Bio


Cecilia L. Ridgeway is the Lucie Stern Professor of Social Sciences, Emerita, in the Sociology Department at Stanford University. She is particularly interested in the role that social hierarchies in everyday social relations play in the larger processes of stratification and inequality in a society. Much of her research focuses on interpersonal status hierarchies, which are hierarchies of esteem and influence, and the significance of these hierarchies for inequalities based on gender, race, and social class. She recently served as the President of the American Sociological Association (2012-13).

A new book, titled, Status: Why Is It Everywhere? Why Does It Matter?, is forthcoming from the Russell Sage Foundation (Nov, 2019). It offers a broad analysis of status processes and their role in social inequality. Other recent projects on status include 1) a theory and experimental tests of how social coordination problems drive the use of status information in making social judgments (“It’s the Conventional Thought that Counts: How Third Order Inference Produces Status Advantage”- American Sociological Review, 2017); 2) experimental studies of the processes by which status hierarchies bind low status members to a group ("Is Deference the Price of Being Seen as Reasonable: How Status Hierarchies Incentivize the Acceptance of Low Status"-Social Psychology Quarterly, 2017).

The role of interactional processes, including status processes, in preserving gender inequality despite major changes in the socioeconomic organization of society is another ongoing research focus. A book on this topic is Framed By Gender: How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World (Oxford University Press, 2011). A related paper is: “Intersecting Cultural Beliefs and Social Relations: Gender, Race, and Class Binds and Freedoms” (Gender & Society, 2013). Examples of other publications on social hierarchies, status, and gender inequality include “Framed Before We Know It: How Gender Shapes Social Relations.” (Gender & Society, 2009); “Sociological Approaches to Sex Discrimination” (2007), “Motherhood as a Status Characteristic” (Journal of Social Issues, 2004), “Unpacking the Gender System: A Theoretical Perspective on Cultural Beliefs and Social Relations” (Gender & Society, 2004)“Gender, Status, and Leadership” (Journal of Social Issues, 2001), “Interaction and the Conservation of Gender Inequality” (American Sociological Review, 1997), and Gender, Interaction, and Inequality (Springer-Verlag, 1992).

Other projects have also included the development and empirical tests of status construction theory, which is a theory about the power of interactional contexts to create and spread status beliefs about social differences. Examples of this work can be found in papers such as “How Easily Do Social Differences Become Status Distinctions? Gender Matters,” (American Sociological Review, 2009), “Consensus and the Emergence of Status Beliefs (Social Forces 2006), “Creating and Spreading Status Beliefs” (American Journal of Sociology, 2000), “How Do Status Beliefs Develop? The Role of Resources and Interaction (American Sociological Review, 1998), and “The Social Construction of Status Value: Gender and Other Nominal Characteristics” (Social Forces, 1991).

Academic Appointments


  • Emeritus Faculty, Acad Council, Sociology

Administrative Appointments


  • Visiting Scholar, Russell Sage Foundation (2016 - 2017)
  • Faculty Research Fellow, Clayman Institute For Gender Research, Stanford (2013 - 2014)
  • Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford (2012 - 2013)
  • President, American Sociological Association (2012 - 2013)
  • Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford (2005 - 2006)
  • Lucie Stern Professor in the Social Sciences, Stanford University (2004 - Present)
  • Richard E. Guggenhime Faculty Scholar, Stanford University (1996 - 2000)
  • Associates Faculty Research Fellowship. “Math, Power, and the Gendered Selection of Activities”, Institute for Research on Women and Gender, Stanford University (1996 - 1997)
  • Chair, Department of Sociology, Stanford University (1993 - 1996)
  • Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Iowa (1985 - 1991)
  • Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Iowa (1985 - 1986)
  • NIMH post-doctoral fellowship, Program in Evaluation Structures and Processes, Department of Sociology, Stanford University (1981 - 1982)
  • Associate Professor, Department of Sociology University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (1978 - 1985)
  • Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (1972 - 1978)
  • Ford Foundation Humanities and Social Science Fellow, Cornell University (1968 - 1972)

