Bryan Bohman is Associate Chief Medical Officer for Workforce Health and Wellness. Additional roles include Clinical Professor of Medicine and of Anesthesiology, Co-Director of the Clinical Effectiveness Leadership Training (CELT) program and Senior Advisor to the WellMD Center.

Bryan trained at Stanford in internal medicine and anesthesiology. After two decades of clinical practice in community-based anesthesiology, he served as SHC's first elected Chief of Staff from 2008-2011.

As Chief of Staff, Dr. Bohman established Stanford’s wellness committee and subsequently shepherded the founding of its WellMD Center in 2015, serving as the Center’s interim Director until 2017. The Center’s aim is to advance faculty, trainee and care team wellbeing across Stanford Medicine while also serving as an international leader of scholarship in occupational wellbeing. Bryan also led the establishment in 2014 of the CELT program, which continues to serve as a driver of clinical quality improvement across Stanford Medicine.

Dr. Bohman’s primary areas of interest include occupational wellbeing, process improvement, and the reciprocal influences between quality improvement, healthcare system performance, and the occupational wellbeing of healthcare personnel.

Clinical Focus

  • Anesthesia
  • Occupational Health Services

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Associate Dean, Stanford School of Medicine (2018 - Present)
  • Chief Medical Officer, Stanford Medicine Partners (2014 - 2020)
  • Associate Chief Medical Officer, Stanford Health Care (2011 - Present)
  • Co-Director, Clinical Effectiveness Leadership Program (CELT) (2014 - Present)
  • Senior Advisor, WellMD Center (2017 - Present)
  • Interim Director, WellMD Center (2015 - 2017)
  • Affiliate, Freeman Spogli Institute (2014 - Present)
  • Chief of Staff, Stanford Health Care (2008 - 2011)
  • Board Member, Stanford Health Care Board of Directors (2008 - 2011)

Professional Education

  • Residency: Stanford University Anesthesiology Residency (1986) CA
  • Residency: Stanford University Internal Medicine Residency (1984) CA
  • Internship: Stanford University Internal Medicine Residency (1982) CA
  • Medical Education: Pritzker School of Medicine University of Chicago Registrar (1981) IL
  • Board Certification: American Board of Anesthesiology, Anesthesia (1988)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine (1984)

2023-24 Courses

All Publications

  • Organization-Wide Approaches to Foster Effective Unit-Level Efforts to Improve Clinician Well-Being. Mayo Clinic proceedings Shanafelt, T. D., Larson, D., Bohman, B., Roberts, R., Trockel, M., Weinlander, E., Springer, J., Wang, H., Stolz, S., Murphy, D. 2023; 98 (1): 163-180


    Health care delivery organizations are positioned to have a tremendous impact on addressing the variables in the practice environment that contribute to occupational distress and that, when optimized, can promote clinician well-being. Many organizations are committed to this work and have clarity on how to address general, system-wide issues and provide resources for individual clinicians. While such top of the organization elements are essential for success, many of the specific improvement efforts that are necessary must address local challenges at the work unit level (department, division, hospital ward, clinic). Uncertainty of how to address variability and the unique needs of different work units is a barrier to effective action for many health care delivery systems. Overcoming this challenge requires organizations to recognize that unit-specific improvement efforts require a system-level approach. In this manuscript, we outline 7 steps for organizations to consider as they establish the infrastructure to improve professional well-being and provide a description of application and evidence of efficacy from a large academic medical center. Such unit-level efforts to address the unique needs of each specialty and occupation at the work unit level have the ability to address many of the day-to-day issues that drive clinician well-being. An enterprise approach is necessary to systematically advance such unit-level action.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mayocp.2022.10.031

    View details for PubMedID 36603944

  • IMPACT: Evaluation of a Controlled Organizational Intervention Using Influential Peers to Promote Professional Fulfillment. Mayo Clinic proceedings Trockel, M. T., Menon, N. K., Makowski, M. S., Wen, L. Y., Roberts, R., Bohman, B. D., Shanafelt, T. D. 2022


