Dr. Carolyn Dacey Seib is a fellowship-trained endocrine surgeon and board certified general surgeon. Her practice is focused on surgery of the thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands.

Dr. Seib has clinical and research expertise in the surgical management of endocrine disorders in older adults, including primary hyperparathyroidism, thyroid cancer, and hyperthyroidism. Dr. Seib completed her undergraduate education at Princeton University, graduating summa cum laude in 2004. She received her M.D. at the New York University School of Medicine and then attended residency in General Surgery at UCSF. Dr. Seib also completed a fellowship in Endocrine Surgery at UCSF, during which she cared for patients with complex disorders of the thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands.

Dr. Seib focuses on providing individualized care for patients with thyroid malignancy, hyperthyroidism, primary hyperparathyroidism, and adrenal disorders. She has received funding from the National Institute on Aging and the American Thyroid Association to study the surgical management of endocrine disorders in older adults and has a number of peer-reviewed journal publications on this topic that have received national attention, including being featured in the New York Times.

Clinical Focus

  • Endocrine Surgery
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Thyroid Nodules
  • Primary Hyperparathyroidism
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Primary Aldosteronism
  • Adrenal Cushing's Syndrome
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • General Surgery

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Medical Education: NYU Grossman School of Medicine (2009) NY
  • Board Certification: American Board of Surgery, General Surgery (2017)
  • Fellowship: UCSF Endocrine Surgery Fellowship (2017) CA
  • Residency: UCSF General Surgery Residency (2016) CA

All Publications

  • Estimated Effect of Parathyroidectomy on Long-Term Kidney Function in Adults With Primary Hyperparathyroidism. Annals of internal medicine Seib, C. D., Ganesan, C., Tamura, M. K. 2023; 176 (11): eL230280

    View details for DOI 10.7326/L23-0280

    View details for PubMedID 37983791

  • Operative Management of Thyroid Disease in Older Adults. Journal of the Endocrine Society Kim, J., Seib, C. D. 2023; 7 (7): bvad070


    As the population ages, both domestically and globally, clinicians will increasingly find themselves navigating treatment decisions for thyroid disease in older adults. When considering surgical treatment, individualizing risk assessment is particularly important, as older patients can present with very different health profiles. While fit, independent individuals may benefit from thyroidectomy with minimal risk, those with multiple comorbidities and poor functional status are at higher risk of perioperative complications, which can have adverse health effects and detract from long-term quality of life. In order to optimize surgical outcomes for older adults, strategies for accurate risk assessment and mitigation are being explored. Surgical decision-making also should consider the characteristics of the thyroid disease being treated, given many benign thyroid disorders and some well-differentiated thyroid cancers can be appropriately managed nonoperatively without compromising longevity. Shared decision-making becomes increasingly important to respect the health priorities and optimize outcomes for older adults with thyroid disease. This review summarizes the current knowledge of thyroid surgery in older adults to help inform decision-making among patients and their physicians.

    View details for DOI 10.1210/jendso/bvad070

    View details for PubMedID 37324534

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10267953

  • A Contemporary Review of the Treatment of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma in the Era of New Drug Therapies. Surgical oncology clinics of North America Seib, C. D., Beck, T. C., Kebebew, E. 2023; 32 (2): 233-250


    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor that can be sporadic or inherited and is often associated with mutations in the RET (Rearranged during Transfection) oncogene. The primary treatment for MTC is surgical resection of all suspected disease, but recent advances in targeted therapies for MTC, including the selective RET inhibitors selpercatinib and pralsetinib, have led to changes in the management of patients with locally advanced, metastatic, or recurrent MTC. In this article, we review updates on the evaluation and management of patients with MTC, focusing on new and emerging therapies that are likely to improve patient outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.soc.2022.10.002

    View details for PubMedID 36925182

  • Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes Among Older Adults with Primary Hyperparathyroidism Treated with Parathyroidectomy vs. non-operative Management. Annals of surgery Seib, C. D., Meng, T., Cisco, R. M., Suh, I., Lin, D. T., Harris, A. H., Trickey, A. W., Tamura, M. K., Kebebew, E. 2022


    We sought to compare the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events in older adults with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) treated with parathyroidectomy versus non-operative management.PHPT is a common endocrine disorder that is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, but it is not known whether parathyroidectomy reduces the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events.We conducted a population-based, longitudinal cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with PHPT (2006-2017). Multivariable, inverse probability weighted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the associations of parathyroidectomy with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), cardiovascular disease-related hospitalization, and cardiovascular hospitalization-associated mortality.We identified 210,206 beneficiaries diagnosed with PHPT from 2006-2017. Among 63,136 (30.0%) treated with parathyroidectomy and 147,070 (70.0%) managed non-operatively within one year of diagnosis, the unadjusted incidence of MACE was 10.0% (mean follow-up 59.1 [SD 35.6] months) and 11.5% (mean follow-up 54.1 [SD 34.0] months), respectively. In multivariable analysis, parathyroidectomy was associated with a lower incidence of MACE (HR 0.92 [95%CI 0.90-0.94]), cardiovascular disease-related hospitalization (HR 0.89 [95%CI 0.87-0.91]), and cardiovascular hospitalization-associated mortality (HR 0.76 [95%CI 0.71-0.81]) compared to non-operative management. At 10 years, parathyroidectomy was associated with adjusted absolute risk reduction for MACE of 1.7% (95%CI 1.3%-2.1%), for cardiovascular disease-related hospitalization of 2.5% (95%CI 2.1%-2.9%), and for cardiovascular hospitalization-associated mortality of 1.4% (95%CI 1.2%-1.6%).In this large, population-based cohort study, parathyroidectomy was associated with a lower long-term incidence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes when compared with non-operative management for older adults with PHPT, which is relevant to surgical decision-making for patients with a long life expectancy.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SLA.0000000000005691

    View details for PubMedID 36005546

  • Risk of Fracture Among Older Adults With Primary Hyperparathyroidism Receiving Parathyroidectomy vs Nonoperative Management. JAMA internal medicine Seib, C. D., Meng, T., Suh, I., Harris, A. H., Covinsky, K. E., Shoback, D. M., Trickey, A. W., Kebebew, E., Tamura, M. K. 2021


    Importance: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) contributes to the development and progression of osteoporosis in older adults. The effectiveness of parathyroidectomy for reducing fracture risk in older adults is unknown.Objective: To compare the incidence of clinical fracture among older adults with PHPT treated with parathyroidectomy vs nonoperative management.Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a population-based, longitudinal cohort study of all Medicare beneficiaries with PHPT from 2006 to 2017. Multivariable, inverse probability weighted Cox proportional hazards and Fine-Gray competing risk regression models were constructed to determine the association of parathyroidectomy vs nonoperative management with incident fracture. Data analysis was conducted from February 17, 2021, to September 14, 2021.Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was clinical fracture at any anatomic site not associated with major trauma during the follow-up period.Results: Among the 210 206 Medicare beneficiaries with PHPT (mean [SD] age, 75 [6.8] years; 165 637 [78.8%] women; 183 433 [87.3%] White individuals), 63 136 (30.0%) underwent parathyroidectomy within 1 year of diagnosis, and 147 070 (70.0%) were managed nonoperatively. During a mean (SD) follow-up period of 58.5 (35.5) months, the unadjusted incidence of fracture was 10.2% in patients treated with parathyroidectomy. During a mean (SD) follow-up of 52.5 (33.8) months, the unadjusted incidence of fracture was 13.7% in patients observed nonoperatively. On multivariable analysis, parathyroidectomy was associated with lower adjusted rates of any fracture (hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.76-0.80]) and hip fracture (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.72-0.79). At 2, 5, and 10 years, parathyroidectomy was associated with adjusted absolute fracture risk reduction of 1.2% (95% CI, 1.0-1.4), 2.8% (95% CI, 2.5-3.1), and 5.1% (95% CI, 4.6-5.5), respectively, compared with nonoperative management. On subgroup analysis, there were no significant differences in the association of parathyroidectomy with fracture risk by age group, sex, frailty, history of osteoporosis, or meeting operative guidelines. Fine-Gray competing risk regression confirmed parathyroidectomy was associated with a lower probability of any fracture and hip fracture when accounting for the competing risk of death (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.82-0.85; and HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.80-0.85, respectively).Conclusions and Relevance: This longitudinal cohort study found that parathyroidectomy was associated with a lower risk of any fracture and hip fracture among older adults with PHPT, suggesting a clinically meaningful benefit of operative management in this population.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.6437

    View details for PubMedID 34842909

  • Patient Factors Associated With Parathyroidectomy in Older Adults With Primary Hyperparathyroidism. JAMA surgery Seib, C. D., Suh, I., Meng, T., Trickey, A., Smith, A. K., Finlayson, E., Covinsky, K. E., Kurella Tamura, M., Kebebew, E. 2021