Honors & Awards


  • Outstanding Recent Contribution Award, Social Psychology Section of the American Sociological Association (2012)
  • “Outstanding Reference Source” Award, American Library Association (2010)
  • Elected to Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science (2009)
  • Jesse Bernard Award for distinguished career contributions to the study of gender, American Sociological Association (2009)
  • Distinguished Feminist Lecturer Award, Sociologists for Women in Society (2008)
  • Cooley-Mead Award for lifetime contribution to distinguished scholarship in social psychology, Social Psychology Section of the American Sociological Association. (2005)
  • Elected to membership, Sociological Research Association (1995)
  • Elected to membership (Fellow), Society for Experimental Social Psychology (1990)
  • Graduate School Foundation Award for research excellence, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (1984)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Member, Sociological Research Association
  • Member, International Sociological Association
  • Member, American Sociological Association
  • Member, Pacific Sociological Association
  • President, American Sociological Association (2012 - 2013)
  • Council Member, American Sociological Association (2011 - 2014)
  • President-Elect, American Sociological Association (2011 - 2012)
  • Member, External Review Committee, Interdisciplinary Doctoral Program in Social Psychology, University of Nevada-Reno (2010 - 2010)
  • Associate Editor, Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations (2009 - 2009)
  • Publications Committee, elected member, American Sociological Association (2008 - 2011)
  • Member, Distinquished Career Award Committee, Emotions Section, American Sociological Association (2008 - 2009)
  • Chair, Cooley-Mead Award Committee, Social Psychology Section, American Sociological Association (2007 - 2009)
  • Member, W.E. DuBois Career of Distinguished Scholarship Award Committee, American Sociological Association (2007 - 2009)
  • Member, External Review Committee, University of Maryland Sociology Department (2007 - 2007)
  • Member, External Review Committee, Duke University Sociology Department (2007 - 2007)
  • President, Research Committee 42: Social Psychology, International Sociological Association (2006 - 2010)
  • Associate Editor, Social Justice Research (2006 - 2009)
  • Member, External Review Committee, Indiana University Sociology Department (2006 - 2006)
  • Member, External Review Committee, SUNY-Stony Brook Sociology Department (2005 - 2005)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Sociological Theory (2004 - 2006)
  • Chair of the Emotions Section, Emotions Section, American Sociological Association (2004 - 2005)
  • Chair, Nominations Committee, Social Psychology Section, American Sociological Association (2004 - 2005)
  • Theory Prize Committee Member, Theory Section, American Sociological Association (2004 - 2005)
  • Member, External Review Committee, University of Washington Sociology Department (2004 - 2004)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Group Processes and Intergroup Relations (2003 - 2009)
  • ASA Representative to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Section on Social, Economic, and Political Sciences (K), American Sociological Association (2003 - 2006)
  • Executive Council Member, Emotions Section, American Sociological Association (2003 - 2005)
  • Chair-Elect of the Emotions Section, Emotions Section, American Sociological Association (2003 - 2004)
  • Nominations Committee Member, Social Psychology Section, American Sociological Association (2003 - 2004)
  • Editor, Social Psychology Quarterly (2001 - 2003)
  • Ex-Officio as ASA Editor, American Sociological Association (2001 - 2003)
  • Member, Publications Committee, American Sociological Association (2001 - 2003)
  • Chair, External Review Committee, Vanderbilt University Sociology Department (2001 - 2001)
  • Theory Section, American Sociological Association, Theory Section, American Sociological Association (2000 - 2002)
  • External Reviewer for the Graduate Studies Program, University of California, Davis (2000 - 2000)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Sociological Theory (1999 - 2001)
  • Committee on Nominations, Member, American Sociological Association (1999 - 2000)
  • President, Pacific Sociological Association (1998 - 1999)
  • Theory Prize Committee Member, Theory Section, American Sociological Association (1998 - 1999)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Stanford University Press (1997 - 2000)
  • President Elect, Pacific Sociological Association (1997 - 1998)
  • Executive Council Member, Social Psychology Section, American Sociological Association (1995 - 1998)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Social Psychology Quarterly (1995 - 1998)
  • Elected to membership, Sociological Research Association. (1995 - 1995)
  • Member, Graduate Record Exam Sociology Committee, Educational Testing Association (1994 - 1996)
  • Consulting Editor, American Journal of Sociology (1993 - 1994)
  • Chair, Workshop Committee, Sex and Gender Section, American Sociological Association (1992 - 1993)
  • External Review Committee Member, University of Arizona Sociology Department (1992 - 1992)
  • Chair of the Social Psychology Section, Social Psychology Section, American Sociological Association (1991 - 1992)
  • Chair-Elect of the Social Psychology Section, Social Psychology Section, American Sociological Association (1990 - 1991)
  • Chair, Publications Committee, Social Psychology Section, American Sociological Association (1989 - 1994)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Sociological Perspectives on Social Psychology (1989 - 1993)
  • The Committee on Committees, Member, American Sociological Association (1989 - 1990)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Social Psychology Quarterly (1988 - 1992)
  • Executive Council Member, Social Psychology Section, American Sociological Association (1987 - 1990)
  • Cooley-Mead Award Committee Member, Social Psychology Section, American Sociological Association (1987 - 1989)
  • Committee on Freedom of Research and Teaching, Member, American Sociological Association (1986 - 1989)
  • Member, Grants Review Panel, Sociology Program, National Science Foundation (1986 - 1988)
  • Member, Editorial Board, Social Forces (1983 - 1988)
  • Nominations Committee Member, Social Psychology Section, American Sociological Association (1981 - 1982)
  • Associate Editor, Pacific Sociological Review (1977 - 1980)