    To determine the effects of a popular opinion leader (POL)-led organizational intervention targeting all physicians and advanced practice providers (APPs) working within clinic groups on professional fulfillment (primary outcome), gratitude, burnout, self-valuation, and turnover intent.All 20 Stanford University HealthCare Alliance clinics with ≥5 physicians-APPs were matched by size and baseline gratitude scores and randomly assigned to immediate or delayed intervention (control). Between July 10, 2018, and March 15, 2019, trained POLs and a physician-PhD study investigator facilitated 4 interactive breakfast or lunch workshops at intervention clinics, where colleagues were invited to discuss and experience one evidence-based practice (gratitude, mindfulness, cognitive, and behavioral strategies). Participants in both groups completed incentivized annual assessments of professional fulfillment, workplace gratitude, burnout, self-valuation, and intent to leave as part of ongoing organizational program evaluation.Eighty-four (75%) physicians-APPs at intervention clinics attended at least 1 workshop. Of all physicians-APPs, 236 of 251 (94%) completed assessments in 2018 and 254 of 263 (97%) in 2019. Of 264 physicians-APPs with 2018 or 2019 assessment data, 222 (84%) had completed 2017 assessments. Modal characteristics were 60% female, 46% White, 49% aged 40 to 59 years, 44% practicing family-internal medicine, 78% living with partners, and 53% with children. Change in professional fulfillment by 2019 relative to average 2017 to 2018 levels was more favorable (0.63 points; effect size = 0.35; P=.001) as were changes in gratitude and intent to leave among clinicians practicing at intervention clinics.Interventions led by respected physicians-APPs can achieve high participation rates and have potential to promote well-being among their colleagues.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mayocp.2022.06.035

    View details for PubMedID 36464536

  • Assessment of the Relationship Between an Adverse Impact of Work on Physicians' Personal Relationships and Unsolicited Patient Complaints. Mayo Clinic proceedings Trockel, J., Bohman, B., Wang, H., Cooper, W., Welle, D., Shanafelt, T. D. 2022; 97 (9): 1680-1691


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between an adverse impact of work on physicians' personal relationships and unsolicited patient complaints about physician behavior - a well-established indicator of patient care quality.PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We paired data from a physician wellness survey collected in April and May 2013 with longitudinal unsolicited patient complaint data collected independently from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2016. Unsolicited patient complaints were used to calculate the Patient Advocacy Reporting System (PARS) score, an established predictor of clinical outcomes and malpractice suits. The primary outcome was PARS score tercile. Ordinal logistic regression mixed effects models were used to assess the association between the impact of work on a physician's personal relationships and PARS scores.RESULTS: Of 2384 physicians eligible to participate, 831 (34.9%) returned surveys including 429 (51.6%) who consented for their survey responses to be linked to independent data and had associated PARS scores. In a multivariate model adjusting for gender and specialty category, each 1-point higher impact of work on personal relationships score (0-10 scale; higher score unfavorable) was associated with a 19% greater odds of being in the next higher PARS score tercile of unsolicited patient complaints (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.33) during the subsequent 4-year study period.CONCLUSION: An adverse impact of work on physicians' personal relationships is associated with independently assessed, unsolicited patient complaints. Organizational efforts to mitigate an adverse impact of work on physicians' personal relationships are warranted as part of efforts to improve the quality of patient experience and malpractice risk.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mayocp.2022.03.005

    View details for PubMedID 36058580

  • Gearing Up for a Vaccine Requirement: A Mixed Methods Study of COVID-19 Vaccine Confidence Among Workers at an Academic Medical Center. Journal of healthcare management / American College of Healthcare Executives Mahoney, M., Winget, M., Brown-Johnson, C., de Borba, L., Veruttipong, D., Luu, J., Jones, D., Bohman, B., Vilendrer, S. 2022; 67 (3): 206-220


