Dr. Carolyn Dacey Seib is a board certified general surgeon and fellowship-trained endocrine surgeon. Her practice is focused on surgery of the thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands.
Dr. Seib has clinical and research expertise in the surgical management of endocrine disorders in older adults, including primary hyperparathyroidism, thyroid cancer, and hyperthyroidism. Dr. Seib completed her undergraduate education at Princeton University, graduating summa cum laude in 2004. She received her M.D. at the New York University School of Medicine and then attended residency in General Surgery at UCSF. Dr. Seib also completed a fellowship in Endocrine Surgery at UCSF, during which she cared for patients with complex disorders of the thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands.
Dr. Seib focuses on providing individualized care for patients with thyroid malignancy, hyperthyroidism, primary hyperparathyroidism, and adrenal disorders. She has received funding from the National Institute on Aging and the American Thyroid Association to study the surgical management of endocrine disorders in older adults and has a number of peer-reviewed journal publications on this topic that have received national attention, including being featured in the New York Times.
- General Surgery
- Endocrine Surgery
- Thyroid Cancer
- Thyroid Nodules
- Primary Hyperparathyroidism
- Primary Aldosteronism
- Adrenal Cushing's Syndrome
Assistant Professor - University Medical Line, Surgery - General Surgery
Board Certification: American Board of Surgery, General Surgery (2017)
Fellowship: UCSF Endocrine Surgery Fellowship (2017) CA
Residency: UCSF General Surgery Residency (2016) CA
Medical Education: New York University School of Medicine (2009) NY
Racial disparities in the utilization of parathyroidectomy among patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: Evidence from a nationwide analysis of Medicare claims.
BACKGROUND: Among patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroidectomy offers a chance of cure and mitigation of disease-related complications. The impact of race/ethnicity on referral and utilization of parathyroidectomy has not been fully explored.METHODS: Population-based, retrospective cohort study using 100% Medicare claims from beneficiaries with primary hyperparathyroidism from 2006 to 2016. Associations of race/ethnicity with disease severity, surgeon evaluation, and subsequent parathyroidectomy were analyzed using adjusted multivariable logistic regression models.RESULTS: Among 210,206 beneficiaries with primary hyperparathyroidism, 63,136 (30.0%) underwent parathyroidectomy within 1 year of diagnosis. Black patients were more likely than other races/ethnicities to have stage 3 chronic kidney disease (10.8%) but had lower prevalence of osteoporosis and nephrolithiasis compared to White patients, Black and Hispanic patients were more likely to have been hospitalized for primaryhyperparathyroidism-associated conditions (White 4.8%, Black 8.1%, Hispanic 5.8%; P < .001). Patients who were White and met operative criteria were more likely to undergo parathyroidectomy than Black, Hispanic, or Asian patients (White 30.5%, Black 23.0%, Hispanic 21.4%, Asian 18.7%; P < .001). Black and Hispanicpatients had lower adjusted odds of being evaluated by a surgeon (odds ratios 0.71 [95% confidenceinterval 0.69-0.74], 0.68 [95% confidence interval 0.61-0.74], respectively) and undergoing parathyroidectomy if evaluated by a surgeon (odds ratios 0.72 [95% confidence interval 0.68-0.77], 0.82 [95%confidence interval 0.67-0.99]). Asian race was associated with lower adjusted odds of being evaluated by a surgeon (odds ratio 0.64 [95% confidence interval 0.57-0.71]), but no difference in odds of parathyroidectomy.CONCLUSION: Racial/ethnic disparities exist in the management of primary hyperparathyroidism among older adults. Determining the factors that account for this disparity require urgent attention to achieve parity in the management of primary hyperparathyroidism.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2021.05.037
View details for PubMedID 34229901
Association of parathyroidectomy with 5-year clinically significant kidney stone events in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
OBJECTIVE: Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are at increased risk of kidney stones. Guidelines recommend parathyroidectomy in PHPT patients with a history of stone disease. This study aimed to compare the 5-year incidence of clinically significant kidney stone events in patients with PHPT treated with parathyroidectomy vs. non-operative management.METHODS: We performed a longitudinal cohort study of patients with PHPT in a national commercial insurance claims database (2006-2019). Propensity score inverse probability weighting-adjusted multivariable regression models were calculated.RESULTS: We identified 7,623 patients ≥35 years-old with continuous enrollment >1 year before and >5 years after PHPT diagnosis. 2,933 patients (38.5%) were treated with parathyroidectomy. The cohort had a mean age of 66.5 years, 78.1% were female, 72.4% were White. Over 5 years, the unadjusted incidence of ≥1 kidney stone event was higher in patients managed with parathyroidectomy compared to those managed non-operatively overall (5.4% vs. 4.1%) and among those with a history of kidney stones at PHPT diagnosis (17.9% vs. 16.4%). On multivariable analysis, parathyroidectomy was associated with no statistically significant difference in the odds of 5-year kidney stone event among patients with a history of kidney stones (OR 1.03, 95%CI 0.71-1.50) or those without history of kidney stones (OR 1.16, 95%CI 0.84-1.60).CONCLUSION: Based on this claims analysis, there was no difference in the odds of 5-year kidney stone events in PHPT patients treated with parathyroidectomy vs. non-operative management. Time-horizon for benefit should be considered when making treatment decisions for PHPT based on risk of kidney stone events.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.eprac.2021.06.004
View details for PubMedID 34126246
Patient Factors Associated With Parathyroidectomy in Older Adults With Primary Hyperparathyroidism.