    Importance: Parathyroidectomy provides definitive management for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), reducing the risk of subsequent fracture, nephrolithiasis, and chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its use among older adults in the US is unknown.Objective: To identify patient characteristics associated with the use of parathyroidectomy for the management of PHPT in older adults.Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based, retrospective cohort study used 100% Medicare claims from beneficiaries with an initial diagnosis of PHPT from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2016. Patients were considered to meet consensus guideline criteria for parathyroidectomy based on diagnosis codes indicating osteoporosis, nephrolithiasis, or stage 3 CKD. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify patient characteristics associated with parathyroidectomy. Data were analyzed from February 11, 2020, to October 8, 2020.Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was parathyroidectomy within 1 year of diagnosis.Results: Among 210 206 beneficiaries with an incident diagnosis of PHPT (78.8% women; mean [SD] age, 75.3 [6.8] years), 63 136 (30.0%) underwent parathyroidectomy within 1 year of diagnosis. Among the subset of patients who met consensus guideline criteria for operative management (n=131 723), 38 983 (29.6%) were treated with parathyroidectomy. Patients treated operatively were younger (mean [SD] age, 73.5 [5.7] vs 76.0 [7.1] years) and more likely to be White (90.1% vs 86.0%), to be robust or prefrail (92.1% vs 85.7%), and to have fewer comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 0 or 1, 54.6% vs 44.1%), in addition to being more likely to live in socioeconomically disadvantaged (46.9% vs 40.3%) and rural (18.1% vs 13.6%) areas (all P<.001). On multivariable analysis, increasing age had a strong inverse association with parathyroidectomy among patients aged 76 to 85 years (unadjusted rate, 25.9%; odds ratio [OR], 0.68 [95% CI, 0.67-0.70]) and older than 85 years (unadjusted rate, 11.2%; OR, 0.27 [95% CI, 0.26-0.29]) compared with those aged 66 to 75 years (unadjusted rate, 35.6%), as did patients with moderate to severe frailty (unadjusted rate, 18.9%; OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.56-0.64]) compared with robust patients (unadjusted rate, 36.1%) and those with a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 2 or greater (unadjusted rate, 25.9%; OR, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.75-0.79]) compared with a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 0 (unadjusted rate, 37.0%). With regard to operative guidelines, a history of nephrolithiasis increased the odds of parathyroidectomy (OR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.39-1.47]); stage 3 CKD decreased the odds of parathyroidectomy (OR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.68-0.74]); and osteoporosis showed no association (OR, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.99-1.03]).Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, most older adults with PHPT did not receive definitive treatment with parathyroidectomy. Older age, frailty, and multimorbidity were associated with nonoperative management, and guideline recommendations had minimal effect on treatment decisions. Further research is needed to identify barriers to surgical care and develop tools to target parathyroidectomy to older adults most likely to benefit.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2020.6175

    View details for PubMedID 33404646

  • Disparities in access to high-volume parathyroid surgeons in the United States: A call to action. Surgery Wright, K., Squires, S., Cisco, R., Trickey, A., Kebebew, E., Suh, I., Seib, C. D. 2023


    Parathyroidectomy by a high-volume surgeon is associated with a reduced risk of perioperative complications and of failure to cure primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. There are limited data on disparities in access to high-volume parathyroid surgeons in the United States.We used publicly available 2019 Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment data to identify all surgeons who performed >10 parathyroidectomies for Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries, anticipating that fee-for-service beneficiaries likely represent only a subset of their high-volume practices. High-volume parathyroid surgeon characteristics and geographic distribution were evaluated. Inequality in the distribution of surgeons was measured by the Gini coefficient. The association between neighborhood disadvantage, based on the Area Deprivation Index, and proximity to high-volume parathyroid surgeons was evaluated using a one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons. A sensitivity analysis was performed restricting to high-volume parathyroid surgeons within each hospital referral region, evidence-based regional markets for tertiary medical care.We identified 445 high-volume parathyroid surgeons who met inclusion criteria with >10 parathyroidectomies for Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries. High-volume parathyroid surgeons were 71% male sex, and 59.8% were general surgeons. High-volume parathyroid surgeons were more likely to practice in a Metropolitan Statistical Area with a population >1 million than in less populous metropolitan or rural areas. The number of high-volume parathyroid surgeons per 100,000 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries in the 53 most populous Metropolitan Statistical Areas ranged from 0 to 4.94, with the highest density identified in Salt Lake City, Utah. In 2019, 50% of parathyroidectomies performed by high-volume parathyroid surgeons were performed by 20% of surgeons in this group, suggesting unequal distribution of surgical care (Gini coefficient 0.41). Patients in disadvantaged neighborhoods were farther from high-volume parathyroid surgeons than those in advantaged neighborhoods (median distance: disadvantaged 27.8 miles, partially disadvantaged 20.7 miles, partially advantaged 12.1 miles, advantaged 8.4 miles; P < .001). This association was also shown in the analysis of distance to high-volume parathyroid surgeons within the hospital referral region (P < .001).Older adults living in disadvantaged neighborhoods have less access to high-volume parathyroid surgeons, which may adversely affect treatment and outcomes for patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. This disparity highlights the need for actionable strategies to provide equitable access to care, including improved regionalization of high-volume parathyroid surgeon services and easing travel-related burdens for underserved patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2023.03.028

    View details for PubMedID 37940435

  • Estimated Effect of Parathyroidectomy on Long-Term Kidney Function in Adults With Primary Hyperparathyroidism ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Seib, C. D., Ganesan, C., Tamura, M. 2023; 176 (11): eL230279

    View details for DOI 10.7326/L23-0279

    View details for Web of Science ID 001155935800007

    View details for PubMedID 37983793

  • Estimated Effect of Parathyroidectomy on Long-Term Kidney Function in Adults With Primary Hyperparathyroidism. Annals of internal medicine Seib, C. D., Ganesan, C., Furst, A., Pao, A. C., Chertow, G. M., Leppert, J. T., Suh, I., Montez-Rath, M. E., Harris, A. H., Trickey, A. W., Kebebew, E., Tamura, M. K. 2023


    BACKGROUND: Multidisciplinary guidelines recommend parathyroidectomy to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60mL/min/1.73 m2. Limited data address the effect of parathyroidectomy on long-term kidney function.OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of a sustained decline in eGFR of at least 50% among patients with PHPT treated with parathyroidectomy versus nonoperative management.DESIGN: Target trial emulation was done using observational data from adults with PHPT, using an extended Cox model with time-varying inverse probability weighting.SETTING: Veterans Health Administration.PATIENTS: Patients with a new biochemical diagnosis of PHPT in 2000 to 2019.MEASUREMENTS: Sustained decline of at least 50% from pretreatment eGFR.RESULTS: Among 43697 patients with PHPT (mean age, 66.8years), 2928 (6.7%) had a decline of at least 50% in eGFR over a median follow-up of 4.9years. The weighted cumulative incidence of eGFR decline was 5.1% at 5years and 10.8% at 10 years in patients managed with parathyroidectomy, compared with 5.1% and 12.0%, respectively, in those managed nonoperatively. The adjusted hazard of eGFR decline did not differ between parathyroidectomy and nonoperative management (hazard ratio [HR], 0.98 [95% CI, 0.82 to 1.16]). Subgroup analyses found no heterogeneity of treatment effect based on pretreatment kidney function. Parathyroidectomy was associated with a reduced hazard of the primary outcome among patients younger than 60years (HR, 0.75 [CI, 0.59 to 0.93]) that was not evident among those aged 60years or older (HR, 1.08 [CI, 0.87 to 1.34]).LIMITATION: Analyses were done in a predominantly male cohort using observational data.CONCLUSION: Parathyroidectomy had no effect on long-term kidney function in older adults with PHPT. Potential benefits related to kidney function should not be the primary consideration for PHPT treatment decisions.PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institute on Aging.

    View details for DOI 10.7326/M22-2222

    View details for PubMedID 37037034

  • Increased Risk of Complications Associated With Concurrent Parathyroidectomy in Patients Undergoing Total Thyroidectomy. The Journal of surgical research Cisco, R., Arnow, K., Barreto, N., Lin, D., Kebebew, E., Seib, C. 2023; 288: 275-281


    We sought to investigate the association of concurrent parathyroidectomy (PTX) with risks of total thyroidectomy (TTX) through analysis of Collaborative Endocrine Surgery Quality Improvement Program data. TTXis a common operation with complications including recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, neck hematoma, and hypoparathyroidism. A subset of patients undergoing thyroidectomy undergoes planned concurrent PTX for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism. There are limited data on the risk profile of TTX with concurrent PTX (TTX + PTX).We queried the Collaborative Endocrine Surgery Quality Improvement Program database for patients who underwent TTX or TTX + PTX from January 2014 through April 2020. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to predict hypoparathyroidism, vocal cord dysfunction, neck hematoma, and postoperative emergency department visit. Covariates included patient demographics, patient body mass index, indication for surgery, central neck dissection, anticoagulation use, and surgeon volume.Thirteen thousand six hundred forty seven patients underwent TTX and 654 patients underwent TTX + PTX. Unadjusted rates of hypoparathyroidism were higher in TTX + PTX patients at 30 d (9.6% versus 7.4%, P = 0.04) and 6 mo (7.9% versus 3.1%, P < 0.001). On multivariable regression, TTX + PTX was associated with an increased risk of hypoparathyroidism at 30 d (odds ratio [OR] 2.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.57-2.79) and 6 mo (OR 4.63, 95% CI 3.06-7.00) and an increased risk of postoperative emergency department visit (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.20-2.31). TTX + PTX was not associated with recurrent laryngeal nerve injury or neck hematoma.Concurrent PTX in patients undergoing TTX is associated with increased risk of immediate and long-term hypoparathyroidism, which should be considered in informed consent discussions and operative decision-making.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2023.02.036

    View details for PubMedID 37043874

  • Risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism requiring calcitriol therapy in a population-based cohort of adults older than 65 undergoing total thyroidectomy for Graves' disease. Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association Seib, C. D., Meng, T., Cisco, R. M., Lin, D. T., McAninch, E. A., Chen, J., Tamura, M. K., Trickey, A. W., Kebebew, E. 2022