Professional Education


  • Ph.D., Cornell University, Sociology and Social Psychology (1972)
  • M.A., Cornell University, Sociology (1969)
  • B.A, University of Michigan, Sociology (1967)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


I am interested in the role that social hierarchies in everyday social relations play in the larger processes of stratification and inequality in a society. My research focuses on interpersonal status hierarchies, which are hierarchies of esteem and influence, and the significance of these hierarchies for inequalities based on gender, race, and social class.

I am working on a new book project, tentatively titled, Why Is Status Everywhere? that offers a broad analysis of status processes and their role in social inequality. Other current projects on status include 1) a theory and experimental tests of how social coordination problems drive the use of status information in making social judgments (“It’s the Conventional Thought that Counts: How Third Order Inference Produces Status Advantage”); 2) experimental studies of the processes by which status hierarchies bind low status members to a group.

Another ongoing research focus examines the role of interactional processes, including status processes, in preserving gender inequality despite major changes in the socioeconomic organization of society is . A recent book on this topic is Framed By Gender: How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World (Oxford University Press, 2011).

Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Introduction to Jan Stets SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY Ridgeway, C. L. 2021
  • Honorary Whites? Asian American Women and the Dominance Penalty Socius Tinkler, J., Zhao, J., Li, Y., Ridgeway, C. L. 2019; 5: 1-13

    View details for DOI 10.1177/2378023119836000

  • Framing Gender HANDBOOK OF THE SOCIOLOGY OF GENDER, 2ND EDITION Fisk, S. R., Ridgeway, C. L., Risman, B. J., Froyum, C. M., Scarborough, W. J. 2018: 157–71
  • It's the Conventional Thought That Counts: How Third-Order Inference Produces Status Advantage AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW Correll, S. J., Ridgeway, C. L., Zuckerman, E. W., Jank, S., Jordan-Bloch, S., Nakagawa, S. 2017; 82 (2): 297-327
  • Is Deference the Price of Being Seen as Reasonable? How Status Hierarchies Incentivize Acceptance of Low Status Social Psychology Quarterly Ridgeway, C. L., Nakagawa, S. 2017; 82 (2): 132-152
  • Stigma, status, and population health. Social science & medicine Phelan, J. C., Lucas, J. W., Ridgeway, C. L., Taylor, C. J. 2014; 103: 15-23

    Abstract

    Stigma and status are the major concepts in two important sociological traditions that describe related processes but that have developed in isolation. Although both approaches have great promise for understanding and improving population health, this promise has not been realized. In this paper, we consider the applicability of status characteristics theory (SCT) to the problem of stigma with the goal of better understanding social systemic aspects of stigma and their health consequences. To this end, we identify common and divergent features of status and stigma processes. In both, labels that are differentially valued produce unequal outcomes in resources via culturally shared expectations associated with the labels; macro-level inequalities are enacted in micro-level interactions, which in turn reinforce macro-level inequalities; and status is a key variable. Status and stigma processes also differ: Higher- and lower-status states (e.g., male and female) are both considered normal, whereas stigmatized characteristics (e.g., mental illness) are not; interactions between status groups are guided by "social ordering schemas" that provide mutually agreed-upon hierarchies and interaction patterns (e.g., men assert themselves while women defer), whereas interactions between "normals" and stigmatized individuals are not so guided and consequently involve uncertainty and strain; and social rejection is key to stigma but not status processes. Our juxtaposition of status and stigma processes reveals close parallels between stigmatization and status processes that contribute to systematic stratification by major social groupings, such as race, gender, and SES. These parallels make salient that stigma is not only an interpersonal or intrapersonal process but also a macro-level process and raise the possibility of considering stigma as a dimension of social stratification. As such, stigma's impact on health should be scrutinized with the same intensity as that of other more status-based bases of stratification such as SES, race and gender, whose health impacts have been firmly established.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.10.004

