and aging, (2) bioengineering approaches to cardiovascular disease modeling and (3) novel informatic approach for the detection and risk stratification of disease. He is involved is several precision medicine initiatives in health including the Project Baseline, the Integrated Personalized Omics Profiling Initiative, the Athletic screening program at Stanford and the Strong-D cardiac rehabilitation initiative in individuals with diabetes mellitus.
Professor of Pediatrics (Neonatology) and, by courtesy, of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Current Research and Scholarly Interests1. development of hospital operations centers coupled with sophisticated simulation capabilities
2. re-creation of near misses and adverse events
3. optimizing human and system performance during resuscitation
4. optimizing pattern recognition and situational awareness at the bedside
5. evaluation and optimization of debriefing
6. patient simulator design
Brian A. Hargreaves
Professor of Radiology (Radiological Sciences Laboratory) and, by courtesy, of Electrical Engineering and of Bioengineering
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsI am interested in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications and augmented reality applications in medicine. These include abdominal, breast and musculoskeletal imaging, which require development of faster, quantitative, and more efficient MRI methods that provide improved diagnostic contrast compared with current methods. My work includes novel excitation schemes, efficient imaging methods and reconstruction tools and augmented reality in medicine.