    Total thyroidectomy for Graves' disease (GD) is associated with rapid treatment of hyperthyroidism and low recurrence rates. However, it carries the risk of surgical complications including permanent hypoparathyroidism, which contribute to long-term impaired quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism requiring calcitriol therapy among a population-based cohort of older adults undergoing total thyroidectomy for GD in the U.S.We performed a population-based cohort study using 100% Medicare claims from beneficiaries older than 65 with GD who underwent total thyroidectomy from 2007 to 2017. We required continuous enrollment in Medicare Parts A, B, and D for 12 months before and after surgery to ensure access to comprehensive claims data. Patients were excluded if they had a preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer or were on long-term preoperative calcitriol. Our primary outcome was permanent hypoparathyroidism, which was identified based on persistent use of calcitriol between 6-12 months following thyroidectomy. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify characteristics associated with permanent hypoparathyroidism, including patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, neighborhood disadvantage, Charlson-Deyo Comorbidity Index, urban or rural residence, and frailty.We identified 4,650 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for GD during the study period and met inclusion criteria (mean age 72.8 years [SD 5.5], 86% female, and 79% white). Among this surgical cohort, 104 (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.8-2.7%) patients developed permanent hypoparathyroidism requiring calcitriol therapy. Patients who developed permanent hypoparathyroidism were on average older (mean age 74.1 vs. 72.8 years) than those who did not develop permanent hypoparathyroidism (p=0.04). On multivariable regression, older age was the only patient characteristic associated with permanent hypoparathyroidism (odds ratio [OR] age ≥ 76 years 1.68 [95% CI 1.13-2.51] compared to age 66-75 years).The risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism requiring calcitriol therapy among this national, U.S. population-based cohort of older adults with GD treated with total thyroidectomy was low, even when considering operations performed by a heterogeneous group of surgeons. These findings suggest the risk of hypoparathyroidism should not be a deterrent to operative management for GD in older adults who are appropriate surgical candidates.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/thy.2022.0140

    View details for PubMedID 36416252

  • Preventive Health Screening in Veterans Undergoing Bariatric Surgery. American journal of preventive medicine Stoltz, D. J., Liebert, C. A., Seib, C. D., Bruun, A., Arnow, K. D., Barreto, N. B., Pratt, J. S., Eisenberg, D. 2022


    INTRODUCTION: Individuals with obesity are vulnerable to low rates of preventive health screening. Veterans with obesity seeking bariatric surgery are also hypothesized to have gaps in preventive health screening. Evaluation in a multidisciplinary bariatric surgery clinic is a point of interaction with the healthcare system that could facilitate improvements in screening.METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 381 consecutive patients undergoing bariatric surgery at a Veterans Affairs Hospital from January 2010 to October 2021. Age- and sex-appropriate health screening rates were determined at initial referral to a multidisciplinary bariatric surgery clinic and at the time of surgery. Rates of guideline concordance at both time points were compared using McNemar's test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors for nonconcordance.RESULTS: Concordance with all recommended screening was low at initial referral and significantly improved by time of surgery (39.1%‒63.8%; p<0.001). Screening rates significantly improved for HIV (p<0.001), cervical cancer (p=0.03), and colon cancer (p<0.001). Increases in BMI (p=0.005) and the number of indicated screening tests (p=0.029) were associated with reduced odds of concordance at initial referral. Smoking history (p=0.012) and increasing distance to the nearest Veterans Affairs Medical Center (p=0.039) were associated with reduced odds of change from nonconcordance at initial referral to concordance at the time of surgery.CONCLUSIONS: Rates of preventive health screening in Veterans with obesity are low. A multidisciplinary bariatric surgery clinic is an opportunity to improve preventive health screening in Veterans referred for bariatric surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amepre.2022.06.014

    View details for PubMedID 36100538

  • A Tool to Estimate Risk of 30-day Mortality and Complications After Hip Fracture Surgery: Accurate Enough for Some but Not All Purposes? A Study From the ACS-NSQIP Database. Clinical orthopaedics and related research Harris, A. H., Trickey, A. W., Eddington, H. S., Seib, C. D., Kamal, R. N., Kuo, A. C., Ding, Q., Giori, N. J. 2022


    Surgical repair of hip fracture carries substantial short-term risks of mortality and complications. The risk-reward calculus for most patients with hip fractures favors surgical repair. However, some patients have low prefracture functioning, frailty, and/or very high risk of postoperative mortality, making the choice between surgical and nonsurgical management more difficult. The importance of high-quality informed consent and shared decision-making for frail patients with hip fracture has recently been demonstrated. A tool to accurately estimate patient-specific risks of surgery could improve these processes.With this study, we sought (1) to develop, validate, and estimate the overall accuracy (C-index) of risk prediction models for 30-day mortality and complications after hip fracture surgery; (2) to evaluate the accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, and false discovery rates) of risk prediction thresholds for identifying very high-risk patients; and (3) to implement the models in an accessible web calculator.In this comparative study, preoperative demographics, comorbidities, and preoperatively known operative variables were extracted for all 82,168 patients aged 18 years and older undergoing surgery for hip fracture in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) between 2011 and 2017. Eighty-two percent (66,994 of 82,168) of patients were at least 70 years old, 21% (17,007 of 82,168) were at least 90 years old, 70% (57,260 of 82,168) were female, and 79% (65,301 of 82,168) were White. A total of 5% (4260 of 82,168) of patients died within 30 days of surgery, and 8% (6786 of 82,168) experienced a major complication. The ACS-NSQIP database was chosen for its clinically abstracted and reliable data from more than 600 hospitals on important surgical outcomes, as well as rich characterization of preoperative demographic and clinical predictors for demographically diverse patients. Using all the preoperative variables in the ACS-NSQIP dataset, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression, a type of machine learning that selects variables to optimize accuracy and parsimony, was used to develop and validate models to predict two primary outcomes: 30-day postoperative mortality and any 30-day major complications. Major complications were defined by the occurrence of ACS-NSQIP complications including: on a ventilator longer than 48 hours, intraoperative or postoperative unplanned intubation, septic shock, deep incisional surgical site infection (SSI), organ/space SSI, wound disruption, sepsis, intraoperative or postoperative myocardial infarction, intraoperative or postoperative cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation, acute renal failure needing dialysis, pulmonary embolism, stroke/cerebral vascular accident, and return to the operating room. Secondary outcomes were six clusters of complications recently developed and increasingly used for the development of surgical risk models, namely: (1) pulmonary complications, (2) infectious complications, (3) cardiac events, (4) renal complications, (5) venous thromboembolic events, and (6) neurological events. Tenfold cross-validation was used to assess overall model accuracy with C-indexes, a measure of how well models discriminate patients who experience an outcome from those who do not. Using the models, the predicted risk of outcomes for each patient were used to estimate the accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, and false discovery rates) of a wide range of predicted risk thresholds. We then implemented the prediction models into a web-accessible risk calculator.The 30-day mortality and major complication models had good to fair discrimination (C-indexes of 0.76 and 0.64, respectively) and good calibration throughout the range of predicted risk. Thresholds of predicted risk to identify patients at very high risk of 30-day mortality had high specificity but also high false discovery rates. For example, a 30-day mortality predicted risk threshold of 15% resulted in 97% specificity, meaning 97% of patients who lived longer than 30 days were below that risk threshold. However, this threshold had a false discovery rate of 78%, meaning 78% of patients above that threshold survived longer than 30 days and might have benefitted from surgery. The tool is available here: models of mortality and complications we developed may be accurate enough for some uses, especially personalizing informed consent and shared decision-making with patient-specific risk estimates. However, the high false discovery rate suggests the models should not be used to restrict access to surgery for high-risk patients. Deciding which measures of accuracy to prioritize and what is "accurate enough" depends on the clinical question and use of the predictions. Discrimination and calibration are commonly used measures of overall model accuracy but may be poorly suited to certain clinical questions and applications. Clinically, overall accuracy may not be as important as knowing how accurate and useful specific values of predicted risk are for specific purposes.Level of Evidence Level III, therapeutic study.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/CORR.0000000000002294

    View details for PubMedID 35901441

  • Kidney stone events following parathyroidectomy vs. non-operative management for primary hyperparathyroidism. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Seib, C. D., Ganesan, C., Arnow, K. D., Pao, A. C., Leppert, J. T., Barreto, N. B., Kebebew, E., Tamura, M. K. 2022


    CONTEXT: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is associated with an increased risk of kidney stones. Few studies account for PHPT severity or stone risk when comparing stone events after parathyroidectomy vs. non-operative management.OBJECTIVE: Compare the incidence of kidney stone events in PHPT patients treated with parathyroidectomy vs. non-operative management.DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study with propensity score inverse probability weighting and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression.SETTING: Veterans Health Administration integrated health care system.PATIENTS: 44,978 patients with >2 years follow-up after PHPT diagnosis (2000-2018). 5,244 patients (11.7%) were treated with parathyroidectomy.MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURE: Clinically significant kidney stone event.RESULTS: The cohort had a mean age of 66.0 years, was 87.8% male, 66.4% White. Patients treated with parathyroidectomy had higher mean serum calcium (11.2 vs. 10.8mg/dL) and were more likely to have a history of kidney stone events. Among patients with baseline history of kidney stones, the unadjusted incidence of ≥1 kidney stone event was 30.5% in patients managed with parathyroidectomy (mean follow-up 5.6 years) compared to 18.0% in those managed non-operatively (mean follow-up 5.0 years). Patients treated with parathyroidectomy had a higher adjusted hazard of recurrent kidney stone events (hazard ratio[HR] 1.98, 95%CI 1.56-2.51); however, this association declined over time (parathyroidectomy*time HR 0.80, 95%CI 0.73-0.87).CONCLUSION: In this predominantly male cohort with PHPT, patients treated with parathyroidectomy continued to be at higher risk of kidney stone events in the immediate years after treatment than patients managed non-operatively, although the adjusted risk of stone events declined with time, suggesting a benefit to surgical treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1210/clinem/dgac193