    View details for PubMedID 24507907

  • Why Status Matters for Inequality AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW Ridgeway, C. L. 2014; 79 (1): 1-16
  • Pluralistic Ignorance and the Flexibility Bias: Understanding and Mitigating Flextime and Flexplace Bias at Work WORK AND OCCUPATIONS Munsch, C. L., Ridgeway, C. L., Williams, J. C. 2014; 41 (1): 40-62
  • Status Handbook of the Social Psychology of Inequality Ridgeway, C. L., Nakagawa, S. edited by McLeod, J. D., Lawler, E. J., Schwalbe, M. Springer. 2014: 3–25
  • INTERSECTING CULTURAL BELIEFS IN SOCIAL RELATIONS: Gender, Race, and Class Binds and Freedoms GENDER & SOCIETY Ridgeway, C. L., Kricheli-Katz, T. 2013; 27 (3): 294-318
  • Status Hierarchies and the Organization of Collective Action SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY Simpson, B., Willer, R., Ridgeway, C. L. 2012; 30 (3): 149-166
  • Introduction to the Special Issue: Bringing Status to the Table-Attaining, Maintaining, and Experiencing Status in Organizations and Markets ORGANIZATION SCIENCE Chen, Y., Peterson, R. S., Phillips, D. J., Podolny, J. M., Ridgeway, C. L. 2012; 23 (2): 299-307
  • Class Rules, Status Dynamics, and Gateway Interactions Facing Social Class: Social Psychology of Social Class Ridgeway, C. L., Fisk, S. R. edited by Fiske, S. T., Markus, H. R. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. 2012: 131–151
  • Attaining, Maintaining, and Experiencing Status in Organizations and Markets Organizational Science Ridgeway, C. 2012; 23 (2)
  • Framed by Gender: How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World. Ridgeway, C. L. New York: Oxford University Press. 2011
  • Gender: An Interdisciplinary Perspective SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY Wood, W., Ridgeway, C. L. 2010; 73 (4): 334-339
  • Introduction of Linda D. Molm: 2009 Recipient of the Cooley-Mead Award SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY Ridgeway, C. L. 2010; 73 (2): 116-118
  • Why Do Nominal Characteristics Acquire Status Value? A Minimal Explanation for Status Construction AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY Mark, N. P., Smith-Lovin, L., Ridgeway, C. L. 2009; 115 (3): 832-862

    Abstract

    Why do beliefs that attach different amounts of status to different categories of people become consensually held by the members of a society? We show that two microlevel mechanisms, in combination, imply a system-level tendency toward consensual status beliefs about a nominal characteristic. (1) Status belief diffusion: a person who has no status belief about a characteristic can acquire a status belief about that characteristic from interacting with one or more people who have that status belief. (2) Status belief loss: a person who has a status belief about a characteristic can lose that belief from interacting with one or more people who have the opposite status belief. These mechanisms imply that opposite status beliefs will tend to be lost at equal rates and will tend to be acquired at rates proportional to their prevalence. Therefore, if a status belief ever becomes more prevalent than its opposite, it will increase in prevalence until every person holds it.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274365700005