Importance: Parathyroidectomy provides definitive management for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), reducing the risk of subsequent fracture, nephrolithiasis, and chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its use among older adults in the US is unknown.Objective: To identify patient characteristics associated with the use of parathyroidectomy for the management of PHPT in older adults.Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based, retrospective cohort study used 100% Medicare claims from beneficiaries with an initial diagnosis of PHPT from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2016. Patients were considered to meet consensus guideline criteria for parathyroidectomy based on diagnosis codes indicating osteoporosis, nephrolithiasis, or stage 3 CKD. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify patient characteristics associated with parathyroidectomy. Data were analyzed from February 11, 2020, to October 8, 2020.Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was parathyroidectomy within 1 year of diagnosis.Results: Among 210 206 beneficiaries with an incident diagnosis of PHPT (78.8% women; mean [SD] age, 75.3 [6.8] years), 63 136 (30.0%) underwent parathyroidectomy within 1 year of diagnosis. Among the subset of patients who met consensus guideline criteria for operative management (n=131 723), 38 983 (29.6%) were treated with parathyroidectomy. Patients treated operatively were younger (mean [SD] age, 73.5 [5.7] vs 76.0 [7.1] years) and more likely to be White (90.1% vs 86.0%), to be robust or prefrail (92.1% vs 85.7%), and to have fewer comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 0 or 1, 54.6% vs 44.1%), in addition to being more likely to live in socioeconomically disadvantaged (46.9% vs 40.3%) and rural (18.1% vs 13.6%) areas (all P<.001). On multivariable analysis, increasing age had a strong inverse association with parathyroidectomy among patients aged 76 to 85 years (unadjusted rate, 25.9%; odds ratio [OR], 0.68 [95% CI, 0.67-0.70]) and older than 85 years (unadjusted rate, 11.2%; OR, 0.27 [95% CI, 0.26-0.29]) compared with those aged 66 to 75 years (unadjusted rate, 35.6%), as did patients with moderate to severe frailty (unadjusted rate, 18.9%; OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.56-0.64]) compared with robust patients (unadjusted rate, 36.1%) and those with a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 2 or greater (unadjusted rate, 25.9%; OR, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.75-0.79]) compared with a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 0 (unadjusted rate, 37.0%). With regard to operative guidelines, a history of nephrolithiasis increased the odds of parathyroidectomy (OR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.39-1.47]); stage 3 CKD decreased the odds of parathyroidectomy (OR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.68-0.74]); and osteoporosis showed no association (OR, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.99-1.03]).Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, most older adults with PHPT did not receive definitive treatment with parathyroidectomy. Older age, frailty, and multimorbidity were associated with nonoperative management, and guideline recommendations had minimal effect on treatment decisions. Further research is needed to identify barriers to surgical care and develop tools to target parathyroidectomy to older adults most likely to benefit.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2020.6175
View details for PubMedID 33404646
Undertreatment of primary hyperparathyroidism in a privately insured US population: Decreasing utilization of parathyroidectomy despite expanding surgical guidelines.
BACKGROUND: Primary hyperparathyroidism is associated with substantial morbidity, including osteoporosis, nephrolithiasis, and chronic kidney disease. Parathyroidectomy can prevent these sequelae but is poorly utilized in many practice settings.METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using the national Optum de-identified Clinformatics Data Mart Database. We identified patients aged ≥35 with a first observed primary hyperparathyroidism diagnosis from 2004 to 2016. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine patient/provider characteristics associated with parathyroidectomy.RESULTS: Of 26,522 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, 10,101 (38.1%) underwent parathyroidectomy. Of the 14,896 patients with any operative indication, 5,791 (38.9%) underwent parathyroidectomy. Over time, there was a decreasing trend in the rate of parathyroidectomy overall (2004: 54.4% to 2016: 32.4%, P < .001) and among groups with and without an operative indication. On multivariable analysis, increasing age and comorbidities were strongly, inversely associated with parathyroidectomy (age 75-84, odds ratio 0.50 [95% confidence interval 0.45-0.55]; age ≥85, odds ratio 0.21 [95% confidence interval 0.17-0.26] vs age 35-49; Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥2 vs 0 odds ratio 0.62 [95% confidence interval 0.58-0.66]).CONCLUSION: The majority of US privately insured patients with primary hyperparathyroidism are not treated with parathyroidectomy. Having an operative indication only modestly increases the likelihood of parathyroidectomy. Further research is needed to address barriers to treatment and the gap between guidelines and clinical care in primary hyperparathyroidism.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2020.04.066
View details for PubMedID 32654861
- Shifting Trends and Informed Decision Making in the Management of Graves' Disease. Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association 2020
Association of Patient Frailty With Increased Morbidity After Common Ambulatory General Surgery Operations
2018; 153 (2): 160–68
Frailty is a measure of decreased physiological reserve that is associated with morbidity and mortality in major elective and emergency general surgery operations, independent of chronological age. To date, the association of frailty with outcomes in ambulatory general surgery has not been established.To determine the association between frailty and perioperative morbidity in patients undergoing ambulatory general surgery operations.A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 140 828 patients older than 40 years of age from the 2007-2010 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use File who underwent ambulatory and 23-hour-stay hernia, breast, thyroid, or parathyroid surgery. Data analysis was performed from August 18, 2016, to June 21, 2017.The association between the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program modified frailty index and perioperative morbidity was determined via multivariable logistic regression with random-effects modeling to control for clustering within Current Procedural Terminology codes.A total of 140 828 patients (80 147 women and 60 681 men; mean [SD] age, 59.3 [12.0] years) underwent ambulatory hernia (n = 71 455), breast (n = 51 267), thyroid, or parathyroid surgery (n = 18 106). Of these patients, 2457 (1.7%) experienced any type of perioperative complication and 971 (0.7%) experienced serious perioperative complications. An increasing modified frailty index was associated with a stepwise increase in the incidence of complications. In multivariable analysis adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, anesthesia type, tobacco use, renal failure, corticosteroid use, and clustering by Current Procedural Terminology codes, an intermediate modified frailty index score (0.18-0.35, corresponding to 2-3 frailty traits) was associated with statistically significant odds ratios of 1.70 (95% CI, 1.54-1.88; P < .001) for any complication and 2.00 (95% CI, 1.72-2.34; P < .001) for serious complications. A high modified frailty index score (≥0.36, corresponding to ≥4 frailty traits) was associated with statistically significant odds ratios of 3.35 (95% CI, 2.52-4.46; P < .001) for any complication and 3.95 (95% CI, 2.65-5.87; P < .001) for serious complications. Anesthesia with local and monitored anesthesia care was the only modifiable covariate associated with decreased odds of serious 30-day complications, with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.53-0.81; P < .001).Frailty is associated with increased perioperative morbidity in common ambulatory general surgery operations, independent of age, type of anesthesia, and other comorbidities. Surgeons should consider frailty rather than chronological age when counseling and selecting patients for elective ambulatory surgery.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2017.4007
View details for Web of Science ID 000425676000017
View details for PubMedID 29049457
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5838594
Superior sensitivity of 18F-fluorocholine: PET localization in primary hyperparathyroidism.