    View details for PubMedID 35363858

  • Factors associated with postoperative complications and costs for adrenalectomy in benign adrenal disorders. Surgery Sung, T., Tennakoon, L., Alobuia, W. M., Seib, C., Cisco, R., Lin, D., Kebebew, E. 2021


    BACKGROUND: The incidence of adrenal incidentaloma has been increasing, and indications of and approaches to adrenalectomy are diverse. Drivers of complications and costs are not well identified.METHODS: The 2016 National Inpatient Sample data were used to identify patients who underwent adrenalectomy for benign adrenal disorders, such as Cushing syndrome, primary hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, and other benign neoplasms defined using the 10th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases. The primary outcome was determining the factors associated with clinical outcomes, perioperative complications, and hospitalization costs.RESULTS: Using weighted estimates of the national sample data, 5,140 patients were identified. The mean age was 55 years. The majority of adrenalectomies were performed laparoscopically (48.5%) followed by a robotic approach (32.7%). The postoperative complication rate was 7.6%. In adjusted multivariable analyses, independent risk factors for perioperative complications included Hispanic race (odds ratio, 2.5; P = .01), and perioperative comorbid heart failure (odds ratio, 6.3; P < .001) and respiratory failure (odds ratio, 9.9; P < .001). The mean cost was $18,122. Independent risk factors associated with decrease of cost were female sex and primary hyperaldosteronism; factors associated with increased cost were pheochromocytoma, intraoperative complications, perioperative underlying comorbid respiratory failure and heart failure, and postoperative complications (P < .001).CONCLUSION: Among patients undergoing adrenalectomy for benign adrenal disorders, underlying comorbidities, including heart and respiratory failure, should be considered when recommending adrenalectomy, as these may increase the postoperative complication rates and hospitalization costs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2021.10.065

    View details for PubMedID 34857386

  • Superior sensitivity of 18F-fluorocholine: PET localization in primary hyperparathyroidism. Surgery Graves, C. E., Hope, T. A., Kim, J., Pampaloni, M. H., Kluijfhout, W., Seib, C. D., Gosnell, J. E., Shen, W. T., Roman, S. A., Sosa, J. A., Duh, Q., Suh, I. 2021


    BACKGROUND: Preoperative parathyroid imaging guides surgeons during parathyroidectomy. This study evaluates the clinical impact of 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography for preoperative parathyroid localization on patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.METHODS: Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and indications for parathyroidectomy had simultaneous 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography imaging/magnetic resonance imaging. In patients who underwent subsequent parathyroidectomy, cure was based on lab values at least 6 months after surgery. Location-based sensitivity and specificity of 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography imaging was assessed using 3 anatomic locations (left neck, right neck, and mediastinum), with surgery as the gold standard.RESULTS: In 101 patients, 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography localized at least 1 candidate lesion in 93% of patients overall and in 91% of patients with previously negative imaging, leading to a change in preoperative strategy in 60% of patients. Of 76 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy, 58 (77%) had laboratory data at least 6 months postoperatively, with 55/58 patients (95%) demonstrating cure. 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography successfully guided curative surgery in 48/58 (83%) patients, compared with 20/57 (35%) based on ultrasound and 13/55 (24%) based on sestamibi. In a location-based analysis, sensitivity of 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography (88.9%) outperformed both ultrasound (37.1%) and sestamibi (27.5%), as well as ultrasound and sestamibi combined (47.8%).CONCLUSION: Long-term results in the first cohort in the United States to use 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography for parathyroid localization confirm its utility in a challenging cohort, with better sensitivity than ultrasound or sestamibi.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2021.05.056

    View details for PubMedID 34301418

  • Racial disparities in the utilization of parathyroidectomy among patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: Evidence from a nationwide analysis of Medicare claims. Surgery Alobuia, W. M., Meng, T., Cisco, R. M., Lin, D. T., Suh, I., Tamura, M. K., Trickey, A. W., Kebebew, E., Seib, C. D. 2021


    BACKGROUND: Among patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroidectomy offers a chance of cure and mitigation of disease-related complications. The impact of race/ethnicity on referral and utilization of parathyroidectomy has not been fully explored.METHODS: Population-based, retrospective cohort study using 100% Medicare claims from beneficiaries with primary hyperparathyroidism from 2006 to 2016. Associations of race/ethnicity with disease severity, surgeon evaluation, and subsequent parathyroidectomy were analyzed using adjusted multivariable logistic regression models.RESULTS: Among 210,206 beneficiaries with primary hyperparathyroidism, 63,136 (30.0%) underwent parathyroidectomy within 1 year of diagnosis. Black patients were more likely than other races/ethnicities to have stage 3 chronic kidney disease (10.8%) but had lower prevalence of osteoporosis and nephrolithiasis compared to White patients, Black and Hispanic patients were more likely to have been hospitalized for primaryhyperparathyroidism-associated conditions (White 4.8%, Black 8.1%, Hispanic 5.8%; P < .001). Patients who were White and met operative criteria were more likely to undergo parathyroidectomy than Black, Hispanic, or Asian patients (White 30.5%, Black 23.0%, Hispanic 21.4%, Asian 18.7%; P < .001). Black and Hispanicpatients had lower adjusted odds of being evaluated by a surgeon (odds ratios 0.71 [95% confidenceinterval 0.69-0.74], 0.68 [95% confidence interval 0.61-0.74], respectively) and undergoing parathyroidectomy if evaluated by a surgeon (odds ratios 0.72 [95% confidence interval 0.68-0.77], 0.82 [95%confidence interval 0.67-0.99]). Asian race was associated with lower adjusted odds of being evaluated by a surgeon (odds ratio 0.64 [95% confidence interval 0.57-0.71]), but no difference in odds of parathyroidectomy.CONCLUSION: Racial/ethnic disparities exist in the management of primary hyperparathyroidism among older adults. Determining the factors that account for this disparity require urgent attention to achieve parity in the management of primary hyperparathyroidism.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2021.05.037

    View details for PubMedID 34229901

  • Association of parathyroidectomy with 5-year clinically significant kidney stone events in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Seib, C. D., Ganesan, C., Arnow, K. D., Suh, I., Pao, A. C., Leppert, J. T., Tamura, M. K., Trickey, A. W., Kebebew, E. 2021


    OBJECTIVE: Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are at increased risk of kidney stones. Guidelines recommend parathyroidectomy in PHPT patients with a history of stone disease. This study aimed to compare the 5-year incidence of clinically significant kidney stone events in patients with PHPT treated with parathyroidectomy vs. non-operative management.METHODS: We performed a longitudinal cohort study of patients with PHPT in a national commercial insurance claims database (2006-2019). Propensity score inverse probability weighting-adjusted multivariable regression models were calculated.RESULTS: We identified 7,623 patients ≥35 years-old with continuous enrollment >1 year before and >5 years after PHPT diagnosis. 2,933 patients (38.5%) were treated with parathyroidectomy. The cohort had a mean age of 66.5 years, 78.1% were female, 72.4% were White. Over 5 years, the unadjusted incidence of ≥1 kidney stone event was higher in patients managed with parathyroidectomy compared to those managed non-operatively overall (5.4% vs. 4.1%) and among those with a history of kidney stones at PHPT diagnosis (17.9% vs. 16.4%). On multivariable analysis, parathyroidectomy was associated with no statistically significant difference in the odds of 5-year kidney stone event among patients with a history of kidney stones (OR 1.03, 95%CI 0.71-1.50) or those without history of kidney stones (OR 1.16, 95%CI 0.84-1.60).CONCLUSION: Based on this claims analysis, there was no difference in the odds of 5-year kidney stone events in PHPT patients treated with parathyroidectomy vs. non-operative management. Time-horizon for benefit should be considered when making treatment decisions for PHPT based on risk of kidney stone events.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.eprac.2021.06.004

    View details for PubMedID 34126246

  • Accuracy of 18F-fluorocholine PET for the detection of parathyroid adenomas: prospective single center study Hope, T., Graves, C., Calais, J., Ehman, E., Johnson, G., Thompson, D., Duh, Q., Seib, C., Maya, A., Gosnell, J., Wen, S., Roman, S., Sosa, J., Kluijfhout, W., Villanueva-Meyer, J., Pampaloni, M., Suh, I. SOC NUCLEAR MEDICINE INC. 2021
  • Accuracy of 18F-fluorocholine PET for the detection of parathyroid adenomas: prospective single center study. Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine Hope, T. A., Graces, C., Calais, J., Ehman, E., Johnson, G. B., Thompson, D., Aslam, M., Duh, Q., Gosnell, J., Shen, W., Roman, S., Sosa, J. A., Kluijfhout, W., Seib, C. S., Villanueva-Meyer, J., Pampaloni, M. H., Suh, I. 2021


    Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the correct localization rate (CLR) of 18F-fluorocholine (FCH) positron emission tomography (PET) for the detection of parathyroid adenomas in comparison to sestamibi imaging. Materials and Methods: This was a single-arm prospective trial. Ninety-eight patients with biochemical evidence of primary hyperparathyroidism were imaged prior to parathyroidectomy using FCH PET/MRI. Sestamibi imaging performed separately from the study was evaluated for comparison. The primary endpoint of the study was the CLR on a patient level. Each imaging study was interpreted by 3 blinded readers on a per-region basis. Lesions were validated by histopathologic analysis of surgical specimens. Results: Of the 98 patients who underwent FCH imaging, 77 subsequently underwent parathyroidectomy and 60 of those had sestamibi imaging. The CLR for FCH in patients who underwent parathyroidectomy based on the blinded reader consensus was 75% [0.63, 0.82]. In patients who underwent surgery and had an available sestamibi study, the CLR increased from 17% [0.10, 0.27] for sestamibi to 70% [0.59, 0.79] for FCH PET. Conclusion: In this prospective study using blinded readers, the CLR for FCH was 75%. In patients with paired sestamibi, the use of FCH PET increased the CLR from 17% to 70%. FCH PET is a superior imaging modality for the localization of parathyroid adenomas.

