School of Engineering
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W. M. Keck, Sr. Professor in Engineering and Professor, by court, of Materials Science and Engineering and of Chemistry
BioThe properties of ultrathin polymer films are often different from their bulk counterparts. We use spin casting, Langmuir-Blodgett deposition, and surface grafting to fabricate ultrathin films in the range of 100 to 1000 Angstroms thick. Macromolecular amphiphiles are examined at the air-water interface by surface pressure, Brewster angle microscopy, and interfacial shear measurements and on solid substrates by atomic force microscopy, FTIR, and ellipsometry. A vapor-deposition-polymerization process has been developed for covalent grafting of poly(amino acids) from solid substrates. FTIR measurements permit study of secondary structures (right and left-handed alpha helices, parallel and anti-parallel beta sheets) as a function of temperature and environment.
A broadly interdisciplinary collaboration has been established with the Department of Ophthalmology in the Stanford School of Medicine. We have designed and synthesized a fully interpenetrating network of two different hydrogel materials that have properties consistent with application as a substitute for the human cornea: high water swellability up to 85%,tensile strength comparable to the cornea, high glucose permeability comparable to the cornea, and sufficient tear strength to permit suturing. We have developed a technique for surface modification with adhesion peptides that allows binding of collagen and subsequent growth of epithelial cells. Broad questions on the relationships among molecular structure, processing protocol, and biomedical device application are being pursued.
Fletcher Jones II Professor in the School of Engineering
BioThe processing of complex liquids (polymers, suspensions, emulsions, biological fluids) alters their microstructure through orientation and deformation of their constitutive elements. In the case of polymeric liquids, it is of interest to obtain in situ measurements of segmental orientation and optical methods have proven to be an excellent means of acquiring this information. Research in our laboratory has resulted in a number of techniques in optical rheometry such as high-speed polarimetry (birefringence and dichroism) and various microscopy methods (fluorescence, phase contrast, and atomic force microscopy).
Another application of orientation dynamics is in the development of solar cells. The efficiency of second-generation solar cells fabricated with conjugated polymers is limited by photoelectron transport within the polymer film. Inspired by electrorheological fluids, an external electric field is applied to the film to induce anisotropy in polymer crystallites, which is expected to enhance electron mobility.
The microstructure of polymeric and other complex materials also cause them to have interesting physical properties and respond to different flow conditions in unusual manners. In our laboratory, we are equipped with instruments that are able to characterize these materials such as shear rheometer, capillary break up extensional rheometer, and 2D extensional rheometer. Then, the response of these materials to different flow conditions can be visualized and analyzed in detail using high speed imaging devices at up to 2,000 frames per second.
There are numerous processes encountered in nature and industry where the deformation of fluid-fluid interfaces is of central importance. Examples from nature include deformation of the red blood cell in small capillaries, cell division and structure and composition of the tear film. Industrial applications include the processing of emulsions and foams, and the atomization of droplets in ink-jet printing. In our laboratory, fundamental research is in progress to understand the orientation and deformation of monolayers at the molecular level. These experiments employ state of the art optical methods such as polarization modulated dichroism, fluorescence microscopy, and Brewster angle microscopy to obtain in situ measurements of polymer films and small molecule amphiphile monolayers subject to flow. Langmuir troughs are used as the experimental platform so that the thermodynamic state of the monolayers can be systematically controlled. For the first time, well characterized, homogeneous surface flows have been developed, and real time measurements of molecular and microdomain orientation have been obtained. These microstructural experiments are complemented by measurements of the macroscopic, mechanical properties of the films.
Julie A. Fogarty
Ph.D. Student in Chemical Engineering, admitted Autumn 2013
BioJulie is currently at Stanford University pursuing her Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering where she works for Prof. James R. Swartz on developing a modular virus-like particle based vaccine platform. Her current focus is on developing novel vaccines for HIV and Zika. She is also pursuing work related to further development of a potentially broadly protective flu antigen, as well as work to design a scalable process for manufacturing this antigen. Julie has a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Texas at Austin and is excited by the biological applications of chemical engineering.
Julie spent two years working for Dr. Jennifer A. Maynard at the University of Texas at Austin in the Chemical Engineering Department. Her project focused on phage display using coat protein p8 variants as a means for engineering low affinity protein-protein interactions. This work could provide a platform for engineering T-cell receptors (a largely under-exploited immune molecule) to create better therapeutics for a number of different diseases.
She has past research experience working with miRNA at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in the Department of Experimental Therapeutics under the supervision of Dr. George A. Calin. She also has experience working with pH responsive hydrogels at the University of Texas at Austin in the Chemical Engineering Department under the supervision of Dr. Nicholas A. Peppas. Finally, Julie interned with Merck in their Manufacturing Division for two summers and was a Merck Engineering and Technology Fellow.
She was formerly the President of the Stanford Chemical Engineering Graduate Action Committee and has served on many of their student committees.
As an undergraduate, she served as the Vice President External for the UT Chapter of AIChE for two years and the Service Chair of the organization for one year. In addition, Julie served as President, Vice President, and Service Chair for the Epsilon Chapter of Omega Chi Epsilon.