    View details for PubMedID 20503743

  • FRAMED BEFORE WE KNOW IT How Gender Shapes Social Relations GENDER & SOCIETY Ridgeway, C. L. 2009; 23 (2): 145-160
  • How Easily Does a Social Difference Become a Status Distinction? Gender Matters AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW Ridgeway, C. L., Li, Y. E., Erickson, K. G., Backor, K., Tinkler, J. E. 2009; 74 (1): 44-62
  • Status Construction Theory Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations Ridgeway, C. L. edited by Levine, J. M., Hog, M. A. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 2009: 848–850
  • A Matter of Fit: The Law of Discrimination and the Science of Implicit Bias HASTINGS LAW JOURNAL Faigman, D. L., Dasgupta, N., Ridgeway, C. L. 2008; 59 (6): 1389-1434
  • Gender as a Group Process: Implications for the Persistence of Inequality The Social Psychology of Gender Ridgeway, C. edited by Correll, S. New York: Elsevier. 2007: 311–333
  • Sociological Approaches to Sex Discrimination in Employment Sex Discrimination in the Workplace: Multidisciplinary Perspectives Ridgeway, C., England, P. edited by Crosby, F. J., Stockdale, M. S., Ropp, A. S. Oxford: Blackwell. 2007: 189–211
  • Status Construction Theory The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology Ridgeway, C. L. edited by Ritzer, G. Oxford: Blackwell. 2007; IX: 4756–4759
  • Consensus and the creation of status beliefs SOCIAL FORCES Ridgeway, C. L., Correll, S. J. 2006; 85 (1): 431-453
  • Linking social structure and interpersonal behavior: A theoretical perspective on cultural schemas and social relations 100th Annual Meeting of the American-Sociological-Association Ridgeway, C. L. AMER SOCIOLOGICAL ASSOC. 2006: 5–16
  • Legitimacy as a social process ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY Johnson, C., Dowd, T. J., Ridgeway, C. L. 2006; 32: 53-78
  • Status Construction Theory Contemporary Social Psychological Theories Ridgeway, C. edited by Burke, P. H. Stanford University Press. 2006: 301–323
  • Gender as an Organizing Force in Social Relations: Implications for the Future of Inequality The Declining Significance of Gender? Ridgeway, C. L. edited by Blau, F. D., Brinton, M. B., Grusky, D. G. New York: Russell Sage. 2006: 265–287
  • Expectation States Theory and Emotion Handbook of Sociology of Emotions Ridgeway, C. edited by Stets, J. E., Turner, J. H. New York: Springer Press. 2006
  • Social Relational Contexts and Self-Organizing Inequality Relational Perspectives in Organizational Studies Ridgeway, C. L. edited by Ozbilgin, M., Kyriakidou, O. London: Edward Elgar Publishers. 2006: 180–196
  • Unpacking the gender system - A theoretical perspective on gender beliefs and social relations GENDER & SOCIETY RIDGEWAY, C. L., CORRELL, S. J. 2004; 18 (4): 510-531
  • Motherhood as a status characteristic JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES Ridgeway, C. L., CORRELL, S. J. 2004; 60 (4): 683-700
  • Gender as Status: An Expectation States Approach Psychology of Gender Ridgeway, C., Bourg, C., Stemberg, R. J. edited by Beall, A. H., Eagly, A. H. New York: Guilford. 2004; 2nd
  • Status Characteristics and Leadership Leadership and Power: Identity Processes in Groups and Organizations Ridgeway, C. edited by Knippenberg, D. v., Hogg, M. London: Sage. 2004: 65–78
  • Social identity: Sociological and social psychological perspectives SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY Hogg, M. A., RIDGEWAY, C. L. 2003; 66 (2): 97-100
  • Expectation States Theory The Handbook of Social Psycholog Cornell, S. J., Ridgeway, C. edited by Delamater, J. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. 2003
  • Social Identity Theory: Sociological and Social Psychological Approaches Social Psychology Quarterly Ridgeway, C. 2003; 66 (2)
  • Construction of status and referential structures SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY Berger, J., RIDGEWAY, C. L., Zelditch, M. 2002; 20 (2): 157-179
  • The emergence of status beliefs - From structural inequality to legitimizing ideology Conference on Psychology of Legitimacy RIDGEWAY, C. L. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. 2001: 257–277
  • Joing and Functioning in Groups: Self-concept and Emotion Management Defining and Selecting Key Competencies Ridgeway, C. edited by Rychen, D. S., Salganik, L. H. WA: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers. 2001
  • The Persistence of Gender Inequality in Employment Settings The Production of Reality: Essays and Readings in Social Psychology Ridgeway, C. edited by O'Brien, J., Kollock, P. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press. 2001; 3rd
  • Small Group Interaction and Gender International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences Ridgeway, C. edited by Smelser, N. J., Baltes, P. B. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science. 2001: 14185–14189
  • Inequality, Status, and the Construction of Status Beliefs Handbook of Sociological Theory Ridgeway, C. edited by Turner, J. New York: KluwerAcademic/Plenum. 2001: 323–342
  • Social Status and Group Structure Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Group Processes Ridgeway, C. edited by Hogg, M. A., Tindale, R. S. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. 2001: 352–375
  • Interaction and Persistence of Gender Inequality in Employment Koelner Zeitshrift fuer Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie Ridgeway, C. L. 2001