    Assessing barriers to vaccination among healthcare workers may be particularly important given their roles in their respective communities. We conducted a mixed methods study to explore healthcare worker perspectives on receiving COVID-19 vaccines at a large multisite academic medical center.A total of 5,917 employees completed the COVID-19 vaccine confidence survey (20% response rate). Most participants were vaccinated (93%). Compared to vaccinated participants, unvaccinated participants were younger (60% < 44 years), more likely to be from a non-Asian minority group (48%), and more likely to be nonclinical employees (57% vs. 46%). Among the unvaccinated respondents, 53% indicated they would be influenced by their healthcare provider, while 19% reported that nothing would influence them to get vaccinated. Key perceived barriers to vaccination from the qualitative analysis included the need for more long-term safety and efficacy data, a belief in the right to make an individual choice, mistrust, a desire for greater public health information, personal health concerns, circumstances such as prior COVID-19 infection, and access issues.Strategies endorsed by some participants to address their concerns about safety and access included a communication campaign, personalized medicine approaches (e.g., individual appointments to discuss how the vaccine might interact with personal health conditions), and days off to recover. Mistrust and a belief in the right to make an individual choice may be harder barriers to overcome; further dialogue is needed.These findings reflect potential strategies for vaccine requirements that healthcare organizations can implement to enhance vaccine confidence. In addition, organizations can ask respected health professionals to serve as spokespeople, which may help shift the perspectives of unvaccinated healthcare workers.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/JHM-D-21-00226

    View details for PubMedID 35576446

  • Post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infections and incidence of presumptive B.1.427/B.1.429 variant among healthcare personnel at a northern California academic medical center. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Jacobson, K. B., Pinsky, B. A., Montez Rath, M. E., Wang, H., Miller, J. A., Skhiri, M., Shepard, J., Mathew, R., Lee, G., Bohman, B., Parsonnet, J., Holubar, M. 2021


    BACKGROUND: Although mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines report ≥90% efficacy, breakthrough infections occur. Little is known about the effectiveness of these vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the highly-prevalent B.1.427/B.1.429 variant in California..METHODS: In this quality improvement project, we collected demographic and clinical information from post-vaccine SARS-CoV-2 cases (PVSCs), defined as health care personnel (HCP) with positive SARS-CoV-2 NAAT after receiving ≥1 vaccine dose. Available specimens were tested for L452R, N501Y and E484K mutations by RT-PCR. Mutation prevalence was compared among unvaccinated, early post-vaccinated (<=14 days after dose 1), partially vaccinated (positive test >14 days after dose 1 and ≤14 days after dose 2) and fully vaccinated (>14 days after dose 2) PVSCs.RESULTS: From December 2020-April 2021, >=23,090 HCPS received at least1 dose of an mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and 660 HCP cases of SARS-CoV-2 occurred of which 189 were PVSCs. Among the PVSCs, 114 (60.3%), 49 (25.9%) and 26 (13.8%) were early post-vaccination, partially vaccinated, and fully vaccinated, respectively. Of 261 available samples from vaccinated and unvaccinated HCP, 103 (39.5%), including 42 PVSCs (36.5%), had L452R mutation presumed to be B.1.427/B.1.429,. When adjusted for community prevalence of B.1.427/B.1.429, PVSCs did not have significantly elevated risk for infection with B.1.427/B.1.429 compared with unvaccinated HCP.CONCLUSIONS: Most PVSCs occurred prior to expected onset of full, vaccine-derived immunity. Presumptive B.1.427/B.1.429 was not more prevalent in post-vaccine cases than in unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2 HCP. Continued infection control measures, particularly ≤14 days post-vaccination, and continued variant surveillance in PVSCs is imperative to control future SARS-CoV-2 surges.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cid/ciab554

    View details for PubMedID 34137815

  • Association of Burnout, Professional Fulfillment, and Self-care Practices of Physician Leaders With Their Independently Rated Leadership Effectiveness. JAMA network open Shanafelt, T. D., Makowski, M. S., Wang, H. n., Bohman, B. n., Leonard, M. n., Harrington, R. A., Minor, L. n., Trockel, M. n. 2020; 3 (6): e207961


