Clinical Focus


  • Anesthesia

Professional Education


  • Residency: Stanford University Anesthesiology Residency (2020) CA
  • Internship: Stanford University Internal Medicine Residency (2017) CA
  • Medical Education: Case Western Reserve School of Medicine (2016) OH

All Publications


  • Topical analgesic BENGAY reduces myocardial infarct size in rodents. British journal of anaesthesia Goodnough, C. L., Wu, Y., Gross, E. R. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bja.2021.07.029

    View details for PubMedID 34503834

  • Anesthetic Management of Adults With Epidermolysis Bullosa. Anesthesia and analgesia Mittal, B. M., Goodnough, C. L., Bushell, E., Turkmani-Bazzi, S., Sheppard, K. 2021

    Abstract

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of rare, inherited diseases characterized by skin fragility and multiorgan system involvement that presents many anesthetic challenges. Although the literature regarding anesthetic management focuses primarily on the pediatric population, as life expectancy improves, adult patients with EB are more frequently undergoing anesthesia in nonpediatric hospital settings. Safe anesthetic management of adult patients with EB requires familiarity with the complex and heterogeneous nature of this disease, especially with regard to complications that may worsen during adulthood. General, neuraxial, and regional anesthetics have all been used safely in patients with EB. A thorough preoperative evaluation is essential. Preoperative testing should be guided by EB subtype, clinical manifestations, and extracutaneous complications. Advanced planning and multidisciplinary coordination are necessary with regard to timing and operative plan. Meticulous preparation of the operating room and education of all perioperative staff members is critical. Intraoperatively, utmost care must be taken to avoid all adhesives, shear forces, and friction to the skin and mucosa. Special precautions must be taken with patient positioning, and standard anesthesia monitors must be modified. Airway management is often difficult, and progressive airway deterioration can occur in adults with EB over time. A smooth induction, emergence, and postoperative course are necessary to minimize blister formation from excess patient movement. With careful planning, preparation, and precautions, adult patients with EB can safely undergo anesthesia.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005706

    View details for PubMedID 34403382

  • IcyHot analgesic topical cream limits cardiac injury in rodents. Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine Wu, Y., Chen, A. W., Goodnough, C. L., Lu, Y., Zhang, Y., Gross, E. R. 2020

    Abstract

    Little is known whether topical analgesic creams, whose natural products enter the blood stream after application, affect myocardial infarct size. Here we tested whether topical analgesic creams can trigger remote cardioprotection and the mechanism involved. Male Sprague Dawley rats were used for an in vivo rodent model consisting of 30 minutes left anterior descending coronary artery ischemia and 2 hours of reperfusion followed by infarct size assessment. The topical analgesic IcyHot, applied to the abdomen prior to ischemia, reduced myocardial infarct size versus control (41±3* versus 62±1, n=6/group, *P<0.001). In contrast, the topical analgesic creams Preparation H, Aspercreme Heat, or Tiger Balm did not alter infarct size. IcyHot, unlike Preparation H, increased circulating methyl salicylate levels during reperfusion (3.0± 0.6 versus 0.4±0.2 mg/dL, n=6, *P<0.001, measured at the internal jugular vein). Methyl salicylate (10muM) applied to isolated adult cardiac myocytes during reoxygenation reduced cell death when compared to vehicle (21±2%* versus 30±2% of trypan blue positive cells, n=9/group, *P<0.01). Further, treatment with the TRPA1 inhibitors TCS-5861528 (1muM) or AP-18 (1muM) blocked the methyl salicylate-induced protective effect in isolated adult cardiomyocytes. In intact rodents, either of the TRPA1 inhibitors (1mg/kg, intravenous) given prior to IcyHot topical application blocked IcyHot-induced infarct size reduction. IcyHot also reduced infarct size when applied 24 hours prior to myocardial ischemia or during myocardial ischemia versus control. Together, these findings support IcyHot analgesic cream can trigger remote cardioprotection through releasing methyl salicylate into the bloodstream with cardioprotection occurring by a TRPA1-dependent mechanism.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.trsl.2020.06.009

    View details for PubMedID 32629175

  • Precision Medicine Considerations for the Management of Heart Disease and Stroke in East Asians. Cardiology plus Goodnough, C. L., Gross, E. R. 2020; 5 (3): 101–8

    Abstract

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in Asian Americans. Importantly, people of East Asian descent are more likely to carry a loss-of-function point mutation in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), ALDH2*2, which reduces ALDH2 enzymatic activity by at least 40% relative to wild type ALDH2. Given the role of ALDH2 in removing toxic aldehydes from the cell, ALDH2 is intimately involved in the cardioprotective mechanisms of ischemic preconditioning and the pathophysiology of ischemia reperfusion injury. The ALDH2*2 variant is associated with an increased incidence of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Furthermore, this variant is associated with insensitivity to nitroglycerin, which is commonly prescribed in patients with cardiovascular disease. In this review, we discuss the genetic susceptibility and pathophysiology associated with the ALDH2*2 variant in regards to cardiovascular disease. We also present the considerations for the management of heart disease and stroke specific to East Asians carrying the ALDH2*2 genetic variant.

    View details for DOI 10.4103/cp.cp_17_20

    View details for PubMedID 33954271