    View details for DOI 10.2967/jnumed.120.256735

    View details for PubMedID 33674400

  • Prioritizing Quality Improvement in Geriatric Surgery in 7 Veterans Administration Hospitals: Current Levels of Implementation of Standards Defined by the American College of Surgeons: Geriatric Surgery Verification Program through Structured Processes Kazaure, H., Lagoo-Deenadayalan, S. A., Ahuja, V., Seib, C., Balentine, C., Iannuzzi, J., Robinson, T., Russell, M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2020: E24–E25
  • Postoperative Function as a Measure of Quality in Geriatric Surgical Care-Can We Do Better? JAMA surgery Seib, C. D., Arya, S. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2020.2863

    View details for PubMedID 32822480

  • Anatomic Variations From 120 Mental Nerve Dissections: Lessons for Transoral Thyroidectomy. The Journal of surgical research King, S. D., Arellano, R., Gordon, V., Olinger, A., Seib, C. D., Duh, Q., Suh, I. 2020; 256: 543–48


    BACKGROUND: Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) is a promising technique for eliminating a neck incision. A new risk of TOETVA is the potential for injury to the mental nerves during placement of three oral endoscopic ports. A better understanding of the variations in mental nerve anatomy is needed to inform safer TOETVA technique.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed 120 dissections of mental nerve branches exiting the mental foramen in 60 human cadavers. Anatomic distances and relationships of the foramen to the midline were evaluated. Mental nerve branching patterns were studied and compared with previously reported classification systems to determine surgical safe zones free of nerve branches.RESULTS: The mean midline-to-mental foramen distance was 29.2±3.3mm, with high variability across individuals (18.8-36.8mm). There were differences in this distance between the left and right foramina (29.8±3.2 versus 28.8±3.3mm, P=0.03). All mental nerve branches exiting the mental foramen distributed medially. The branching patterns were classified into eight distinct categories, three of which are previously undescribed. One of these novel patterns, occurring in 9.2% of cases, had a dense and wide clustering of branches traveling toward the midline.CONCLUSIONS: The location of the mental foramen and mental nerve branching patterns demonstrate high variability. To avoid mental nerve injury in TOETVA, we identify a safe zone for lateral port placement lateral to the plane of the mental foramen. Placement and extension of the middle port incision should proceed with caution, as clustering of mental nerve branches in this area can frequently be present.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2020.07.018

    View details for PubMedID 32799003

  • Analysis of Primary Hyperparathyroidism Screening Among US Veterans With Kidney Stones. JAMA surgery Ganesan, C., Weia, B., Thomas, I., Song, S., Velaer, K., Seib, C. D., Conti, S., Elliott, C., Chertow, G. M., Kurella Tamura, M., Leppert, J. T., Pao, A. C. 2020


    Importance: Approximately 3% to 5% of patients with kidney stones have primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), a treatable cause of recurrent stones. However, the rate of screening for PHPT in patients with kidney stones remains unknown.Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of parathyroid hormone (PTH) testing in veterans with kidney stones and hypercalcemia and to identify the demographic, geographic, and clinical characteristics of veterans who were more or less likely to receive PTH testing.Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study obtained Veterans Health Administration (VHA) health records from the Corporate Data Warehouse for veterans who received care in 1 of the 130 VHA facilities across the United States from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2013. Historical encounters, medical codes, and laboratory data were assessed. Included patients had diagnostic or procedural codes for kidney or ureteral stones, and excluded patients were those with a previous serum PTH level measurement. Data were collected from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2014. Data analysis was conducted from June 1, 2019, to January 31, 2020.Exposures: Elevated serum calcium concentration measurement between 6 months before and 6 months after kidney stone diagnosis.Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of patients with a serum PTH level measurement and proportion of patients with biochemical evidence of PHPT who underwent parathyroidectomy.Results: The final cohort comprised 7561 patients with kidney stones and hypercalcemia and a mean (SD) age of 64.3 (12.3) years. Of these patients, 7139 were men (94.4%) and 5673 were white individuals (75.0%). The proportion of patients who completed a serum PTH level measurement was 24.8% (1873 of 7561). Across the 130 VHA facilities included in the study, testing rates ranged from 4% to 57%. The factors associated with PTH testing included the magnitude of calcium concentration elevation (odds ratio [OR], 1.07 per 0.1 mg/dL >10.5 mg/dL; 95% CI, 1.05-1.08) and the number of elevated serum calcium concentration measurements (OR, 1.08 per measurement >10.5 mg/dL; 95% CI, 1.06-1.10) as well as visits to both a nephrologist and a urologist (OR, 6.57; 95% CI, 5.33-8.10) or an endocrinologist (OR, 4.93; 95% CI, 4.11-5.93). Of the 717 patients with biochemical evidence of PHPT, 189 (26.4%) underwent parathyroidectomy within 2 years of a stone diagnosis.Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that only 1 in 4 patients with kidney stones and hypercalcemia were tested for PHPT in VHA facilities and that testing rates varied widely across these facilities. These findings suggest that raising clinician awareness to PHPT screening indications may improve evaluation for parathyroidectomy, increase the rates of detection and treatment of PHPT, and decrease recurrent kidney stone disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2020.2423

    View details for PubMedID 32725208

  • Reducing Opioid Use in Endocrine Surgery Through Patient Education and Provider Prescribing Patterns. The Journal of surgical research Kwan, S. Y., Lancaster, E., Dixit, A., Inglis-Arkell, C., Manuel, S., Suh, I., Shen, W. T., Seib, C. D. 2020; 256: 303–10


    BACKGROUND: Postoperative opioid use can lead to dependence, contributing to the opioid epidemic in the United States. New persistent opioid use after minor surgeries occurs in 5.9% of patients. With increased documentation of persistent opioid use postoperatively, surgeons must pursue interventions to reduce opioid use perioperatively.METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study to assess the feasibility of a preoperative intervention via patient education or counseling and changes in provider prescribing patterns to reduce postoperative opioid use. We included adult patients undergoing thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy from January 22, 2019 to February 28, 2019 at a tertiary referral, academic endocrine surgery practice. Surveys were administered to assess pain and patient satisfaction postoperatively. Prescription, demographic, and comorbidity data were collected from the electronic health record.RESULTS: Sixty six patients (74.2% women, mean age 58.6 [SD 14.9] y) underwent thyroidectomy (n=35), parathyroidectomy (n=24), and other cervical endocrine operations (n=7). All patients received a preoperative educational intervention in the form of a paper handout. 90.9% of patients were discharged with prescriptions for nonopioid pain medications, and 7.6% were given an opioid prescription on discharge. Among those who received an opioid prescription, the median quantity of opioids prescribed was 135 (IQR 120-150) oral morphine equivalents. On survey, four patients (6.1%) reported any postoperative opioid use, and 94.6% of patients expressed satisfaction with their preoperative education and postoperative pain management.CONCLUSIONS: Clear and standardized education regarding postoperative pain management is feasible and associated with high patient satisfaction. Initiation of such education may support efforts to minimize unnecessary opioid prescriptions in the population undergoing endocrine surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2020.06.025

    View details for PubMedID 32712445

  • Undertreatment of primary hyperparathyroidism in a privately insured US population: Decreasing utilization of parathyroidectomy despite expanding surgical guidelines. Surgery Seib, C. D., Meng, T., Suh, I., Cisco, R. M., Lin, D. T., Morris, A. M., Trickey, A. W., Kebebew, E. 2020


    BACKGROUND: Primary hyperparathyroidism is associated with substantial morbidity, including osteoporosis, nephrolithiasis, and chronic kidney disease. Parathyroidectomy can prevent these sequelae but is poorly utilized in many practice settings.METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using the national Optum de-identified Clinformatics Data Mart Database. We identified patients aged ≥35 with a first observed primary hyperparathyroidism diagnosis from 2004 to 2016. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine patient/provider characteristics associated with parathyroidectomy.RESULTS: Of 26,522 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, 10,101 (38.1%) underwent parathyroidectomy. Of the 14,896 patients with any operative indication, 5,791 (38.9%) underwent parathyroidectomy. Over time, there was a decreasing trend in the rate of parathyroidectomy overall (2004: 54.4% to 2016: 32.4%, P < .001) and among groups with and without an operative indication. On multivariable analysis, increasing age and comorbidities were strongly, inversely associated with parathyroidectomy (age 75-84, odds ratio 0.50 [95% confidence interval 0.45-0.55]; age ≥85, odds ratio 0.21 [95% confidence interval 0.17-0.26] vs age 35-49; Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥2 vs 0 odds ratio 0.62 [95% confidence interval 0.58-0.66]).CONCLUSION: The majority of US privately insured patients with primary hyperparathyroidism are not treated with parathyroidectomy. Having an operative indication only modestly increases the likelihood of parathyroidectomy. Further research is needed to address barriers to treatment and the gap between guidelines and clinical care in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2020.04.066

    View details for PubMedID 32654861

  • Patient complexity by surgical specialty does not correlate with work relative value units. Surgery Ramirez, J. L., Gasper, W. J., Seib, C. D., Finlayson, E., Conte, M. S., Sosa, J. A., Iannuzzi, J. C. 2020