    Although leadership behavior of physician supervisors is associated with the occupational well-being of the physicians they supervise, the factors associated with leadership behaviors are poorly understood.To evaluate the associations between burnout, professional fulfillment, and self-care practices of physician leaders and their independently assessed leadership behavior scores.This survey study of physicians and physician leaders at Stanford University School of Medicine (n = 1924) was conducted from April 1 to May 13, 2019. The survey included assessments of professional fulfillment, self-valuation, sleep-related impairment, and burnout. Physicians also rated the leadership behaviors of their immediate physician supervisors using a standardized assessment. Leaders' personal well-being metrics were paired with their leadership behavior scores as rated by the physicians they supervised. All assessment scores were converted to a standardized scale (range, 0-10). Data were analyzed from October 20, 2019, to March 10, 2020.Association between leaders' own well-being scores and their independently assessed leadership behavior.Of 1924 physicians invited to participate, 1285 (66.8%) returned surveys, including 67 of 117 physician leaders (57.3%). Among these respondents, 651 (50.7%) were women and 729 (56.7%) were 40 years or older. Among the 67 leaders, 57 (85.1%) had their leadership behaviors evaluated by at least 5 physicians (median, 11 [interquartile range, 9-15]) they supervised. Overall, 9.8% of the variation in leaders' aggregate leadership behavior scores was associated with their own degree of burnout. In models adjusted for age and sex, each 1-point increase in burnout score of the leaders was associated with a 0.19-point decrement in leadership behavior score (β = -0.19; 95% CI, -0.35 to -0.03; P = .02), whereas each 1-point increase in their professional fulfillment and self-valuation scores was associated with a 0.13-point (β = 0.13; 95% CI, 0.01-0.26; P = .03) and 0.15-point (β = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.02-0.29; P = .03) increase in leadership behavior score, respectively. Each 1-point increase in leaders' sleep-related impairment was associated with a 0.15-point increment in sleep-related impairment among those they supervised (β = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.02-0.29; P = .03). The associations between leaders' well-being scores in other dimensions and the corresponding well-being measures of those they supervised were not significant.In this survey study, burnout, professional fulfillment, and self-care practices of physician leaders were associated with their independently assessed leadership effectiveness. Training, skill building, and support to improve leader well-being should be considered a dimension of leadership development rather than simply a dimension of self-care.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.7961

    View details for PubMedID 32543700

  • Self-valuation: Attending to the Most Important Instrument in the Practice of Medicine. Mayo Clinic proceedings Trockel, M. T., Hamidi, M. S., Menon, N. K., Rowe, S. G., Dudley, J. C., Stewart, M. T., Geisler, C. Z., Bohman, B. D., Shanafelt, T. D. 2019


    OBJECTIVE: To measure self-valuation, involving constructive prioritization of personal well-being and a growth mindset perspective that seeks to learn and improve as the primary response to errors, in physicians and evaluate its relationship with burnout and sleep-related impairment.METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional survey data collected between July 1, 2016, and October 31, 2017, from 5 academic medical centers in the United States. All faculty and medical-staff physicians at participating organizations were invited to participate. The self-valuation scale included 4 items measured on a 5-point (0-4) Likert scale (summative score range, 0-16). The self-valuation scale was developed and pilot tested in a sample of 250 physicians before inclusion in the multisite wellness survey, which also included validated measures of burnout and sleep-related impairment.RESULTS: Of the 6189 physicians invited to participate, 3899 responded (response rate, 63.0%). Each 1-point score increase in self-valuation was associated with-1.10 point lower burnout score (95% CI,-1.16 to-1.05; standardized beta=-0.53; P<.001) and 0.81 point lower sleep-related impairment score (95% CI,-0.85 to-0.76; standardized beta=-0.47; P<.001), adjusting for sex and medical specialty. Women had lower self-valuation (Cohen d=0.30) and higher burnout (Cohen d=0.22) than men. Lower self-valuation scores in women accounted for most of the sex difference in burnout.CONCLUSION: Low self-valuation among physicians is associated with burnout and sleep-related impairment. Further research is warranted to develop and test interventions that increase self-valuation as a mechanism to improve physician well-being.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mayocp.2019.04.040

    View details for PubMedID 31543254

  • Associations Between Dietary Patterns and Sleep-Related Impairment in a Cohort of Community Physicians: A Cross-sectional Study AMERICAN JOURNAL OF LIFESTYLE MEDICINE Hamidi, M. S., Shanafelt, T. D., Hausel, A., Bohman, B. D., Roberts, R., Trockel, M. T. 2019
  • Estimating institutional physician turnover attributable to self-reported burnout and associated financial burden: a case study. BMC health services research Hamidi, M. S., Bohman, B., Sandborg, C., Smith-Coggins, R., de Vries, P., Albert, M. S., Murphy, M. L., Welle, D., Trockel, M. T. 2018; 18 (1): 851