BACKGROUND: Preoperative parathyroid imaging guides surgeons during parathyroidectomy. This study evaluates the clinical impact of 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography for preoperative parathyroid localization on patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.METHODS: Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and indications for parathyroidectomy had simultaneous 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography imaging/magnetic resonance imaging. In patients who underwent subsequent parathyroidectomy, cure was based on lab values at least 6 months after surgery. Location-based sensitivity and specificity of 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography imaging was assessed using 3 anatomic locations (left neck, right neck, and mediastinum), with surgery as the gold standard.RESULTS: In 101 patients, 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography localized at least 1 candidate lesion in 93% of patients overall and in 91% of patients with previously negative imaging, leading to a change in preoperative strategy in 60% of patients. Of 76 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy, 58 (77%) had laboratory data at least 6 months postoperatively, with 55/58 patients (95%) demonstrating cure. 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography successfully guided curative surgery in 48/58 (83%) patients, compared with 20/57 (35%) based on ultrasound and 13/55 (24%) based on sestamibi. In a location-based analysis, sensitivity of 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography (88.9%) outperformed both ultrasound (37.1%) and sestamibi (27.5%), as well as ultrasound and sestamibi combined (47.8%).CONCLUSION: Long-term results in the first cohort in the United States to use 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography for parathyroid localization confirm its utility in a challenging cohort, with better sensitivity than ultrasound or sestamibi.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2021.05.056
View details for PubMedID 34301418
Accuracy of 18F-fluorocholine PET for the detection of parathyroid adenomas: prospective single center study.
Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the correct localization rate (CLR) of 18F-fluorocholine (FCH) positron emission tomography (PET) for the detection of parathyroid adenomas in comparison to sestamibi imaging. Materials and Methods: This was a single-arm prospective trial. Ninety-eight patients with biochemical evidence of primary hyperparathyroidism were imaged prior to parathyroidectomy using FCH PET/MRI. Sestamibi imaging performed separately from the study was evaluated for comparison. The primary endpoint of the study was the CLR on a patient level. Each imaging study was interpreted by 3 blinded readers on a per-region basis. Lesions were validated by histopathologic analysis of surgical specimens. Results: Of the 98 patients who underwent FCH imaging, 77 subsequently underwent parathyroidectomy and 60 of those had sestamibi imaging. The CLR for FCH in patients who underwent parathyroidectomy based on the blinded reader consensus was 75% [0.63, 0.82]. In patients who underwent surgery and had an available sestamibi study, the CLR increased from 17% [0.10, 0.27] for sestamibi to 70% [0.59, 0.79] for FCH PET. Conclusion: In this prospective study using blinded readers, the CLR for FCH was 75%. In patients with paired sestamibi, the use of FCH PET increased the CLR from 17% to 70%. FCH PET is a superior imaging modality for the localization of parathyroid adenomas.
View details for DOI 10.2967/jnumed.120.256735
View details for PubMedID 33674400
Prioritizing Quality Improvement in Geriatric Surgery in 7 Veterans Administration Hospitals: Current Levels of Implementation of Standards Defined by the American College of Surgeons: Geriatric Surgery Verification Program through Structured Processes
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2020: E24–E25
View details for Web of Science ID 000582798100051
- Postoperative Function as a Measure of Quality in Geriatric Surgical Care-Can We Do Better? JAMA surgery 2020
Anatomic Variations From 120 Mental Nerve Dissections: Lessons for Transoral Thyroidectomy.
The Journal of surgical research
2020; 256: 543–48
BACKGROUND: Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) is a promising technique for eliminating a neck incision. A new risk of TOETVA is the potential for injury to the mental nerves during placement of three oral endoscopic ports. A better understanding of the variations in mental nerve anatomy is needed to inform safer TOETVA technique.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed 120 dissections of mental nerve branches exiting the mental foramen in 60 human cadavers. Anatomic distances and relationships of the foramen to the midline were evaluated. Mental nerve branching patterns were studied and compared with previously reported classification systems to determine surgical safe zones free of nerve branches.RESULTS: The mean midline-to-mental foramen distance was 29.2±3.3mm, with high variability across individuals (18.8-36.8mm). There were differences in this distance between the left and right foramina (29.8±3.2 versus 28.8±3.3mm, P=0.03). All mental nerve branches exiting the mental foramen distributed medially. The branching patterns were classified into eight distinct categories, three of which are previously undescribed. One of these novel patterns, occurring in 9.2% of cases, had a dense and wide clustering of branches traveling toward the midline.CONCLUSIONS: The location of the mental foramen and mental nerve branching patterns demonstrate high variability. To avoid mental nerve injury in TOETVA, we identify a safe zone for lateral port placement lateral to the plane of the mental foramen. Placement and extension of the middle port incision should proceed with caution, as clustering of mental nerve branches in this area can frequently be present.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2020.07.018
View details for PubMedID 32799003
Analysis of Primary Hyperparathyroidism Screening Among US Veterans With Kidney Stones.