    BACKGROUND: Understanding the differences in how patient complexity varies across surgical specialties can inform policy decisions about appropriate resource allocation and reimbursement. This study evaluated variation in patient complexity across surgical specialties and the correlation between complexity and work relative value units.STUDY DESIGN: The 2017 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was queried for cases involving otolaryngology and general, neurologic, vascular, cardiac, thoracic, urologic, orthopedic, and plastic surgery. A total of 10 domains of patient complexity were measured: American Society of Anesthesiologists class ≥4, number of major comorbidities, emergency operation, major complications, concurrent procedures, additional procedures, length of stay, non-home discharge, readmission, and mortality. Specialties were ranked by their complexity domains and the domains summed to create an overall complexity score. Patient complexity then was evaluated for correlation with work relative value units.RESULTS: Overall, 936,496 cases were identified. Cardiac surgery had the greatest total complexity score and was most complex across 4 domains: American Society of Anesthesiologists class ≥4 (78.5%), 30-day mortality (3.4%), major complications (56.9%), and mean length of stay (9.8 days). Vascular surgery had the second greatest complexity score and ranked the greatest on the domains of major comorbidities (2.7 comorbidities) and 30-day readmissions (10.1%). The work relative value units did not correlate with overall complexity score (Spearman's rho= 0.07; P < .01). Although vascular surgery had the second most complex patients, it ranked fifth greatest in median work relative value units. Similarly, general surgery was the fifth most complex but had the second-least median work relative value units.CONCLUSION: Substantial differences exist between patient complexity across specialties, which do not correlate with work relative value units. Physician effort is determined largely by patient complexity, which is not captured appropriately by the current work relative value units.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2020.03.002

    View details for PubMedID 32336468

  • The influence of cosmetic concerns on patient preferences for approaches to thyroid lobectomy: A discrete choice experiment. Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association Sukpanich, R., Sanglestsawai, S., Seib, C. D., Gosnell, J. E., Shen, W. T., Roman, S., Sosa, J. A., Duh, Q., Suh, I. 2020


    Background Newer transoral thyroidectomy techniques that aim to avoid scars in the neck and maximize cosmetic outcomes have become more prevalent. We conducted a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to evaluate the influence of cosmetic concerns and other factors on patients' decision-making processes when choosing among different thyroidectomy approaches. Methods A questionnaire was developed to identify key attributes driving patient preferences around thyroidectomy approaches using mixed analyses of patient focus groups, expert opinion, and literature review. These attributes included 1) risk of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury, 2) risk of mental nerve injury, 3) travel distance for surgery, 4) out-of-pocket cost, and 5) incision site. Using fractional factorial design, discrete choice sets consisting of randomly generated hypothetical scenarios across all attributes were created. A face-to-face DCE survey was administered to patients being evaluated in clinic for thyroid lobectomy for non-cancerous thyroid disease. Participants chose among scenarios constructed from the choice sets of attributes. Analyses were conducted using a mixed logit model, and the trade-offs between different attributes that patients were willing to accept were quantified. Results The DCE was completed by 109 participants (86 [79%] women; mean age 51.3 ± 3.0 years). Overall, the risk of having RLN and/or mental nerve injury, travel distance, and cost were the most influential attributes. Participants ≤60 years significantly preferred an approach without a neck incision, and were willing to accept an additional $2,332 USD in out-of-pocket cost, 693 miles of travel distance, 0.6% increased risk of RLN injury, and 2.2% risk of mental nerve injury. Patients >60 years significantly preferred a conventional neck incision, and were willing to pay an additional $3,401 out-of-pocket and travel 1,011 miles to avoid a scarless approach. Conclusions The risk of nerve injury, travel distance, and cost were the most important drivers for patients choosing among surgical approaches for thyroidectomy. Cosmetic considerations also influenced patient choices, but in opposing ways depending on patient age.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/thy.2019.0821

    View details for PubMedID 32204688

  • Shifting Trends and Informed Decision Making in the Management of Graves' Disease. Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association Seib, C. D., Chen, J. n., Iagaru, A. n. 2020


    Not applicable for invited commentary.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/thy.2020.0114

    View details for PubMedID 32046610

  • Ensemble machine learning for the prediction of patient-level outcomes following thyroidectomy. American journal of surgery Seib, C. D., Roose, J. P., Hubbard, A. E., Suh, I. n. 2020


    Accurate prediction of thyroidectomy complications is necessary to inform treatment decisions. Ensemble machine learning provides one approach to improve prediction.We applied the Super Learner (SL) algorithm to the 2016-2018 thyroidectomy-specific NSQIP database to predict complications following thyroidectomy. Cross-validation was used to assess model discrimination and precision.For the 17,987 patients undergoing thyroidectomy, rates of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, post-operative hypocalcemia prior to discharge or within 30 days, and neck hematoma were 6.1%, 6.4%, 9.0%, and 1.8%, respectively. SL improved prediction of thyroidectomy-specific outcomes when compared with benchmark logistic regression approaches. For postoperative hypocalcemia prior to discharge, SL improved the cross-validated AUROC to 0.72 (95%CI 0.70-0.74) compared to 0.70 (95%CI 0.68-0.72; p < 0.001) when using a manually curated logistic regression algorithm.Ensemble machine learning modestly improves prediction for thyroidectomy-specific outcomes. SL holds promise to provide more accurate patient-level risk prediction to inform treatment decisions.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2020.11.055

    View details for PubMedID 33339618

  • Trends in Adrenal Surgery-The Changing Nature of Tumors and Patients JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH Chen, Y., Chomsky-Higgins, K., Nwaogu, I., Gosnell, J. E., Seib, C., Shen, W. T., Suh, I., Duh, Q. 2019; 236: 129–33


    The volume of adrenal surgery is increasing. There has been a concern that the widespread use of axial imaging and minimally invasive approaches has led to changing indications for adrenalectomy. We reviewed trends in adrenal surgery at a single academic institution.This was a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent adrenal surgery between 1993 and 2018 by the endocrine surgery service. Patient demographics, diagnosis, operative details, and perioperative complications were evaluated. Trend analysis was performed across ordered year groups (<2000, 2000-2004, 2005-2009, 2010-2014, and 2015-2018).We identified 732 patients who underwent 751 adrenal operations. Fifty-seven percent of the patients were women, and the median age was 51 y (range: 5-88). There was an increase in the number of procedures performed (P < 0.01, trend analysis). Over time, there was a higher proportion of patients with hypertension (54.7% [<2000] versus 73.6% [>2015], P < 0.01), diabetes (4.7% versus 22.1%, P = 0.01), and classified as American Society of Anesthesiology class 3/4 (15.7% versus 45.7%, P < 0.01). More patients had their adrenal lesion found incidentally (19.4% versus 39.3%, P < 0.01), and there was a larger proportion of pheochromocytomas (25% versus 36.4%, P < 0.01) and fewer nonfunctioning adenomas (7.4% versus 4.3%, P = 0.03). Median tumor size decreased from 3.5 cm to 2.9 cm (P = 0.03). Complication rates increased over time (8.3% versus 15%, P < 0.01), but the overall 30-d mortality remained low (0.3%).Adrenal surgery is being performed more commonly with an increasing number of incidentalomas and pheochromocytomas. Our patients have higher comorbidities with increase in complication rates over time, although perioperative mortality remains low. This highlights the importance of a thorough preoperative evaluation to identify suitable patients who may benefit from adrenalectomy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2018.11.031

    View details for Web of Science ID 000458498300019

    View details for PubMedID 30694747

  • Treatment of Primary Aldosteronism Reduces the Probability of Obstructive Sleep Apnea JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH Wang, E., Chomsky-Higgins, K., Chen, Y., Nwaogu, I., Seib, C. D., Shen, W. T., Duh, Q., Suh, I. 2019; 236: 37–43


    Aldosterone excess is hypothesized to worsen obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) symptoms by promoting peripharyngeal edema. However, the extent to which primary aldosteronism (PA), hypertension, and body mass index (BMI) influence OSA pathogenesis remains unclear.We conducted a cross-sectional study of PA patients from our endocrine database to retrospectively evaluate OSA probability before and after adrenalectomy or medical management of PA. A control group of patients undergoing adrenalectomy for nonfunctioning benign adrenal masses was also evaluated. We categorized patients as high or low OSA probability after evaluation with the Berlin Questionnaire, a validated 10-question survey that explores sleep, fatigue, hypertension, and BMI.We interviewed 91 patients (83 PA patients and eight control patients). Median follow-up time was 2.6 y. The proportion of high OSA probability in all PA patients decreased from 64% to 35% after treatment for PA (mean Berlin score 1.64 versus 1.35, P < 0.001). This decline correlated with improvements in hypertension (P < 0.001) and fatigue symptoms (P = 0.03). Both surgical (n = 48; 1.69 versus 1.33, P < 0.001) and medical (n = 35; 1.57 versus 1.37, P = 0.03) treatment groups demonstrated reduced OSA probability. BMI remained unchanged after PA treatment (29.1 versus 28.6, P = nonsignificant), and the impact of treatment on OSA probability was independent of BMI. The control surgical group showed no change in OSA probability after adrenalectomy (1.25 versus 1.25, P = nonsignificant).Both surgical and medical treatments of PA reduce sleep apnea probability independent of BMI and are associated with improvements in hypertension and fatigue. Improved screening for PA could reduce OSA burden.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2018.10.040

    View details for Web of Science ID 000458498300006

    View details for PubMedID 30694777

  • Invasive Procedures to Improve Function in Frail Older Adults Do Outcomes Justify the Intervention? JAMA INTERNAL MEDICINE Seib, C. D., Finlayson, E. 2019; 179 (3): 391–93
  • Risk Factors Associated With Perioperative Complications and Prolonged Length of Stay After Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy JAMA SURGERY Chen, Y., Scholten, A., Chomsky-Higgins, K., Nwaogu, I., Gosnell, J. E., Seib, C., Shen, W. T., Suh, I., Duh, Q. 2018; 153 (11): 1036–41


    Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the gold standard for most adrenal disorders and its frequency in the United States is increasing. While national and administrative databases can adjust for patient factors, comorbidities, and institutional variations, granular disease-specific data that may significantly influence the incidence of perioperative complications and length of stay (LOS) are lacking.To investigate factors associated with perioperative complications and LOS after laparoscopic adrenalectomy.This cohort study was carried out at a single academic medical center, with all patients who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy between 1993 and 2017 by the endocrine surgery department. Multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to obtain adjusted odds ratios (ORs).The primary outcome was perioperative complications with a Dindo-Clavien grade of 2 or more. The secondary outcome was prolonged length of stay, defined as a stay longer than the 75th percentile of the overall cohort.We identified 640 patients who underwent 653 laparoscopic adrenalectomies, of whom 370 (56.7%) were female. The median age was 51 (range, 5-88) years. A total of 76 complications with a Dindo-Clavien grade of 2 or more occurred in 55 patients (8.4%), with postoperative mortality in 2 patients (0.3%). The median hospital length of stay was 1 day (range, 0-32 days). Factors independently associated with increased complications were American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 or 4 (OR, 2.78 [95% CI, 1.39-5.55]; P < .01), diabetes (OR, 2.39 [95% CI, 1.14-5.01]; P = .02), conversion to hand-assisted or open surgery (OR, 5.32 [95% CI, 1.84-15.41]; P < .01), a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma (OR, 4.31 [95% CI, 1.43-13.05]; P = .01), and a tumor size of 6 cm or greater (OR, 2.47 [95% CI, 1.05-5.78]; P = .04). Prolonged length of stay was associated with age 65 years or older (OR, 2.44 [95% CI, 1.31-4.57]; P = .01), an American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 or 4 (OR, 3.48 [95% CI, 1.88-6.41]; P < .01), any procedural conversion (OR, 63.28 [95% CI, 12.53-319.59]; P < .01), and a tumor size of 4 cm or larger (4-6 cm: OR, 2.38 [95% CI, 1.21-4.67]; P = .01; ≥6 cm: OR, 2.46 [95% CI, 1.12-5.40]; P = .03).Laparoscopic adrenalectomy remains safe for most adrenal disorders. Patient comorbidities, adrenal pathology, and tumor size are associated with the risk of complications and length of stay and should all be considered in selecting and preparing patients for surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2018.2648

    View details for Web of Science ID 000450718300018

    View details for PubMedID 30090934

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6584328

  • Postoperative Pain and Opioid Use after Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery: A Novel, Prospective Short Messaging Service-Based Survey Chen, Y., Nwaogu, I., Chomsky-Higgins, K. H., Seib, C. D., Gosnell, J. E., Shen, W. T., Duh, Q., Suh, I. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: E121
  • Patient Frailty Should Be Used to Individualize Treatment Decisions in Primary Hyperparathyroidism WORLD JOURNAL OF SURGERY Seib, C. D., Chomsky-Higgins, K., Gosnell, J. E., Shen, W. T., Suh, I., Duh, Q., Finlayson, E. 2018; 42 (10): 3215–22


    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disorder that predominantly affects patients >60 and is increasing in prevalence. Identifying risk factors for poor outcomes after parathyroidectomy in older adults will help tailor operative decision making. The impact of frailty on surgical outcomes in parathyroidectomy has not been established.We performed a retrospective review of patients ≥40 years who underwent parathyroidectomy in the 2005-2010 ACS NSQIP. Frailty was assessed using the modified frailty index (mFI). Multivariable regression was used to determine the association of frailty with 30-day complications, length of stay (LOS), and reoperation.We identified 13,123 patients ≥40 who underwent parathyroidectomy for PHPT. The majority of patients were not frail, with 80% with a low NSQIP mFI score (0-1 frailty traits), 19% with an intermediate mFI score (2-3), and 0.9% with a high mFI score (≥4). Overall 30-day complications were rare, occurring in 141 (1.1%) patients. Increasing frailty was associated with an increased risk of complications with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 1.76 (95% CI 1.20-2.59; p = 0.004) for intermediate and 8.43 (95% CI 4.33-16.41; p < 0.001) for high mFI score. Patient age was independently associated with an increased risk of complications only when ≥75, as was African-American race. Anesthesia with local, monitored anesthesia care, or regional block was the only factor associated with decreased odds of complications. A high NSQIP mFI was also associated with a significant 4.77-day adjusted increase in LOS (95% CI 4.28-5.25; p < 0.001) and increased odds of reoperation (OR 4.20, 95% CI 1.64-10.74; p = 0.003).Patient frailty is associated with increased complications, reoperation and prolonged LOS in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for PHPT. The risks of surgical management should be weighed against potential benefits in frail patients with PHPT to individualize treatment decisions in this vulnerable population.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00268-018-4629-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000443995400021

    View details for PubMedID 29696330

  • Parathyroid Cryopreservation: Clinical Applications in the Era of Synthetic Parathyroid Hormone Nwaogu, I., Sedaghati, M., Sukpanich, R., Chomsky-Higgins, K. H., Chen, Y., Seib, C. D., Suh, I., Shen, W. T., Gosnell, J. E., Duh, Q. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: E120
  • Association of Patient Frailty With Increased Risk of Complications After Adrenalectomy JAMA SURGERY Anderson, J. E., Seib, C. D., Campbell, M. J. 2018; 153 (10): 966–67

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2018.1749

    View details for Web of Science ID 000447639600028

    View details for PubMedID 29971357

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6233782

  • Hidden in Plain Sight: Transoral and Submental Thyroidectomy as a Compelling Alternative to "Scarless" Thyroidectomy JOURNAL OF LAPAROENDOSCOPIC & ADVANCED SURGICAL TECHNIQUES Chen, Y., Chomsky-Higgins, K., Nwaogu, I., Seib, C. D., Gosnell, J. E., Shen, W. T., Duh, Q., Suh, I. 2018; 28 (11): 1374–77


    Minimally invasive and remote access thyroid surgery has been evolving with the transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) emerging as a true "scarless" thyroidectomy. In this study, we describe a hybrid transoral and submental thyroidectomy (TOaST) technique for thyroid lobectomy.A TOaST right thyroid lobectomy was performed for a 4 cm cytologically benign right thyroid nodule. Initial incision was made in the submental region with two additional 5 mm lateral ports inserted transorally. Right thyroid lobectomy proceeded via standard TOETVA with intact specimen extraction via the submental incision.The patient was discharged home on postoperative day 1. Final pathology showed a 4.2 cm follicular adenoma. Cosmetic results and patient satisfaction were excellent.This is the first reported case of a hybrid TOaST technique. It aims to maintain the principles and advantages of TOETVA while addressing its limitations related to large tumor extraction, mental nerve injury, and chin sensory changes. The shorter distance of dissection required may reduce postoperative pain. This approach may expand the indications for transoral thyroidectomy while maintaining excellent cosmetic outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/lap.2018.0146

    View details for Web of Science ID 000431590600001

    View details for PubMedID 29733263

  • Association of Patient Frailty With Increased Morbidity After Common Ambulatory General Surgery Operations JAMA SURGERY Seib, C. D., Rochefort, H., Chomsky-Higgins, K., Gosnell, J. E., Suh, I., Shen, W. T., Duh, Q., Finlayson, E. 2018; 153 (2): 160–68


    Frailty is a measure of decreased physiological reserve that is associated with morbidity and mortality in major elective and emergency general surgery operations, independent of chronological age. To date, the association of frailty with outcomes in ambulatory general surgery has not been established.To determine the association between frailty and perioperative morbidity in patients undergoing ambulatory general surgery operations.A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 140 828 patients older than 40 years of age from the 2007-2010 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use File who underwent ambulatory and 23-hour-stay hernia, breast, thyroid, or parathyroid surgery. Data analysis was performed from August 18, 2016, to June 21, 2017.The association between the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program modified frailty index and perioperative morbidity was determined via multivariable logistic regression with random-effects modeling to control for clustering within Current Procedural Terminology codes.A total of 140 828 patients (80 147 women and 60 681 men; mean [SD] age, 59.3 [12.0] years) underwent ambulatory hernia (n = 71 455), breast (n = 51 267), thyroid, or parathyroid surgery (n = 18 106). Of these patients, 2457 (1.7%) experienced any type of perioperative complication and 971 (0.7%) experienced serious perioperative complications. An increasing modified frailty index was associated with a stepwise increase in the incidence of complications. In multivariable analysis adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, anesthesia type, tobacco use, renal failure, corticosteroid use, and clustering by Current Procedural Terminology codes, an intermediate modified frailty index score (0.18-0.35, corresponding to 2-3 frailty traits) was associated with statistically significant odds ratios of 1.70 (95% CI, 1.54-1.88; P < .001) for any complication and 2.00 (95% CI, 1.72-2.34; P < .001) for serious complications. A high modified frailty index score (≥0.36, corresponding to ≥4 frailty traits) was associated with statistically significant odds ratios of 3.35 (95% CI, 2.52-4.46; P < .001) for any complication and 3.95 (95% CI, 2.65-5.87; P < .001) for serious complications. Anesthesia with local and monitored anesthesia care was the only modifiable covariate associated with decreased odds of serious 30-day complications, with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.53-0.81; P < .001).Frailty is associated with increased perioperative morbidity in common ambulatory general surgery operations, independent of age, type of anesthesia, and other comorbidities. Surgeons should consider frailty rather than chronological age when counseling and selecting patients for elective ambulatory surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2017.4007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000425676000017

    View details for PubMedID 29049457

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5838594

  • Less is more: cost-effectiveness analysis of surveillance strategies for small, nonfunctional, radiographically benign adrenal incidentalomas Chomsky-Higgins, K., Seib, C., Rochefort, H., Gosnell, J., Shen, W. T., Kahn, J. G., Duh, Q., Suh, I. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2018: 197–203