  • Status Structures Self and Society Ridgeway, C., Walker, H. edited by Branaman, A. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers. 2001: 298–320
  • Gender, status, and leadership JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES Ridgeway, C. L. 2001; 57 (4): 637-655
  • Creating and spreading status beliefs AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY RIDGEWAY, C. L., Erickson, K. G. 2000; 106 (3): 579-615
  • Social difference codes and social connections - 1999 presidential address to the Pacific Sociological Association, April 16, 1999, Portland, Oregon SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES Ridgeway, C. L. 2000; 43 (1): 1-11
  • Limiting inequality through interaction: The end(s) of gender CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY-A JOURNAL OF REVIEWS RIDGEWAY, C. L., CORRELL, S. J. 2000; 29 (1): 110-120
  • The Formation of Status Beliefs: Improving Status Construction Theory Advances in Group Processes Ridgeway, C. edited by Lawler, E. J., Macy, M., Thye, S. R., Walker, H. A. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. 2000: 77–102
  • Compliance and Conformity Encyclopedia of Sociology, Revised Edition Ridgeway, C. edited by Borgatta, E. F., Montgomery, R. J. New York: Macmillan. 2000: 400–406
  • The gender system and interaction ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY Ridgeway, C. L., Smith-Lovin, L. 1999; 25: 191-216
  • Gender and Interaction Handbook of the Sociology of Gender Ridgeway, C., Smith-Lovin, L. edited by Chafetz, J. S. New York: Plenum. 1999: 247–274
  • Coercive power in social exchange (Book Review) CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY-A JOURNAL OF REVIEWS Book Review Authored by: RIDGEWAY, C. L. 1998; 27 (5): 489-489
  • The legitimation and delegitimation of power and prestige orders 1st International Conference on Theory and Research in Group Processes Berger, J., RIDGEWAY, C. L., Fisek, M. H., NORMAN, R. Z. AMER SOCIOLOGICAL ASSOC. 1998: 379–405
  • How do status beliefs develop? The role of resources and interactional experience AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW RIDGEWAY, C. L., BOYLE, E. H., Kuipers, K. J., Robinson, D. T. 1998; 63 (3): 331-350
  • Interaction and the conservation of gender inequality: Considering employment AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW RIDGEWAY, C. L. 1997; 62 (2): 218-235
  • Group processes and the diffusion of status beliefs SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY RIDGEWAY, C. L., BALKWELL, J. W. 1997; 60 (1): 14-31
  • Where Do Status Beliefs Come From?: New Developments Status, Network, and Structure: Theory Development in Group Processes Ridgeway, C. edited by Smatka, J., Skovortz, J., Berger, J. Stanford University Press. 1997: 137–158
  • Gender and social interaction SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY RIDGEWAY, C. L., SMITHLOVIN, L. 1996; 59 (3): 173-175
  • Review of Talking from 9 to 5 by Deborah Tannen Contemporary Sociology Ridgeway, C. L. 1996; 25: 398-400
  • Legitimacy, compliance, and gender in peer groups SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY RIDGEWAY, C. L., Diekema, D., Johnson, C. 1995; 58 (4): 298-311
  • SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM AS AFFECT CONTROL - A CROSS-CULTURAL-STUDY IN AFFECT CONTROL-THEORY - MACKINNON,NJ (Book Review) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY Book Review Authored by: RIDGEWAY, C. L. 1995; 101 (1): 258-260
  • Status Structures Sociological Perspectives on Social Psychology Ridgeway, C., Walker, H. edited by Cook, K., Fine, G., House, J. New York: Allyn and Bacon. 1995: 281–310
  • STRUCTURE, ACTION, AND SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY RIDGEWAY, C. L. 1994; 57 (3): 161-162
  • EXTERNAL STATUS, LEGITIMACY, AND COMPLIANCE IN MALE AND FEMALE GROUPS SOCIAL FORCES RIDGEWAY, C. L., Johnson, C., Diekema, D. 1994; 72 (4): 1051-1077
  • THE LENSES OF GENDER - TRANSFORMING THE DEBATE ON SEXUAL INEQUALITY - BEM,SL (Book Review) CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY-A JOURNAL OF REVIEWS Book Review Authored by: RIDGEWAY, C. L. 1994; 23 (1): 53-54
  • Conceptualizing Structure in Social Psychology Social Psychology Quarterly Ridgeway, C. 1994; 57: 161-163
  • Affect. Group Processes: Sociological Analyses, Ridgeway, C. edited by Foschi, M., Lawler, E. Chicago: Nelson-Hall. 1994: 205–230
  • Conceptualizing Structure in Social Psychology Social Psychology Quarterly Ridgeway, C. 1994; 57 (3)
  • Structure, Culture, and Interaction: Comparing Two Generative Theories. Advances in Group Processes Ridgeway, C., Smith-Lovin, L. 1994; 11: 213-239
  • LEGITIMACY, STATUS, AND DOMINANCE BEHAVIOR IN GROUPS SYMP ON GROUP CONFLICT RIDGEWAY, C. L. NELSON-HALL PUBLISHERS. 1993: 110–127
  • Gender, Status, and the Social Psychology of Expectations Theory on Gender/Feminism on Theory Ridgeway, C. edited by England, P. New York: Aldine Press. 1993: 175–198
  • Structural Social Psychology and the Micro-Macro Problem Sociological Theory Lawler, E. L., Ridgeway, C., Markavosky, B. 1993; 11: 268-290
  • Are Gender Differences Status Differences Gender, Interaction, and Inequality Ridgeway, C. edited by Ridgeway, C. New York: Springer-Verlag. 1992: 157–180
  • Advances in Group Processes edited by Lawler, E., Markovsky, B., Ridgeway, C., Walker, H. Greenwich, CT: JAI. 1992; 9
  • Compliance and Conformity Encyclopedia of Sociology Ridgeway, C. edited by Borgatta, E. F., Borgatta, M. L. New York: Macmillian. 1992: 277–282