    BACKGROUND: Awareness of the economic cost of physician attrition due to burnout in academic medical centers may help motivate organizational level efforts to improve physician wellbeing and reduce turnover. Our objectives are: 1) to use a recent longitudinal data as a case example to examine the associations between physician self-reported burnout, intent to leave (ITL) and actual turnover within two years, and 2) to estimate the cost of physician turnover attributable to burnout.METHODS: We used de-identified data from 472 physicians who completed a quality improvement survey conducted in 2013 at two Stanford University affiliated hospitals to assess physician wellness. To maintain the confidentially of survey responders, potentially identifiable demographic variables were not used in this analysis. A third party custodian of the data compiled turnover data in 2015 using medical staff roster. We used logistic regression to adjust for potentially confounding factors.RESULTS: At baseline, 26% of physicians reported experiencing burnout and 28% reported ITL within the next 2years. Two years later, 13% of surveyed physicians had actually left. Those who reported ITL were more than three times as likely to have left. Physicians who reported experiencing burnout were more than twice as likely to have left the institution within the two-year period (Relative Risk (RR)=2.1; 95% CI=1.3-3.3). After adjusting for surgical specialty, work hour categories, sleep-related impairment, anxiety, and depression in a logistic regression model, physicians who experienced burnout in 2013 had 168% higher odds (Odds Ratio=2.68, 95% CI: 1.34-5.38) of leaving Stanford by 2015 compared to those who did not experience burnout. The estimated two-year recruitment cost incurred due to departure attributable to burnout was between $15,544,000 and $55,506,000. Risk of ITL attributable to burnout was 3.7 times risk of actual turnover attributable to burnout.CONCLUSIONS: Institutions interested in the economic cost of turnover attributable to burnout can readily calculate this parameter using survey data linked to a subsequent indicator of departure from the institution. ITL data in cross-sectional studies can also be used with an adjustment factor to correct for overestimation of risk of intent to leave attributable to burnout.

    View details for PubMedID 30477483

  • Building a Program on Well-Being: Key Design Considerations to Meet the Unique Needs of Each Organization. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges Shanafelt, T., Trockel, M., Ripp, J., Murphy, M. L., Sandborg, C., Bohman, B. 2018


    The current health care practice environment has resulted in a crescendo of burnout among physicians, nurses, and advanced practice providers. Burnout among health care professionals is primarily caused by organizational factors rather than problems with personal resilience. Four major drivers motivate health care leaders to build well-being programs: the moral-ethical case (caring for their people), the business case (cost of turnover and lower quality), the tragic case (a physician suicide), and the regulatory case (accreditation requirements). Ultimately, health care provider burnout harms patients. The authors discuss the purpose; scope; structure and resources; metrics of success; and a framework for action for organizational well-being programs. The purpose such a program is to oversee organizational efforts to reduce the occupational risk for burnout, cultivate professional well-being among health care professionals and, in turn, optimize the function of health care systems. The program should measure, benchmark, and longitudinally assess these domains. The successful program will develop deep expertise regarding the drivers of professional fulfillment among health care professionals; an approach to evaluate system flaws and relevant dimensions of organizational culture; and knowledge and experience with specific tactics to foster improvement. Different professional disciplines have both shared challenges and unique needs. Effective programs acknowledge and address these differences rather than ignore them. Ultimately, a professional workforce with low burnout and high professional fulfillment is vital to providing the best care to patients. Vanguard institutions have embraced this understanding and are pursuing health care provider well-being as a core organizational strategy.

    View details for PubMedID 30134268

  • What Do We Mean by Physician Wellness? A Systematic Review of Its Definition and Measurement ACADEMIC PSYCHIATRY Brady, K. S., Trockel, M. T., Khan, C. T., Raj, K. S., Murphy, M., Bohman, B., Frank, E., Louie, A. K., Roberts, L. 2018; 42 (1): 94–108