Importance: Approximately 3% to 5% of patients with kidney stones have primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), a treatable cause of recurrent stones. However, the rate of screening for PHPT in patients with kidney stones remains unknown.Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of parathyroid hormone (PTH) testing in veterans with kidney stones and hypercalcemia and to identify the demographic, geographic, and clinical characteristics of veterans who were more or less likely to receive PTH testing.Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study obtained Veterans Health Administration (VHA) health records from the Corporate Data Warehouse for veterans who received care in 1 of the 130 VHA facilities across the United States from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2013. Historical encounters, medical codes, and laboratory data were assessed. Included patients had diagnostic or procedural codes for kidney or ureteral stones, and excluded patients were those with a previous serum PTH level measurement. Data were collected from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2014. Data analysis was conducted from June 1, 2019, to January 31, 2020.Exposures: Elevated serum calcium concentration measurement between 6 months before and 6 months after kidney stone diagnosis.Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of patients with a serum PTH level measurement and proportion of patients with biochemical evidence of PHPT who underwent parathyroidectomy.Results: The final cohort comprised 7561 patients with kidney stones and hypercalcemia and a mean (SD) age of 64.3 (12.3) years. Of these patients, 7139 were men (94.4%) and 5673 were white individuals (75.0%). The proportion of patients who completed a serum PTH level measurement was 24.8% (1873 of 7561). Across the 130 VHA facilities included in the study, testing rates ranged from 4% to 57%. The factors associated with PTH testing included the magnitude of calcium concentration elevation (odds ratio [OR], 1.07 per 0.1 mg/dL >10.5 mg/dL; 95% CI, 1.05-1.08) and the number of elevated serum calcium concentration measurements (OR, 1.08 per measurement >10.5 mg/dL; 95% CI, 1.06-1.10) as well as visits to both a nephrologist and a urologist (OR, 6.57; 95% CI, 5.33-8.10) or an endocrinologist (OR, 4.93; 95% CI, 4.11-5.93). Of the 717 patients with biochemical evidence of PHPT, 189 (26.4%) underwent parathyroidectomy within 2 years of a stone diagnosis.Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that only 1 in 4 patients with kidney stones and hypercalcemia were tested for PHPT in VHA facilities and that testing rates varied widely across these facilities. These findings suggest that raising clinician awareness to PHPT screening indications may improve evaluation for parathyroidectomy, increase the rates of detection and treatment of PHPT, and decrease recurrent kidney stone disease.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2020.2423
View details for PubMedID 32725208
Reducing Opioid Use in Endocrine Surgery Through Patient Education and Provider Prescribing Patterns.
The Journal of surgical research
2020; 256: 303–10
BACKGROUND: Postoperative opioid use can lead to dependence, contributing to the opioid epidemic in the United States. New persistent opioid use after minor surgeries occurs in 5.9% of patients. With increased documentation of persistent opioid use postoperatively, surgeons must pursue interventions to reduce opioid use perioperatively.METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study to assess the feasibility of a preoperative intervention via patient education or counseling and changes in provider prescribing patterns to reduce postoperative opioid use. We included adult patients undergoing thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy from January 22, 2019 to February 28, 2019 at a tertiary referral, academic endocrine surgery practice. Surveys were administered to assess pain and patient satisfaction postoperatively. Prescription, demographic, and comorbidity data were collected from the electronic health record.RESULTS: Sixty six patients (74.2% women, mean age 58.6 [SD 14.9] y) underwent thyroidectomy (n=35), parathyroidectomy (n=24), and other cervical endocrine operations (n=7). All patients received a preoperative educational intervention in the form of a paper handout. 90.9% of patients were discharged with prescriptions for nonopioid pain medications, and 7.6% were given an opioid prescription on discharge. Among those who received an opioid prescription, the median quantity of opioids prescribed was 135 (IQR 120-150) oral morphine equivalents. On survey, four patients (6.1%) reported any postoperative opioid use, and 94.6% of patients expressed satisfaction with their preoperative education and postoperative pain management.CONCLUSIONS: Clear and standardized education regarding postoperative pain management is feasible and associated with high patient satisfaction. Initiation of such education may support efforts to minimize unnecessary opioid prescriptions in the population undergoing endocrine surgery.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2020.06.025
View details for PubMedID 32712445
Patient complexity by surgical specialty does not correlate with work relative value units.
BACKGROUND: Understanding the differences in how patient complexity varies across surgical specialties can inform policy decisions about appropriate resource allocation and reimbursement. This study evaluated variation in patient complexity across surgical specialties and the correlation between complexity and work relative value units.STUDY DESIGN: The 2017 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was queried for cases involving otolaryngology and general, neurologic, vascular, cardiac, thoracic, urologic, orthopedic, and plastic surgery. A total of 10 domains of patient complexity were measured: American Society of Anesthesiologists class ≥4, number of major comorbidities, emergency operation, major complications, concurrent procedures, additional procedures, length of stay, non-home discharge, readmission, and mortality. Specialties were ranked by their complexity domains and the domains summed to create an overall complexity score. Patient complexity then was evaluated for correlation with work relative value units.RESULTS: Overall, 936,496 cases were identified. Cardiac surgery had the greatest total complexity score and was most complex across 4 domains: American Society of Anesthesiologists class ≥4 (78.5%), 30-day mortality (3.4%), major complications (56.9%), and mean length of stay (9.8 days). Vascular surgery had the second greatest complexity score and ranked the greatest on the domains of major comorbidities (2.7 comorbidities) and 30-day readmissions (10.1%). The work relative value units did not correlate with overall complexity score (Spearman's rho= 0.07; P < .01). Although vascular surgery had the second most complex patients, it ranked fifth greatest in median work relative value units. Similarly, general surgery was the fifth most complex but had the second-least median work relative value units.CONCLUSION: Substantial differences exist between patient complexity across specialties, which do not correlate with work relative value units. Physician effort is determined largely by patient complexity, which is not captured appropriately by the current work relative value units.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2020.03.002
View details for PubMedID 32336468
The influence of cosmetic concerns on patient preferences for approaches to thyroid lobectomy: A discrete choice experiment.
Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
Background Newer transoral thyroidectomy techniques that aim to avoid scars in the neck and maximize cosmetic outcomes have become more prevalent. We conducted a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to evaluate the influence of cosmetic concerns and other factors on patients' decision-making processes when choosing among different thyroidectomy approaches. Methods A questionnaire was developed to identify key attributes driving patient preferences around thyroidectomy approaches using mixed analyses of patient focus groups, expert opinion, and literature review. These attributes included 1) risk of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury, 2) risk of mental nerve injury, 3) travel distance for surgery, 4) out-of-pocket cost, and 5) incision site. Using fractional factorial design, discrete choice sets consisting of randomly generated hypothetical scenarios across all attributes were created. A face-to-face DCE survey was administered to patients being evaluated in clinic for thyroid lobectomy for non-cancerous thyroid disease. Participants chose among scenarios constructed from the choice sets of attributes. Analyses were conducted using a mixed logit model, and the trade-offs between different attributes that patients were willing to accept were quantified. Results The DCE was completed by 109 participants (86 [79%] women; mean age 51.3 ± 3.0 years). Overall, the risk of having RLN and/or mental nerve injury, travel distance, and cost were the most influential attributes. Participants ≤60 years significantly preferred an approach without a neck incision, and were willing to accept an additional $2,332 USD in out-of-pocket cost, 693 miles of travel distance, 0.6% increased risk of RLN injury, and 2.2% risk of mental nerve injury. Patients >60 years significantly preferred a conventional neck incision, and were willing to pay an additional $3,401 out-of-pocket and travel 1,011 miles to avoid a scarless approach. Conclusions The risk of nerve injury, travel distance, and cost were the most important drivers for patients choosing among surgical approaches for thyroidectomy. Cosmetic considerations also influenced patient choices, but in opposing ways depending on patient age.
View details for DOI 10.1089/thy.2019.0821
View details for PubMedID 32204688
Ensemble machine learning for the prediction of patient-level outcomes following thyroidectomy.
American journal of surgery
Accurate prediction of thyroidectomy complications is necessary to inform treatment decisions. Ensemble machine learning provides one approach to improve prediction.We applied the Super Learner (SL) algorithm to the 2016-2018 thyroidectomy-specific NSQIP database to predict complications following thyroidectomy. Cross-validation was used to assess model discrimination and precision.For the 17,987 patients undergoing thyroidectomy, rates of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, post-operative hypocalcemia prior to discharge or within 30 days, and neck hematoma were 6.1%, 6.4%, 9.0%, and 1.8%, respectively. SL improved prediction of thyroidectomy-specific outcomes when compared with benchmark logistic regression approaches. For postoperative hypocalcemia prior to discharge, SL improved the cross-validated AUROC to 0.72 (95%CI 0.70-0.74) compared to 0.70 (95%CI 0.68-0.72; p < 0.001) when using a manually curated logistic regression algorithm.Ensemble machine learning modestly improves prediction for thyroidectomy-specific outcomes. SL holds promise to provide more accurate patient-level risk prediction to inform treatment decisions.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2020.11.055
View details for PubMedID 33339618
Trends in Adrenal Surgery-The Changing Nature of Tumors and Patients
JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH
2019; 236: 129–33
The volume of adrenal surgery is increasing. There has been a concern that the widespread use of axial imaging and minimally invasive approaches has led to changing indications for adrenalectomy. We reviewed trends in adrenal surgery at a single academic institution.This was a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent adrenal surgery between 1993 and 2018 by the endocrine surgery service. Patient demographics, diagnosis, operative details, and perioperative complications were evaluated. Trend analysis was performed across ordered year groups (<2000, 2000-2004, 2005-2009, 2010-2014, and 2015-2018).We identified 732 patients who underwent 751 adrenal operations. Fifty-seven percent of the patients were women, and the median age was 51 y (range: 5-88). There was an increase in the number of procedures performed (P < 0.01, trend analysis). Over time, there was a higher proportion of patients with hypertension (54.7% [<2000] versus 73.6% [>2015], P < 0.01), diabetes (4.7% versus 22.1%, P = 0.01), and classified as American Society of Anesthesiology class 3/4 (15.7% versus 45.7%, P < 0.01). More patients had their adrenal lesion found incidentally (19.4% versus 39.3%, P < 0.01), and there was a larger proportion of pheochromocytomas (25% versus 36.4%, P < 0.01) and fewer nonfunctioning adenomas (7.4% versus 4.3%, P = 0.03). Median tumor size decreased from 3.5 cm to 2.9 cm (P = 0.03). Complication rates increased over time (8.3% versus 15%, P < 0.01), but the overall 30-d mortality remained low (0.3%).Adrenal surgery is being performed more commonly with an increasing number of incidentalomas and pheochromocytomas. Our patients have higher comorbidities with increase in complication rates over time, although perioperative mortality remains low. This highlights the importance of a thorough preoperative evaluation to identify suitable patients who may benefit from adrenalectomy.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2018.11.031
View details for Web of Science ID 000458498300019
View details for PubMedID 30694747
Treatment of Primary Aldosteronism Reduces the Probability of Obstructive Sleep Apnea
JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH
2019; 236: 37–43