  • Gender, Interaction and Inequality edited by Ridgewat, C. NY: Springer-Verlag. 1992
  • THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF STATUS VALUE - GENDER AND OTHER NOMINAL CHARACTERISTICS SOCIAL FORCES Ridgeway, C. 1991; 70 (2): 367-386
  • Advances in Group Processes edited by Lawler, E., Markovsky, B., Ridgeway, C., Walker, H. Greenwich, CT: JAI. 1991; 8
  • WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIOEMOTIONAL BEHAVIOR AND STATUS IN TASK GROUPS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY Ridgeway, C., Johnson, C. 1990; 95 (5): 1189-1212
  • Advances in Group Processes edited by Lawler, E., Markovsky, B., Ridgeway, C., Walker, H. Greenwich, CT: JAI. 1990; 7
  • JUDGMENT STUDIES - DESIGN, ANALYSIS, AND META-ANALYSIS - ROSENTHAL,R (Book Review) CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY-A JOURNAL OF REVIEWS Book Review Authored by: Ridgeway, C. 1989; 18 (2): 308-309
  • DOMINANCE AND COLLECTIVE HIERARCHY FORMATION IN MALE AND FEMALE TASK GROUPS AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW Ridgeway, C., Diekema, D. 1989; 54 (1): 79-93
  • Nonverbal Behavior, Dominance, and Status in Task Groups. American Sociological Review Ridgeway, C. L. 1989; 52: 683-694
  • Small Group Culture and its Transmission in Urban Society The Content of Culture: Constants and Variants Ridgeway, C. edited by Bolton, R. New Haven: HRAF Press. 1989: 385–405
  • Understanding Legitimation in Informal Status Orders Sociological Theories in Progress Ridgeway, C. edited by Berger, J., Zelditch, M. ewbury Park, CA: Sage. 1989: 131–159
  • Love in America: Gender and Self-Development (Book Review) GENDER & SOCIETY Book Review Authored by: Ridgeway, C. 1988; 2 (3): 401-403
  • Gender Differences in Task Groups: A Status and Legitimacy Account Status Generalization: New Theory and Research Ridgeway, C. edited by Webster, M., Foschi, M. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1988: 188–206
  • The Legitimation of Power and Prestige Orders in Task Groups Status Generalization: New Theory and Research Ridgeway, C., Berger, J. edited by Webster, M., Foschi, M. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1988: 207–231
  • STATUS, REWARDS, AND INFLUENCE - HOW EXPECTATIONS ORGANIZE BEHAVIOR - BERGER,J, ZELDITCH,M (Book Review) SOCIAL FORCES Book Review Authored by: Ridgeway, C. 1987; 66 (2): 581-583
  • EXPECTATIONS, LEGITIMATION, AND DOMINANCE BEHAVIOR IN TASK GROUPS AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW RIDGEWAY, C. L., Berger, J. 1986; 51 (5): 603-617
  • Status Cues, Expectations, and Behaviors Advances in Group Processes: Theory and Research, Berger, J., Webster, M., Ridgeway, C., Rosenholtz, S. edited by Lawler, E. Greenwich, CT. JAI Press. 1986: 1–22
  • Attitude Measures in Evaluation Research Policy Studies Review Nachmias, C., Ridgeway, C. 1986; 5: 756-768
  • NONVERBAL CUES AND STATUS - AN EXPECTATION STATES APPROACH AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY RIDGEWAY, C. L., Berger, J., Smith, L. 1985; 90 (5): 955-978
  • Dominance, Performance, and Status in Groups. A Theoretical Analysis. Advances in Group Processes: Theory and Research Ridgeway, C. edited by Lawler, E. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. 1984: 59–93
  • The Dynamics of Small Groups Ridgeway, C. New York: St. Martin's Press. 1983
  • STATUS IN GROUPS - THE IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW RIDGEWAY, C. L. 1982; 47 (1): 76-88
  • NONCONFORMITY, COMPETENCE, AND INFLUENCE IN GROUPS - A TEST OF 2 THEORIES AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW RIDGEWAY, C. L. 1981; 46 (3): 333-347
  • VOTING IN THE AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION - INVESTMENT, NETWORK, AND INTEREST AMERICAN SOCIOLOGIST Ridgeway, C., Moore, J. 1981; 16 (2): 74-81
  • SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY AS POLITICAL-ECONOMY - ARCHIBALD,WP (Book Review) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY Book Review Authored by: Ridgeway, C. 1980; 86 (2): 415-419
  • Review of Groups and Individuals Explanations in Social Psychology - Doise, W. American Journal of Sociology Ridgeway, C. L. 1980; 86: 415-419
  • The Changing Status of Women in America Social Problems in Urban Life Ridgeway, C., Palen, J. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1979: 265–297
  • DEVELOPMENT OF FEMALE ROLE IDEOLOGY - IMPACT OF PERSONAL CONFIDENCE DURING ADOLESCENCE YOUTH & SOCIETY RIDGEWAY, C. L., JACOBSON, C. K. 1979; 10 (3): 297-315
  • CONFORMITY, GROUP-ORIENTED MOTIVATION, AND STATUS ATTAINMENT IN SMALL-GROUPS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY RIDGEWAY, C. L. 1978; 41 (3): 175-188
  • PREDICTING COLLEGE WOMENS ASPIRATIONS FROM EVALUATIONS OF HOUSEWIFE AND WORK ROLE SOCIOLOGICAL QUARTERLY RIDGEWAY, C. L. 1978; 19 (2): 281-291
  • PARENTAL IDENTIFICATION AND PATTERNS OF CAREER ORIENTATION IN COLLEGE-WOMEN JOURNAL OF VOCATIONAL BEHAVIOR Ridgeway, C. 1978; 12 (1): 1-11
  • SOURCES OF STATUS AND INFLUENCE IN ALL FEMALE AND MIXED SEX GROUPS SOCIOLOGICAL QUARTERLY RIDGEWAY, C. L., JACOBSON, C. K. 1977; 18 (3): 413-425
  • Patterns of Environmental Relations Underlying Measured Cognitive Complexity and Field Independence in Males and Females Perceptual and Motor Skills Ridgeway, C. 1977; 45: 811-814
  • NOTE ON PARENTAL SIMILARITY, ACCEPTANCE OF AUTHORITY, AND FIELD INDEPENDENCE PERCEPTUAL AND MOTOR SKILLS RIDGEWAY, C. L. 1977; 45 (3): 811-814