    Guidelines for management of small adrenal incidentalomas are mutually inconsistent. No cost-effectiveness analysis has been performed to evaluate rigorously the relative merits of these strategies.We constructed a decision-analytic model to evaluate surveillance strategies for <4cm, nonfunctional, benign-appearing adrenal incidentalomas. We evaluated 4 surveillance strategies: none, one-time, annual for 2 years, and annual for 5 years. Threshold and sensitivity analyses assessed robustness of the model. Costs were represented in 2016 US dollars and health outcomes in quality-adjusted life-years.No surveillance has an expected net cost of $262 and 26.22 quality-adjusted life-years. One-time surveillance costs $158 more and adds 0.2 quality-adjusted life-years for an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $778/quality-adjusted life-years. The strategies involving more surveillance were dominated by the no surveillance and one-time surveillance strategies less effective and more expensive. Above a 0.7% prevalence of adrenocortical carcinoma, one-time surveillance was the most effective strategy. The results were robust to all sensitivity analyses of disease prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity of diagnostic assays and imaging as well as health state utility.For patients with a < 4cm, nonfunctional, benign-appearing mass, one-time follow-up evaluation involving a noncontrast computed tomography and biochemical evaluation is cost-effective. Strategies requiring more surveillance accrue more cost without incremental benefit.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2017.07.030

    View details for Web of Science ID 000419265300063

    View details for PubMedID 29129360

  • The Underestimated Risk of Cancer in Patients with Multinodular Goiters After a Benign Fine Needle Aspiration WORLD JOURNAL OF SURGERY Campbell, M. J., Seib, C. D., Candell, L., Gosnell, J. E., Quan-Yang Duh, Clark, O. H., Shen, W. T. 2015; 39 (3): 695–700


    Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an excellent tool for evaluating patients with solitary thyroid nodules, with a false-negative malignancy rate of <3%. The utility of FNA in patients with a cervical multinodular goiter (MNG) is unknown, because biopsy and surveillance of thyroids with numerous nodules may be impractical.To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for unsuspected thyroid cancer on final pathology in patients with a non-functional, cervical MNG who had a benign preoperative FNA and underwent thyroidectomy.Retrospective review of patients with non-functional, cervical MNG at a high-volume tertiary referral center between 2005 and 2012.Incidence of thyroid cancer on surgical pathology.Of the 134 patients included in the study, 31 (23.1%) were found to have thyroid cancer on final pathology. Twenty-one (15.7%) patients had a microscopic papillary cancer (<1 cm) and 10 (7.5%) patients had other forms of thyroid cancer [five follicular, four papillary (>1 cm), and one patient with a papillary and follicular cancer]. On univariate analysis, male gender had a near-significant association with non-micropapillary thyroid cancer (p = 0.06). On multivariate analysis, male gender (OR = 10.2, 95% CI 1.35-76.8) and FNA cytology not reviewed at our institution (OR = 6.0, 95% CI 1.2-30) were independently associated with non-micropapillary thyroid cancer.The incidence of thyroid cancer in patients with MNG and benign FNA is significant. Men and patients in whom the FNA cytology is not reviewed by an experienced cytopathologist may be at an increased risk for an undetected thyroid cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00268-014-2854-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351230900022

    View details for PubMedID 25446471

  • Differences Between Bilateral Adrenal Incidentalomas and Unilateral Lesions. JAMA surgery Pasternak, J. D., Seib, C. D., Seiser, N. n., Tyrell, J. B., Liu, C. n., Cisco, R. M., Gosnell, J. E., Shen, W. T., Suh, I. n., Duh, Q. Y. 2015; 150 (10): 974–78


    Adrenal incidentalomas are found in 1% to 5% of abdominal cross-sectional imaging studies. Although the workup and management of unilateral lesions are well established, limited information exists for bilateral incidentalomas.To compare the natural history of patients having bilateral incidentalomas with those having unilateral incidentalomas.Retrospective analysis of a prospective database of consecutive patients referred to an academic multidisciplinary adrenal conference. The setting was a tertiary care university hospital among a cohort of 500 patients with adrenal lesions between July 1, 2009, and July 1, 2014.Prevalence, age, imaging characteristics, biochemical workup, any intervention, and final diagnosis.Twenty-three patients with bilateral incidentalomas and 112 patients with unilateral incidentalomas were identified. The mean age at diagnosis of bilateral lesions was 58.7 years. The mean lesion size was 2.4 cm on the right side and 2.8 cm on the left side. Bilateral incidentalomas were associated with a significantly higher prevalence of subclinical Cushing syndrome (21.7% [5 of 23] vs 6.2% [7 of 112]) (P = .009) and a significantly lower prevalence of pheochromocytoma (4.3% [1 of 23] vs 19.6% [22 of 112]) (P = .003) compared with unilateral lesions, while rates of hyperaldosteronism were similar in both groups (4.3% [1 of 23] vs 5.4% [6 of 112]) (P > .99). Only one patient with bilateral incidentalomas underwent unilateral resection. The mean follow-up was 4 years (range, 1.2-13.0 years). There were no occult adrenocortical carcinomas.Bilateral incidentalomas are more likely to be associated with subclinical Cushing syndrome and less likely to be pheochromocytomas. Although patients with bilateral incidentalomas undergo a workup similar to that in patients with unilateral lesions, differences in their natural history warrant a greater index of suspicion for subclinical Cushing syndrome.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2015.1683

    View details for PubMedID 26200882

  • Utility of serum thyroglobulin measurements after prophylactic thyroidectomy in patients with hereditary medullary thyroid cancer SURGERY Seib, C. D., Harari, A., Conte, F. A., Duh, Q., Clark, O. H., Gosnell, J. E. 2014; 156 (2): 394–98


    Prophylactic thyroidectomy can be curative for patients with hereditary medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) caused by RET proto-oncogene mutations. Calcitonin is a sensitive tumor marker used to follow patients. We suggest that thyroglobulin (Tg) levels should also be monitored postoperatively in these patients.We reviewed patients with RET mutations who underwent prophylactic thyroidectomy between 1981 and 2011 at an academic endocrine surgery center. Patients were excluded if they had no postoperative Tg levels recorded.Of the 22 patients who underwent prophylactic thyroidectomy, 14 were included in the final analysis. The average age at thyroidectomy was 9.8 years (range, 4-29). Tg levels were detectable 1.5 months to 31 years postoperatively in 11 patients (79%), all of whom were <15 years old at thyroidectomy. Median thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was 2.5 mIU/L and 13.4 mIU/L in patients with undetectable and detectable Tg, respectively. Of those with detectable Tg, 5 had cervical ultrasonographic examination: Two showed no residual tissue in the thyroid bed, and 3 showed remnant thyroid tissue.Tg levels can identify patients with remnant thyroid tissue after prophylactic thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography can determine whether thyroid tissue remains posterolaterally that is at risk of MTC recurrence. Maintaining normal TSH may prevent growth of remaining thyroid follicular cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2014.03.037

    View details for Web of Science ID 000339463700024

    View details for PubMedID 24882762

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4099273

  • Adrenalectomy Outcomes Are Superior with the Participation of Residents and Fellows JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Seib, C. D., Greenblatt, D. Y., Campbell, M. J., Shen, W. T., Gosnell, J. E., Clark, O. H., Duh, Q. 2014; 219 (1): 53–60


    Adrenalectomy is a complex procedure performed in many settings, with and without residents and fellows. Patients often ask, "Will trainees be participating in my operation?" and seek reassurance that their care will not be adversely affected. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between trainee participation and adrenalectomy perioperative outcomes.We performed a cohort study of patients who underwent adrenalectomy from the 2005 to 2011 American College of Surgeons NSQIP database. Trainee participation was classified as none, resident, or fellow, based on postgraduate year of the assisting surgeon. Associations between trainee participation and outcomes were determined via multivariate linear and logistic regression.Of 3,694 adrenalectomies, 732 (19.8%) were performed by an attending surgeon with no trainee, 2,315 (62.7%) involved a resident, and 647 (17.5%) involved a fellow. The participation of fellows was associated with fewer serious complications (7.9% with no trainee, 6.0% with residents, and 2.8% with fellows; p < 0.001). In a multivariate model, the odds of serious 30-day morbidity were lower when attending surgeons operated with residents (odds ratio = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.45-0.89). Fellow participation was associated with significantly lower odds of overall (odds ratio = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.32-0.82) and serious (odds ratio = 0.31; 95% CI, 0.17-0.57) morbidity. There was no significant association between trainee participation and 30-day mortality.In this analysis of multi-institutional data, the participation of residents and fellows was associated with decreased odds of perioperative adrenalectomy complications. Attending surgeons performing adrenalectomies with trainee assistance should reassure patients of the equivalent or superior care they are receiving.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.02.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000339320300010

    View details for PubMedID 24702888

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4065814

  • Vandetanib and the management of advanced medullary thyroid cancer CURRENT OPINION IN ONCOLOGY Campbell, M. J., Seib, C. D., Gosnell, J. 2013; 25 (1): 39–43


    Vandetanib is a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been recently approved as an 'orphan drug' for the treatment of patients with unresectable, locally advanced, or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC).MTC is a neuroendocrine malignancy frequently associated with mutations to the RET proto-oncogene. Vandetanib selectively targets RET, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and epidermal growth factor receptor dependent signaling. Vandetanib has been shown to improve progression-free survival in patients with advanced MTC. In general, vandetanib is well tolerated, but QTc prolongation remains a potential concern demanding careful patient selection and monitoring.Vandetanib has emerged as one of the more promising small molecule tyrosinse kinase inhibitors, providing durable rates of disease stabilization, with an acceptable adverse event profile in patients with advanced MTC.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/CCO.0b013e32835a42b9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311975000007

    View details for PubMedID 23202050