    Physician wellness (well-being) is recognized for its intrinsic importance and impact on patient care, but it is a construct that lacks conceptual clarity. The authors conducted a systematic review to characterize the conceptualization of physician wellness in the literature by synthesizing definitions and measures used to operationalize the construct.A total of 3057 references identified from PubMed, Web of Science, and a manual reference check were reviewed for studies that quantitatively assessed the "wellness" or "well-being" of physicians. Definitions of physician wellness were thematically synthesized. Measures of physician wellness were classified based on their dimensional, contextual, and valence attributes, and changes in the operationalization of physician wellness were assessed over time (1989-2015).Only 14% of included papers (11/78) explicitly defined physician wellness. At least one measure of mental, social, physical, and integrated well-being was present in 89, 50, 49, and 37% of papers, respectively. The number of papers operationalizing physician wellness using integrated, general-life well-being measures (e.g., meaning in life) increased [X 2 = 5.08, p = 0.02] over time. Changes in measurement across mental, physical, and social domains remained stable over time.Conceptualizations of physician wellness varied widely, with greatest emphasis on negative moods/emotions (e.g., burnout). Clarity and consensus regarding the conceptual definition of physician wellness is needed to advance the development of valid and reliable physician wellness measures, improve the consistency by which the construct is operationalized, and increase comparability of findings across studies. To guide future physician wellness assessments and interventions, the authors propose a holistic definition.

    View details for PubMedID 28913621

  • A Brief Instrument to Assess Both Burnout and Professional Fulfillment in Physicians: Reliability and Validity, Including Correlation with Self-Reported Medical Errors, in a Sample of Resident and Practicing Physicians. Academic psychiatry : the journal of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training and the Association for Academic Psychiatry Trockel, M. n., Bohman, B. n., Lesure, E. n., Hamidi, M. S., Welle, D. n., Roberts, L. n., Shanafelt, T. n. 2017


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Professional Fulfillment Index (PFI), a 16-item instrument to assess physicians' professional fulfillment and burnout, designed for sensitivity to change attributable to interventions or other factors affecting physician well-being.A sample of 250 physicians completed the PFI, a measure of self-reported medical errors, and previously validated measures including the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), a one-item burnout measure, the World Health Organization's abbreviated quality of life assessment (WHOQOL-BREF), and PROMIS short-form depression, anxiety, and sleep-related impairment scales. Between 2 and 3 weeks later, 227 (91%) repeated the PFI and the sleep-related impairment scale.Principal components analysis justified PFI subscales for professional fulfillment, work exhaustion, and interpersonal disengagement. Test-retest reliability estimates were 0.82 for professional fulfillment (α = 0.91), 0.80 for work exhaustion (α = 0.86), 0.71 for interpersonal disengagement (α = 0.92), and 0.80 for overall burnout (α = 0.92). PFI burnout measures correlated highly (r ≥ 0.50) with their closest related MBI equivalents. Cohen's d effect size differences in self-reported medical errors for high versus low burnout classified using the PFI and the MBI were 0.55 and 0.44, respectively. PFI scales correlated in expected directions with sleep-related impairment, depression, anxiety, and WHOQOL-BREF scores. PFI scales demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to detect expected effects of a two-point (range 8-40) change in sleep-related impairment.PFI scales have good performance characteristics including sensitivity to change and offer a novel contribution by assessing professional fulfillment in addition to burnout.

    View details for PubMedID 29196982

  • Novel Metrics for Improving Professional Fulfillment. Annals of internal medicine DiAngi, Y. T., Lee, T. C., Sinsky, C. A., Bohman, B. D., Sharp, C. D. 2017; 167 (10): 740–41

    View details for PubMedID 29052698

  • Financial Incentives for Medical Assistants: A Mixed-Methods Exploration of Bonus Structures, Motivation, and Population Health Quality Measures. Annals of family medicine Vilendrer, S., Brown-Johnson, C., Kling, S. M., Veruttipong, D., Amano, A., Bohman, B., Daines, W. P., Overton, D., Srivastava, R., Asch, S. M. 2021; 19 (5): 427-436


    PURPOSE: Medical assistants (MAs) have seen their roles expand as a result of team-based primary care models. Unlike their physician counterparts, MAs rarely receive financial incentives as a part of their compensation. This exploratory study aims to understand MA acceptability of financial incentives and perceived MA control over common population health measures.METHODS: We conducted semistructured focus groups between August and December of 2019 across 10 clinics affiliated with 3 institutions in California and Utah. MAs' perceptions of experienced and hypothetical financial incentives, their potential influence on workflow processes, and perceived levels of control over population health measures were discussed, recorded, and qualitatively analyzed for emerging themes. Perceived levels of control were further quantified using a Likert survey; measures were grouped into factors representing vaccinations, and workflow completed in the same day or multiple days (multiday). Mean scores for each factor were compared using repeated 1-way ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer adjustment.RESULTS: MAs reported little direct experience with financial incentives. They indicated that a hypothetical bonus representing 2% to 3% of their average annual base pay would be acceptable and influential in improving consistent performance during patient rooming workflow. MAs reported having greater perceived control over vaccinations (P <.001) and same-day measures (P <.001) as compared with multiday measures.CONCLUSIONS: MAs perceived that relatively small financial incentives would increase their motivation and quality of care. Our findings suggests target measures should focus on MA work processes that are completed in the same day as the patient encounter, particularly vaccinations. Future investigation is needed to understand the effectiveness of MA financial incentives in practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1370/afm.2719