Aldosterone excess is hypothesized to worsen obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) symptoms by promoting peripharyngeal edema. However, the extent to which primary aldosteronism (PA), hypertension, and body mass index (BMI) influence OSA pathogenesis remains unclear.We conducted a cross-sectional study of PA patients from our endocrine database to retrospectively evaluate OSA probability before and after adrenalectomy or medical management of PA. A control group of patients undergoing adrenalectomy for nonfunctioning benign adrenal masses was also evaluated. We categorized patients as high or low OSA probability after evaluation with the Berlin Questionnaire, a validated 10-question survey that explores sleep, fatigue, hypertension, and BMI.We interviewed 91 patients (83 PA patients and eight control patients). Median follow-up time was 2.6 y. The proportion of high OSA probability in all PA patients decreased from 64% to 35% after treatment for PA (mean Berlin score 1.64 versus 1.35, P < 0.001). This decline correlated with improvements in hypertension (P < 0.001) and fatigue symptoms (P = 0.03). Both surgical (n = 48; 1.69 versus 1.33, P < 0.001) and medical (n = 35; 1.57 versus 1.37, P = 0.03) treatment groups demonstrated reduced OSA probability. BMI remained unchanged after PA treatment (29.1 versus 28.6, P = nonsignificant), and the impact of treatment on OSA probability was independent of BMI. The control surgical group showed no change in OSA probability after adrenalectomy (1.25 versus 1.25, P = nonsignificant).Both surgical and medical treatments of PA reduce sleep apnea probability independent of BMI and are associated with improvements in hypertension and fatigue. Improved screening for PA could reduce OSA burden.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2018.10.040
View details for Web of Science ID 000458498300006
View details for PubMedID 30694777
- Invasive Procedures to Improve Function in Frail Older Adults Do Outcomes Justify the Intervention? JAMA INTERNAL MEDICINE 2019; 179 (3): 391–93
Risk Factors Associated With Perioperative Complications and Prolonged Length of Stay After Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy
2018; 153 (11): 1036–41
Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the gold standard for most adrenal disorders and its frequency in the United States is increasing. While national and administrative databases can adjust for patient factors, comorbidities, and institutional variations, granular disease-specific data that may significantly influence the incidence of perioperative complications and length of stay (LOS) are lacking.To investigate factors associated with perioperative complications and LOS after laparoscopic adrenalectomy.This cohort study was carried out at a single academic medical center, with all patients who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy between 1993 and 2017 by the endocrine surgery department. Multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to obtain adjusted odds ratios (ORs).The primary outcome was perioperative complications with a Dindo-Clavien grade of 2 or more. The secondary outcome was prolonged length of stay, defined as a stay longer than the 75th percentile of the overall cohort.We identified 640 patients who underwent 653 laparoscopic adrenalectomies, of whom 370 (56.7%) were female. The median age was 51 (range, 5-88) years. A total of 76 complications with a Dindo-Clavien grade of 2 or more occurred in 55 patients (8.4%), with postoperative mortality in 2 patients (0.3%). The median hospital length of stay was 1 day (range, 0-32 days). Factors independently associated with increased complications were American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 or 4 (OR, 2.78 [95% CI, 1.39-5.55]; P < .01), diabetes (OR, 2.39 [95% CI, 1.14-5.01]; P = .02), conversion to hand-assisted or open surgery (OR, 5.32 [95% CI, 1.84-15.41]; P < .01), a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma (OR, 4.31 [95% CI, 1.43-13.05]; P = .01), and a tumor size of 6 cm or greater (OR, 2.47 [95% CI, 1.05-5.78]; P = .04). Prolonged length of stay was associated with age 65 years or older (OR, 2.44 [95% CI, 1.31-4.57]; P = .01), an American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 or 4 (OR, 3.48 [95% CI, 1.88-6.41]; P < .01), any procedural conversion (OR, 63.28 [95% CI, 12.53-319.59]; P < .01), and a tumor size of 4 cm or larger (4-6 cm: OR, 2.38 [95% CI, 1.21-4.67]; P = .01; ≥6 cm: OR, 2.46 [95% CI, 1.12-5.40]; P = .03).Laparoscopic adrenalectomy remains safe for most adrenal disorders. Patient comorbidities, adrenal pathology, and tumor size are associated with the risk of complications and length of stay and should all be considered in selecting and preparing patients for surgery.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2018.2648
View details for Web of Science ID 000450718300018
View details for PubMedID 30090934
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6584328
- Postoperative Pain and Opioid Use after Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery: A Novel, Prospective Short Messaging Service-Based Survey ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: E121
Patient Frailty Should Be Used to Individualize Treatment Decisions in Primary Hyperparathyroidism
WORLD JOURNAL OF SURGERY
2018; 42 (10): 3215–22
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disorder that predominantly affects patients >60 and is increasing in prevalence. Identifying risk factors for poor outcomes after parathyroidectomy in older adults will help tailor operative decision making. The impact of frailty on surgical outcomes in parathyroidectomy has not been established.We performed a retrospective review of patients ≥40 years who underwent parathyroidectomy in the 2005-2010 ACS NSQIP. Frailty was assessed using the modified frailty index (mFI). Multivariable regression was used to determine the association of frailty with 30-day complications, length of stay (LOS), and reoperation.We identified 13,123 patients ≥40 who underwent parathyroidectomy for PHPT. The majority of patients were not frail, with 80% with a low NSQIP mFI score (0-1 frailty traits), 19% with an intermediate mFI score (2-3), and 0.9% with a high mFI score (≥4). Overall 30-day complications were rare, occurring in 141 (1.1%) patients. Increasing frailty was associated with an increased risk of complications with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 1.76 (95% CI 1.20-2.59; p = 0.004) for intermediate and 8.43 (95% CI 4.33-16.41; p < 0.001) for high mFI score. Patient age was independently associated with an increased risk of complications only when ≥75, as was African-American race. Anesthesia with local, monitored anesthesia care, or regional block was the only factor associated with decreased odds of complications. A high NSQIP mFI was also associated with a significant 4.77-day adjusted increase in LOS (95% CI 4.28-5.25; p < 0.001) and increased odds of reoperation (OR 4.20, 95% CI 1.64-10.74; p = 0.003).Patient frailty is associated with increased complications, reoperation and prolonged LOS in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for PHPT. The risks of surgical management should be weighed against potential benefits in frail patients with PHPT to individualize treatment decisions in this vulnerable population.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00268-018-4629-3