    Abstract

    Bieri (1960) suggested that, particularly for males, the combined unconventionality of low acceptance of authority and greater perceived similarity to the opposite sexed parent would be associated with high field independence. This study challenged that argument suggesting that a mixture of conventional and unconventional personality variables, i.e., low acceptance of authority, same sex parental similarity or high acceptance of authority, opposite sex similarity, would be associated with higher field independence than consistently conventional or unconventional combinations of variables. 66 female and 57 male students completed an embedded-figures test, an acceptance of authority scale, and a semantic differential measure of perceived similarity to parents. The hypothesis was confirmed for males but not females. There were strong differences between these results and those obtained by Bieri with comparable measures.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1977EK34900028

    View details for PubMedID 600639

  • ROLE MODELS, SIGNIFICANT OTHERS, AND IMPORTANCE OF MALE INFLUENCE ON COLLEGE-WOMEN SOCIOLOGICAL SYMPOSIUM SEATER, B. B., RIDGEWAY, C. L. 1976: 49-64
  • URBAN POPULAR MUSIC AND INTERACTION - SEMANTIC RELATIONSHIP ETHNOMUSICOLOGY RIDGEWAY, C. L., ROBERTS, J. M. 1976; 20 (2): 233-251
  • AFFECTIVE INTERACTION AS A DETERMINANT OF MUSICAL INVOLVEMENT SOCIOLOGICAL QUARTERLY RIDGEWAY, C. L. 1976; 17 (3): 414-428
  • Musical Involvement and Talking Anthropology and American Life, Ridgeway, C., Roberts, J. edited by Jorgensen, J. G., Truzzi, M. New York: Prentice Hall. 1974
  • MUSICAL INVOLVEMENT AND TALKING ANTHROPOLOGICAL LINGUISTICS ROBERTS, J. M. 1969; 11 (8): 223-246