    View details for PubMedID 34546949

  • Associations Between Dietary Patterns and Sleep-Related Impairment in a Cohort of Community Physicians: A Cross-sectional Study. American journal of lifestyle medicine Makowski, M. S., Shanafelt, T. D., Hausel, A., Bohman, B. D., Roberts, R., Trockel, M. T. 2019; 15 (6): 644-652


    There is increasing evidence that diet can mitigate fatigue. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between dietary habits and sleep-related impairment (SRI) in a cohort of community physicians. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from 245 physicians who had completed a wellness survey in March 2016 (98% response rate). Three dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis: plant based, high protein, and high saturated fat and sugar. In the adjusted analysis, every SD increase in the plant-based dietary pattern score was associated with a 0.71-point decrease (β = -0.72; SE = 0.32; P = .027; 95% CI = -1.35 to -0.08) in the SRI score, and every SD increase in the high saturated fat and sugar dietary pattern score was associated with a 0.77-point increase (β = 0.77; SE = 0.32; P = .015; 95% CI = 0.15 to 1.39) in the SRI score. There were no associations between high protein diets and SRI scores. Physicians adhering to diets that are high in plant-based foods and low in saturated fat and added sugars had less SRI. Physicians currently face significant barriers to maintaining a healthy diet. This study highlights the potential role of workplace nutrition on SRI and work performance of physicians.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1559827619871923

    View details for PubMedID 34916885

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8669895

  • Building a Program on Well-Being: Key Design Considerations to Meet the Unique Needs of Each Organization ACADEMIC MEDICINE Shanafelt, T., Trockel, M., Ripp, J., Murphy, M., Sandborg, C., Bohman, B. 2019; 94 (2): 156–61
  • Estimating institutional physician turnover attributable to self-reported burnout and associated financial burden: a case study BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH Hamidi, M. S., Bohman, B., Sandborg, C., Smith-Coggins, R., de Vries, P., Albert, M. S., Murphy, M., Welle, D., Trockel, M. T. 2018; 18

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AKL4700039

    View details for PubMedID 18749668

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1305963

  • A PATIENT WITH POLYURIA AND HYPONATREMIA KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Jamison, R. L., Bohman, B., Marshall, W. H., Berns, A., Coe, F., Donohoe, J., Glynn, J., Muldowney, F., Vinay, P., Bushinsky, D., McCoy, C. E., Madias, N. E., Harrington, J. T., Cohen, J. J. 1983; 24 (2): 256-267

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983RF32200016

    View details for PubMedID 6632525



    The apparent rate of acetylcholine (ACh) turnover and levels of ACh and choline (Ch) in whole mouse brain were examined 30 min following i.p. injection of 25 mg/kg of three tricyclic antidepressants (TAD's): amitriptyline, chlorimipramine, and imipramine. The effects of these agents on high affinity choline uptake (HACU), a rate-limiting, regulatory step in ACh synthesis, were also examined. All three TAD's inhibited ACh turnover (by 27-40%), increased Ch levels (by 33-37%), and inhibited HACU (IC50's from 1.7 - 6.8 X 10(-5) M). Two of the three drugs produced significant decreases in ACh levels. It is concluded that these agents possess anticholinergic activity which is independent of their previously demonstrated muscarinic receptor blocking capabilities. As substantial evidence has accumulated linking increased cholinergic function with depression, it is speculated that this additional anticholinergic activity may contribute to the clinical efficacy of the TAD's.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982NE53200007

    View details for PubMedID 7073400

  • Effects of tricyclic antidepressants on muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding in rat brain Life Sciences Bohman, B., Halaris, A., Karbowski, M. 1981; 29: 29