View details for Web of Science ID 000443995400021
View details for PubMedID 29696330
- Parathyroid Cryopreservation: Clinical Applications in the Era of Synthetic Parathyroid Hormone ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: E120
- Association of Patient Frailty With Increased Risk of Complications After Adrenalectomy JAMA SURGERY 2018; 153 (10): 966–67
Hidden in Plain Sight: Transoral and Submental Thyroidectomy as a Compelling Alternative to "Scarless" Thyroidectomy
JOURNAL OF LAPAROENDOSCOPIC & ADVANCED SURGICAL TECHNIQUES
2018; 28 (11): 1374–77
Minimally invasive and remote access thyroid surgery has been evolving with the transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) emerging as a true "scarless" thyroidectomy. In this study, we describe a hybrid transoral and submental thyroidectomy (TOaST) technique for thyroid lobectomy.A TOaST right thyroid lobectomy was performed for a 4 cm cytologically benign right thyroid nodule. Initial incision was made in the submental region with two additional 5 mm lateral ports inserted transorally. Right thyroid lobectomy proceeded via standard TOETVA with intact specimen extraction via the submental incision.The patient was discharged home on postoperative day 1. Final pathology showed a 4.2 cm follicular adenoma. Cosmetic results and patient satisfaction were excellent.This is the first reported case of a hybrid TOaST technique. It aims to maintain the principles and advantages of TOETVA while addressing its limitations related to large tumor extraction, mental nerve injury, and chin sensory changes. The shorter distance of dissection required may reduce postoperative pain. This approach may expand the indications for transoral thyroidectomy while maintaining excellent cosmetic outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1089/lap.2018.0146
View details for Web of Science ID 000431590600001
View details for PubMedID 29733263
Less is more: cost-effectiveness analysis of surveillance strategies for small, nonfunctional, radiographically benign adrenal incidentalomas
MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2018: 197–203
Guidelines for management of small adrenal incidentalomas are mutually inconsistent. No cost-effectiveness analysis has been performed to evaluate rigorously the relative merits of these strategies.We constructed a decision-analytic model to evaluate surveillance strategies for <4cm, nonfunctional, benign-appearing adrenal incidentalomas. We evaluated 4 surveillance strategies: none, one-time, annual for 2 years, and annual for 5 years. Threshold and sensitivity analyses assessed robustness of the model. Costs were represented in 2016 US dollars and health outcomes in quality-adjusted life-years.No surveillance has an expected net cost of $262 and 26.22 quality-adjusted life-years. One-time surveillance costs $158 more and adds 0.2 quality-adjusted life-years for an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $778/quality-adjusted life-years. The strategies involving more surveillance were dominated by the no surveillance and one-time surveillance strategies less effective and more expensive. Above a 0.7% prevalence of adrenocortical carcinoma, one-time surveillance was the most effective strategy. The results were robust to all sensitivity analyses of disease prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity of diagnostic assays and imaging as well as health state utility.For patients with a < 4cm, nonfunctional, benign-appearing mass, one-time follow-up evaluation involving a noncontrast computed tomography and biochemical evaluation is cost-effective. Strategies requiring more surveillance accrue more cost without incremental benefit.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2017.07.030
View details for Web of Science ID 000419265300063
View details for PubMedID 29129360
The Underestimated Risk of Cancer in Patients with Multinodular Goiters After a Benign Fine Needle Aspiration
WORLD JOURNAL OF SURGERY
2015; 39 (3): 695–700
Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an excellent tool for evaluating patients with solitary thyroid nodules, with a false-negative malignancy rate of <3%. The utility of FNA in patients with a cervical multinodular goiter (MNG) is unknown, because biopsy and surveillance of thyroids with numerous nodules may be impractical.To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for unsuspected thyroid cancer on final pathology in patients with a non-functional, cervical MNG who had a benign preoperative FNA and underwent thyroidectomy.Retrospective review of patients with non-functional, cervical MNG at a high-volume tertiary referral center between 2005 and 2012.Incidence of thyroid cancer on surgical pathology.Of the 134 patients included in the study, 31 (23.1%) were found to have thyroid cancer on final pathology. Twenty-one (15.7%) patients had a microscopic papillary cancer (<1 cm) and 10 (7.5%) patients had other forms of thyroid cancer [five follicular, four papillary (>1 cm), and one patient with a papillary and follicular cancer]. On univariate analysis, male gender had a near-significant association with non-micropapillary thyroid cancer (p = 0.06). On multivariate analysis, male gender (OR = 10.2, 95% CI 1.35-76.8) and FNA cytology not reviewed at our institution (OR = 6.0, 95% CI 1.2-30) were independently associated with non-micropapillary thyroid cancer.The incidence of thyroid cancer in patients with MNG and benign FNA is significant. Men and patients in whom the FNA cytology is not reviewed by an experienced cytopathologist may be at an increased risk for an undetected thyroid cancer.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00268-014-2854-y
View details for Web of Science ID 000351230900022
View details for PubMedID 25446471
Differences Between Bilateral Adrenal Incidentalomas and Unilateral Lesions.
2015; 150 (10): 974–78
Adrenal incidentalomas are found in 1% to 5% of abdominal cross-sectional imaging studies. Although the workup and management of unilateral lesions are well established, limited information exists for bilateral incidentalomas.To compare the natural history of patients having bilateral incidentalomas with those having unilateral incidentalomas.Retrospective analysis of a prospective database of consecutive patients referred to an academic multidisciplinary adrenal conference. The setting was a tertiary care university hospital among a cohort of 500 patients with adrenal lesions between July 1, 2009, and July 1, 2014.Prevalence, age, imaging characteristics, biochemical workup, any intervention, and final diagnosis.Twenty-three patients with bilateral incidentalomas and 112 patients with unilateral incidentalomas were identified. The mean age at diagnosis of bilateral lesions was 58.7 years. The mean lesion size was 2.4 cm on the right side and 2.8 cm on the left side. Bilateral incidentalomas were associated with a significantly higher prevalence of subclinical Cushing syndrome (21.7% [5 of 23] vs 6.2% [7 of 112]) (P = .009) and a significantly lower prevalence of pheochromocytoma (4.3% [1 of 23] vs 19.6% [22 of 112]) (P = .003) compared with unilateral lesions, while rates of hyperaldosteronism were similar in both groups (4.3% [1 of 23] vs 5.4% [6 of 112]) (P > .99). Only one patient with bilateral incidentalomas underwent unilateral resection. The mean follow-up was 4 years (range, 1.2-13.0 years). There were no occult adrenocortical carcinomas.Bilateral incidentalomas are more likely to be associated with subclinical Cushing syndrome and less likely to be pheochromocytomas. Although patients with bilateral incidentalomas undergo a workup similar to that in patients with unilateral lesions, differences in their natural history warrant a greater index of suspicion for subclinical Cushing syndrome.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2015.1683
View details for PubMedID 26200882
Utility of serum thyroglobulin measurements after prophylactic thyroidectomy in patients with hereditary medullary thyroid cancer
2014; 156 (2): 394–98
Prophylactic thyroidectomy can be curative for patients with hereditary medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) caused by RET proto-oncogene mutations. Calcitonin is a sensitive tumor marker used to follow patients. We suggest that thyroglobulin (Tg) levels should also be monitored postoperatively in these patients.We reviewed patients with RET mutations who underwent prophylactic thyroidectomy between 1981 and 2011 at an academic endocrine surgery center. Patients were excluded if they had no postoperative Tg levels recorded.Of the 22 patients who underwent prophylactic thyroidectomy, 14 were included in the final analysis. The average age at thyroidectomy was 9.8 years (range, 4-29). Tg levels were detectable 1.5 months to 31 years postoperatively in 11 patients (79%), all of whom were <15 years old at thyroidectomy. Median thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was 2.5 mIU/L and 13.4 mIU/L in patients with undetectable and detectable Tg, respectively. Of those with detectable Tg, 5 had cervical ultrasonographic examination: Two showed no residual tissue in the thyroid bed, and 3 showed remnant thyroid tissue.Tg levels can identify patients with remnant thyroid tissue after prophylactic thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography can determine whether thyroid tissue remains posterolaterally that is at risk of MTC recurrence. Maintaining normal TSH may prevent growth of remaining thyroid follicular cells.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2014.03.037
View details for Web of Science ID 000339463700024
View details for PubMedID 24882762
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4099273
Adrenalectomy Outcomes Are Superior with the Participation of Residents and Fellows
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS
2014; 219 (1): 53–60
Adrenalectomy is a complex procedure performed in many settings, with and without residents and fellows. Patients often ask, "Will trainees be participating in my operation?" and seek reassurance that their care will not be adversely affected. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between trainee participation and adrenalectomy perioperative outcomes.We performed a cohort study of patients who underwent adrenalectomy from the 2005 to 2011 American College of Surgeons NSQIP database. Trainee participation was classified as none, resident, or fellow, based on postgraduate year of the assisting surgeon. Associations between trainee participation and outcomes were determined via multivariate linear and logistic regression.Of 3,694 adrenalectomies, 732 (19.8%) were performed by an attending surgeon with no trainee, 2,315 (62.7%) involved a resident, and 647 (17.5%) involved a fellow. The participation of fellows was associated with fewer serious complications (7.9% with no trainee, 6.0% with residents, and 2.8% with fellows; p < 0.001). In a multivariate model, the odds of serious 30-day morbidity were lower when attending surgeons operated with residents (odds ratio = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.45-0.89). Fellow participation was associated with significantly lower odds of overall (odds ratio = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.32-0.82) and serious (odds ratio = 0.31; 95% CI, 0.17-0.57) morbidity. There was no significant association between trainee participation and 30-day mortality.In this analysis of multi-institutional data, the participation of residents and fellows was associated with decreased odds of perioperative adrenalectomy complications. Attending surgeons performing adrenalectomies with trainee assistance should reassure patients of the equivalent or superior care they are receiving.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.02.020
View details for Web of Science ID 000339320300010
View details for PubMedID 24702888
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4065814
Vandetanib and the management of advanced medullary thyroid cancer
CURRENT OPINION IN ONCOLOGY
2013; 25 (1): 39–43
Vandetanib is a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been recently approved as an 'orphan drug' for the treatment of patients with unresectable, locally advanced, or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC).MTC is a neuroendocrine malignancy frequently associated with mutations to the RET proto-oncogene. Vandetanib selectively targets RET, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and epidermal growth factor receptor dependent signaling. Vandetanib has been shown to improve progression-free survival in patients with advanced MTC. In general, vandetanib is well tolerated, but QTc prolongation remains a potential concern demanding careful patient selection and monitoring.Vandetanib has emerged as one of the more promising small molecule tyrosinse kinase inhibitors, providing durable rates of disease stabilization, with an acceptable adverse event profile in patients with advanced MTC.
View details for DOI 10.1097/CCO.0b013e32835a42b9
View details for Web of Science ID 000311975000007
View details for PubMedID 23202050